Volume 7, Issue 11, November 2019 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

[1]  [2]  [3]  [4]

Association Between Serum Sclerostin Level and Carotid Artery Atherosclerosis in Hemodialysis Patients []

Introduction: Sclerostin (an antagonist of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway) represents a novel candidate glycoprotein involved in the pathogenesis of low bone turnover and vascular calcification e.g. atherosclerosis in CKD patients (CKD-MBD). Measurement of carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) by ultrasonography is a widely used and reliable imaging modality for the detection of subclinical atherosclerosis (increased CIMT). We investigated the association between serum sclerostin level and carotid artery atherosclerosis in hemodialysis patients. Methods: Our case-control study include 150 dialysis patients and 50 controls, serum sclerostin concentrations were measured using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). CIMT was measured and carotid plaques were identified by carotid duplex. Results: There was a statistically significant difference (p-value <0.001) in sclerostin levels between cases (83.5±27.1pmol/L) and controls (26.3±5.8 pmol/L) with mean among cases ~3 times higher than controls. A significant positive correlation (p-value <0.001) exists between sclerostin levels and each of CIMT (r = 0.56) and plaques size (r = 0.53). Sclerostin levels were higher in patients with increased CIMT (77.6±17.8 pmol/L) than with normal CIMT (70.9±9.6 pmol/L) and the highest mean was among patients with plaque formation (109.3±35.1 pmol/L), the difference was statistically significant with p-value <0.001. In the multiple regression analysis, sclerostin level remained one of the statistically significant predictors (p-value <0.05) for CIMT. Conclusion: We can conclude that serum sclerostin is independently associated with carotid atherosclerosis (CIMT, plaques) in hemodialysis patients.

Impact of Agricultural Cooperative Societies on Farmers Productivity and Rural Transformation in Etche Local Government Area of Rivers State []

The study examined the impact of agricultural cooperatives societies on farmer’s productivity and rural Transformation in Etche Local Government Area of Rivers State. The population of the study was twenty (20) agricultural cooperative societies’ members and thirty (30) non-members of agricultural cooperatives society given a total of (50) randomly selected from registered farmers in Etche Local Government Area. The instrument used for data collection was a questionnaire which elicited information based on the four objectives of the study. The questionnaire was titled ’Impact of Agricultural Cooperatives Societies on Farmers Productivity and Rural Transformation Questionnaire (IACSFPRTQ). The instrument was structured in a four point rating scale of strongly agree (SA-4), Agree (A-3), Disagree (D-2) and strongly disagree (SD-1). The instrument was validated by two experts. The reliability of the instrument was established using test–retest method which yielded reliability coefficient of 0.65. The research questions were analyzed using mean and standard deviation, while the hypotheses were tested by the use of z-test statistics. Findings of the study showed that agricultural cooperatives societies enhances farmers’ income and output; enhances the sales and marketing of agricultural product, facilitates rural transformation. The study recommended among others that government should encouraged farmers to associate with agricultural cooperative societies so as to benefit from government subsidies.


A collection of twenty five aerial yam accessions from West African countries conserved by International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA) Ibadan, Nigeria was assessed for genetic diversity based on twenty five morphological traits. Analyses of Variance showed significant differences in internode length and number, leaf number and size, and stem number/ hill (P≤ 0.001). The accessions were not significantly different in number of veins/ per leaf and stem length (P≥ 0.05). Principal Component Analysis of eight quantitative morphological traits revealed three Principal components and explained 74.8% of the total variations observed, with the stem length, stem number per hill and stem diameter being the major contributors. PC 1 contributed 42.7% of the total variations with an Eigen value of 3.840. Cluster analysis revealed two clusters. Principal Component Analysis of sixteen qualitative morphological traits revealed six major components and explained 84.83% of the total variations observed, with leaf arrangement, leaf colour, absence /presence of bumps on bulbils, bulbil skin colour, surface texture and leaf size being the major contributors, with Eigen values of 3.745, 3.158, 2.292, 1.838, 1.430 and 1.100 respectively. Analyses of variance of the quantitative characters also revealed significant differences among the accessions. Cluster analysis revealed two clusters. These results are significant in the conservation and genetic improvement program of this crop.


This research aims to determine the diversity of snake species, the richness of snake species, the dominance of snakes and the appearance of snakes found in the Mangrove Area of Taman Hutan Raya Ngurah Rai, South Bali. This research conducted in the northeastern area of the Ngurah Rai Forest Park Raya Forest Area, southern Bali. This research was conducted in February to March 2019 with Visual Encounter Survey (VES) with a path plot design method. Data collection is carried out during the day and night, by observing and identifying snakes found in the area referring to the snake identification manual and identifying factors supporting the emergence of sea snakes. Data will be analyzed by comparative descriptive analysis. The results showed that station 3 had a diversity index value of 0.5 with a total of 2 families found, namely Homalopsidae and Colubridae. The predominance of snakes obtained at Station 2 in the northeastern area of the Mangrove Area of the Ngurah Rai Forest Park is a snake from the Homalopsidae family with a type of Cerberus ryncops. The appearance of snakes in the northeastern area of the Mangrove Area in the Forest Park of Ngurah Rai, South Bali, is large at night and very small during the day.This research aims to determine the diversity of snake species, the richness of snake species, the dominance of snakes and the appearance of snakes found in the Mangrove Area of Taman Hutan Raya Ngurah Rai, South Bali. This research conducted in the northeastern area of the Ngurah Rai Forest Park Raya Forest Area, southern Bali. This research was conducted in February to March 2019 with Visual Encounter Survey (VES) with a path plot design method. Data collection is carried out during the day and night, by observing and identifying snakes found in the area referring to the snake identification manual and identifying factors supporting the emergence of sea snakes. Data will be analyzed by comparative descriptive analysis. The results showed that station 3 had a diversity index value of 0.5 with a total of 2 families found, namely Homalopsidae and Colubridae. The predominance of snakes obtained at Station 2 in the northeastern area of the Mangrove Area of the Ngurah Rai Forest Park is a snake from the Homalopsidae family with a type of Cerberus ryncops. The appearance of snakes in the northeastern area of the Mangrove Area in the Forest Park of Ngurah Rai, South Bali, is large at night and very small during the day.


This study was done in order to investigating the effect of realistic mathematics education strategy on learners’ achievement in mensuration and attitudes towards mathematics. This study also sought to determine the relationship between learner’s achievement and attitudes towards mathematics. The design used in this study was a quasi-experimental design with a sample size of 64 grade 11 leaners of Namwala secondary school of southern province Zambia. The sampling of participants was done in two (2) stages, i.e. the selecting of two classes out of 8 and the assigning of the two classes one as a control and the other as experimental groups. The control group had 29 participants while the experimental group had 35 participants as classes where taken as intact as they were. This study was conducted for 8 weeks. The research instruments used were the mathematics achievements test and the attitudes towards mathematics questionnaire. Data collected was analyzed using SPSS. To test the hypotheses, a one way ANOVA test was used with alpha level 5% (∝=0.05). The results showed that there was a significant difference between the Realistic Mathematics Education strategy and the traditional strategy in terms of achievements. The study further reviewed that there was no significant difference in attitudes of participants between two groups. It can be concluded that the theory of Realistic Mathematics Education Strategy on the teaching of mensuration enhanced the achievement of learners. The Realistic Mathematic Education Strategy encourages learners to be in the center seat of the learning process as they seek to understand and link their social life experiences to classroom concepts. Therefore, the Realistic mathematics education Strategy is an effective method to improve the teaching and learning process of mensuration as pupils not only learn but see the value of the concepts in the lesson, enjoy the lesson and ultimately develop confidence in solving mathematical related problems.


Abstract The study analysed inventory management adoption on food and processing firms’ performance in Akure metropolis, Ondo State, Nigeria. The study was carried among selected food processing firms i.e. (Bakeries and Cocoa Processing firms) under manufacturing industry of the economy in Akure South Local Government Area. Ninety Six (96) copies of questionnaire were distributed out of which seventy eight (78) copies which represent (81.3%) were retrieved. The method of data analysis adopted were both descriptive and inferential statistics (Mean, Mean ranking index and Pearson correlation). The findings revealed that most of the firms has a functional inventory management practices but majority of them doesn’t use JIT in their day to day inventory activities with mean values of (2.92) and also most of the respondents disagree that the use of technology for inventory monitoring and control with mean values of (2.21). The hypothesis was tested with the use of Pearson Product Moment Correlation and the outcome presented in the table shows that Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient, r is 0.571 and a significant level, p of 0.015, which confirm that the null hypothesis was rejected while the alternate hypothesis was accepted. The study concludes that inventory management practices can improve the delivery schedule for materials, reduce materials wastage, quality and quantity specifications performance. The study recommends that inventory management practices should be adopted by manufacturing firms especially those in food and processing sector so as to increase revenue and production capacity of the organization. Keywords: Inventory management, Technology, Materials, Food Processing, Firms, Performance.


Sandali Ward in Temeke Municipality lacks effective formal waste management services. Consequently, informal solid waste collectors emerged in providing waste collection services in several sub-wards including; Mwembe-Mnofu, Mwembe-Ladu, and Sandali. However, little is known about potential of their service and the challenges they face. The methodology involved a randomly sampled population of 210 households and 9 ISWCs. Questionnaires, non-participant observations, interviews and documentary review used for data collection. Data were analysed using descriptive statistical analysis. The findings show that 210 (100%) of the respondents considered the service offered by ISWCs reliable, 2493 (90%) of the households were effectively paying for the waste collection services, 189 (90%) of the respondents preferred ‘pay as you pollute’ mode, 210 (100%) of respondents satisfied by the service on demand mode, and the head carrying, pushcarts and trucks as applied technology observed to be effective. Also, there were positive market response as three truck operators found to work with ISWCs at a cost ranged from Tshs15000 per pushcart to Tshs180,000 per trip. In addition to that, the waste management costs by ISWCs were found to be less by 80% compared to the formal services. Despite that, the existing legal framework restrict the service offered by ISWCs.

Analysis of effect of blood pressure and hypertension in the risk assessment of heart disease among diabetic patients []

Introduction: High blood pressure (HBP) is a leading major risk factor for chronic diseases and deaths. Despite the high burden of hypertension, most affected persons are not aware of its presence, thus increasing the occurrence of associated complications, particularly among elderly populations. Objectives of the study: The main objective of this study is to analyze the effect of knowledge about hypertension on the control of blood in the risk assessment of heart disease among diabetic patients. Methodology of the study: This cross sectional study was conducted in Allied hospital, Faisalabad during 2019. The study population was obtained from subjects diagnosed with HT. the data was collected through a questionnaire analysis. Height and weight of all subjects were measured with automatic digital scale at morning times between 08:00 to 11:00 o'clock under casual clothes without shoes. The blood pressure (BP) levels were measured from the right and left arms of the subjects in a sitting position by one trained observer blind to the study at the place of interview. Results: It was found that 36.5% of the subjects with HT consumed enough fruit/vegetables (≥ 3 times a day), 31.3% of them exercised sufficiently (at least 3 days and 150 min per week) while 52.0% of the study population did not exercise at all. 25.6% of all hypertensive subjects generally did not consume salt while 34.4% of them claimed usage of low level salt on their diet. 10.5% of hypertensive subjects were a current smoker, 65.2% of the study population had one of the concurrent comorbidities (such 6.7% with diabetes). Ratio of parental HT was 47.4%. Conclusion: It is concluded that patients who were aware that elevated BP levels lead to reductions in life expectancy had a higher compliance level with medication use and follow-up visits than patients without this awareness.

Analisis Faktor-faktor Yang Mempengaruhi Terhadap Kinerja Pegawai Kesehatan Ibu Dan Anak Di Puskesmas Area Kota Medan Tahun 2019 []

The role of Medan City Community Health Center is still not optimal in providing maternal and child health services. Therefore, so that this research is more focused in reviewing the problem.To find out the performance of maternal and child health workers at the Medan City Public Health Center. This research includes Cross Sectional which is a type of research that emphasizes the time of measurement or observation of data at one time at a time which is done on the independent variable and the dependent variable. all maternal and child health staff at the Bestari Health Center, Darussalam Health Center, Helvetia Health Center, Medan Area Health Center, Rantang Health Center, which numbered 38 people. There is a significant relationship between the discipline of performance of maternal and child health workers with (p = 0.006 <0.05) in the Medan City Health Center area. There is a significant relationship between the performance motivation of maternal and child health workers with (p = 0.013 <0.05) in the Medan City Public Health Center. In order to be more optimal in carrying out their duties, it is expected that all KIAhealth center employees can be disciplined with each other, colleagues and superiors in order to motivate their subordinates, and obey the rules, so that the performance of KIAhealth center employees will increase. For the Medan City Health Office, it is expected that a review of all Kota Medan Health Centers is expected to pay attention to the discipline of performance and health services and improve the vision and mission of thehealth center.

Strategic Plan for Asiana Airlines []

Asiana Airlines Inc. formerly Seoul Airlines is one of South Korea's two major airlines, along with Korean Air. Asiana Airline has its headquarters in Asiana Town building in Seoul. The airline has its domestic hub at Gimpo International Airport and its international hub at Incheon International Airport (70 kilometres (43 mi) from central Seoul). It was founded on February 17, 1988. As of December 2014, the company employs 10,183 people. The majority of Asiana's pilots, ground staff, and flight attendants are based in Seoul. Asiana Airlines is the largest shareholder in Air Busan, a low-cost regional carrier joint venture with Busan Metropolitan City. The airline also holds 100% share of Air Seoul, a subsidiary and its own low-cost carrier. Asiana is also currently an official sponsor of the South Korea national football team and The Presidents Cup 2015. Asiana Airlines has fully committed to providing its valuable customers with innovative and world-class services since its foundation in 1988. As a proud member of Star Alliance, Asiana Airlines has continued to maintain its 5-star rating by Skytrax for 9 consecutive years since the year of 2007 and also received the ‘Airline of the Year’ award from Air Transport World (ATW) in 2009, Skytrax in 2010, Global Traveler in 2011 and Premier Traveler/Business Traveler in 2012. With only 28 years of history, Asiana Airlines has achieved a remarkable growth, operating 83 aircrafts to 24 countries, 75 cities, and 89 international passenger routes. For cargo flights Asiana Airlines operates 26 routes to 28 cities in 12 counties.


This study aims to determine the attributes that affect the level of customer satisfaction and the value of the level of customer satisfaction in the restaurant Bandar Djakarta Alam Sutera. The method used in this study is the customer satisfaction index to determine the value of overall customer satisfaction. After all the data has been processed, the data will be analyzed descriptively. The technique used to take samples in this study is accidental sampling. Sampling was carried out for four weeks in July 2019 with a total of 85 respondents. The re-sults of this study indicate overall value of customer satisfaction is at 86,21.


The important side of fire protection is to pin point a developing fire emergency in an exceedingly timely manner, and to alert the building's occupants and fire service organizations. This is the function of fire detection and alarm systems. Depending on the anticipated fire situation, building and use type, number and type of occupants and criticality of contents and mission, this research is about fire alarm with water sprinkler and SMS alarm. The system can sense developing fire through either manual or automatic methods then it alert building occupants to a fire condition and the need to evacuate, also, it sends notification signal to a fire service or other emergency response and it also initiate automatic suppression systems such as water sprinklers. This prototype was built around microcontroller and other electronic component. it’s cost effective and response in a very fast way.

Attitude pratique du traitement anti hyper tenseur dans le HELLP syndrome a l'EHU Oran []

Attitude pratique du traitement anti hyper tenseur dans le HELLP syndrome à l’EHU Oran. INTRODUCTION En Afrique et en Asie, près d’un dixième des décès maternels sont associés à des troubles hypertensifs au cours de la grossesse. Parmi les troubles hypertensifs constituant des complications de la grossesse, le HS représente une cause importante de morbidité sévère d’incapacité à long terme. Le Le HS complique de 0,2 à 1% des grossesses [1,2]. L’incidence appliquée à la population générale est soumise à de grandes variations ; et c’est pourquoi il est plus fiable de la calculer par rapport au nombre de cas de pré-éclampsie. Elle varie entre 4 et 21 % selon les auteurs. [3, 4,5]. Cette pathologie peut se présenter en dehors de tout syndrome vasculo- rénal [6,7]. Le HS complique une pré-éclampsie et une éclampsie dans respectivement 4–12 % et 30–50 % des cas [8]. Le traitement deumeure symptomatique et finalement seul l’interruption de la grossesse permet d’éviter l’évolution des formes graves ,l’HTA est aussi un indicateur précoce d’un risque cardiovasculaire et rénal élevé Notre objectif est d’évaluer l’attitude pratique du traitement anti hypertenseur dans le hellp syndrome.

Pre eclampsie experience du service de gyneco obstetrique de l'EHU d'ORAN []

LE PROFIL EPIDEMIOLOGIQUE DE LA PREECLAMPSIE A L'HOPITAL UNIVERSITAIRE D'ORAN INTRODUCTION : La Préclampsie (PE) est un désordre hypertensif de la grossesse, dotée d’une importante morbimortalite maternelle et fœtale. Objectifs : l'objectif principal était d'estimer la prévalence de la prééclampsie chez les femmes enceintes à Oran (Algérie). Les objectifs secondaires consistaient à estimer la fréquence des facteurs de risque de PE et la fréquence des complications maternelles et fœtales. MÉTHODES : Il s’agit d’une étude descriptive mono centrique observationnelle, menée au niveau du service de gynéco-obstétrique, de l’Etablissement Hospitalier Universitaire (EHU) d’Oran, entre janvier et décembre 2016.Incluant toutes parturientes admises pour pre éclampsie au niveau de l’établissement hospitalier universitaire d’Oran RÉSULTATS : Nous avons eu 360 cas d'EP sur 4601 femmes, la prévalence de la PE était de 8 % , ses facteurs de risque plus fréquents étaient la nulliparité (54%), l'âge> 40 ans (25%), l'incidence des complications maternelle était plus de 26,11% , y compris 6 décès. Le taux de prématurité, Le taux de prématurité souvent iatrogènes de Retard de Croissance Intra Utérin et de mort fœtal intra utérine sont respectivement 58,2 % ,59,7%, 16,7% le nombre de décès néonatale était de 30 décès CONCLUSION : la prévalence de la pré éclampsie a l’EHU D’Oran est de l’ordre de 8%, et les facteurs de risque sont ; la primigéste , l’âge de plus de 40 ans , l’obésité ,les antécédents personnelles d’Hypertension artérielle ou de pré éclampsie ,les complications sont élevées ce qui constitue un appelle à améliorer la prise en charge par une opportunité au dépistage précoce avec un bon suivi Mots clef : Eclampsie, complications maternelles, complications fœtals,facteurs de risque .


Danish seine is one of fishing gear operating in Pangandaran which is banned from operation based on PERMEN KP/2 2015 because it contributes to the decline of fisheries resources in Pangandaran, especially demersal fish. Biodiversity index is one important element in the effort of sustainable fisheries management. The purpose of this research is to analyze the diversity of demersal fish based on swept area of danish seine operated in Pangandaran Regency, West Java. The research is conducted from August 2018 to July 2019 in the eastern region of Pangandaran Water. Sampling was carried out in 3 stations (Sagara Anakan, Bagolo, and Babakan Villages) with 8 repetitions each. The analysis used was the Shannon Wienner diversity index and Pielou’s evenness index to determine the demersal fish community structure and oceanographic parameter analysis in the research area. The method used is a survey method, the samples taken directly with swept area method using danish seine. The main catch of danish seine in Pangandaran consists of danish seine shrimp (Metapenaeus ensis) with a percentage of 2%, rebon shrimp (Acetes indicus) with a percentage of 81%, and krosok shrimp (Parapenaopsis sp.) with a percentage of 14%. Oceanographic conditions in the research area have sandy mud and mud substrates with depths ranging from 8-120 meters. The results of the research show that the demersal fish resources caught by danish seine in Pangandaran are at a low to moderate level of diversity and have a low level of species evenness with the most dominant family is Penaeidae.


Tax management is the use of management skills and techniques to harness tax resources through the agency of the government vest with such responsibility legally within the economy for the maximum benefit of all. The spending pattern is the tax expenditure or disbursement of tax yield to various areas of need for the good of the society or masses. The balancing of this objective is what is regarded as fiscal sustainability and continuous performance of the fiscal sustainability lead to sustainable development while lack of it result in fiscal gap which this study is poised to unravel its causes. The study examined tax management in both developed and developing countries and their spending pattern. The gap in tax management and spending pattern were noted in the cause review of relevant literatures. Relevant theories such as agency, transaction, public choice, development and socio-political and expediency theories were used to explained relationship between tax management and spending pattern of government and suggested recommendation on how to ensure optimal mix between tax management and spending pattern. Key words: Tax Management, Spending Pattern, Fiscal Sustainability and Fiscal gap

Cyber-Security: The Use of Big Data Analytic Model for Network Intrusion Detection Classification []

Cybersecurity is seen as a major player in the protection of Internet-connected systems, including hardware, software and data, from cyberattacks and other malicious crimes in today’s densely connected world-Internet of Things (IoTs). The divers challenge facing Internet users as private and business entities is being advocated as not enough hinderance to seamless interfacing of Mobile Computing and Internet Applications presently making waves. Technology such as Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) application into cyber-security is an evolving computing mechanism designed as a counter-measure to incessant network threats and intruders. It is one of most reliable pro-defensive tools and has gained significance over time. Meanwhile network traffic data being generated within the context of enormous Internet users requires the application of big data analytical tools for its analysis. This paper, therefore, employs the use of big data analytical tools with its machine learning algorithm on an open-source data set-KDD’99. The full data set was used in the analysis. Predictive model was built in less than 5 minutes time with 99.91% prediction accuracy. Computational challenge and only 10% data set usage, which could only be accounted for in previous research were overcome. Therefore, IDS could be better designed with integration of this classification model result.


Traditional electrical power system is becoming complex because of the growing use of DG. The development and usage of DG has increased over the period of time. Power system reliability is a key feature when dealing with electric power system as it ensures to deliver as per consumer requirements and suffering to minimum losses. It enables the system to come back to its steady state condition after experiencing disturbance within minimum possible time. In this research, a local distribution system with dispersed generation will be analyzed using reliability parameters. When a single DG is injected, the reliability is increased. The optimum location to inject DG in the distribution system is also found by carrying out reliability test. The analysis will be carried out by selecting a modified roy billinton test system. Electric transient analysis program will be used for modeling the distribution feeder.

Effect of Replacement of Concentrate With Lablab purpureus Hay on Feed intake, Digestibility, Live weight gain and Carcass characteristics of Horro Sheep Fed Natural Pasture Hay as Basal Diet []

ABSTRACT The study was conducted to evaluate effect of replacing concentrate mix with Lablab purpureus hay on feed intake, digestibility, live weight gain, and carcass characteristics of Horro sheep fed natural pasture hay as basal diet as well as to assess the economy of replacing concentrate mix with Lablab purpureus(LP)hay. The treatments were natural pasture hay fed adlibitum to all treatments plus 100% CM/day (T1, control supplemented), 75%CM:25%LP/day(T2), 50%CM:50%LP/day (T3), 25%CM:75%LP/day (T4), 100%LP/day (T5). The mean intake of basal DM in T5 (523.4±3.13 g/d) was greater (p<0.001). The supplemented animals had higher (p<0.001) total DM intake (860.2-923.4g/d; SEM±3.07) than the control supplemented (837.2±3.07g/d) and the higher (p<0.001) total CP intake of 117.58, 118.79, 120.75 and 122.73 g/d (SE±0.23) for T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively were recorded than T1 (115.7±0.23 g/d). LP Supplementation significantly improved digestibility of DM, OM, CP, ADF, NDF (p<0.001) and higher digestibility was recorded for all parameters in T5 while the lowest was recorded in T2 among LP supplemented groups. LP Supplementation improved (P<0.001) final body weight (FBW) and average daily gain (ADG). LP Supplementation significantly increased (P<0.001) slaughter weight, empty body weight, hot carcass weight, rib-eye muscle area and weights of most of the edible and non-edible offal than T1. Sheep supplemented with sole400g/d LP (T5) showed the highest rate of return. Therefore, in the present study supplementation of Lablab purpureus to natural grass hay at 400 g appears to be the best feeding practice for Horro sheep both biologically and economically. Key words: Body weight, Carcass, Horro Sheep, Intake, Supplementation.


Sexual abuse remains a global phenomenon that has taken a central stage in all its discourse especially its effects on the family which is the foundation block of every nation. Its effects cut across all who are exposed: perpetrators, victims, and the children who witness the violence. The impact of sexual abuse in the family especially on children who witness these events can be devastating and puts these children at a greater risk of being abused themselves. Evidence shows a correlation between the occurrences of sexual abuse with threats to safety and sustenance of the family. This review examines the literature in general and the recent cases of sexual abuse in the country. The thrust of this paper therefore, is to identify and examine the causes of sexual abuse as well as its effects on the family and the various forms of sexual abuse over time in the light of Christianity. The study is also aimed at examining the social, psychological, emotional, physical and economical effects of sexual abuse on the family. The researcher finds out that, most families are victims of this ugly trend. It is as a result of this that the researcher wishes to address this offensive mark on families by calling on the entire Christian community, guidance counselors, families, law enforcement agents and the society at large to join forces against this endemic from exploding into an epidemic.

Making Vacant Land Work: Assessment of vacant land utilization in Wolayta Sodo town, SNNPR, Ethiopia []

Undeveloped vacant land is an asset, but unfortunately many people don’t realize and they have not used it properly as a source of business. It is because they don’t know about business opportunity which can be applied on the undeveloped vacant land. In the heart of the study town, it is used as solid waste disposal sites, unused, and neglected are commonly observed. It seems strange that land convenient to economically vibrant areas where many people work, land that should itself have great value, lies vacant and ignored. Hence, the purpose of the study is assessing the factors that contribute to the existence of vacant land in the town and its socio-economic effects as well as to evaluate the intervention made by the town administration. The research methodology mainly concentrates on survey strategy, explanatory and descriptive research type for qualitative and quantitative approaches based on probability and non-probability sampling specifically simple random and purposive sampling technique. To conduct the study both primary and secondary data were collected. The collected data was analyzed and presented with the help of tables, bar graphs, pie charts and pictures. Poor financial capacity of the owners, market instability, land speculation, property tax burden, urban decline, neighborhood change, poor provision of loan, bureaucracy and long procedure, weak legal enforcement & implementation of rules and regulations, and inadequate provision of infrastructure & services are the observed fact that causes the existence of undeveloped vacant land. In relation to that, lower revenue collection and low tax income, reduced infrastructure development, reduced employment opportunity, discouraged investment, disputes, social crime, human health problem, plan distortion, loss of aesthetic value, and urban sprawl are observed as a major effect that were caused by the existence of the undeveloped land in the town. Based up on the findings, the researcher put possible recommendations to come up to this obscurity. Finally, this study is the first of its kind that to open a gate for other researchers, to get baseline data of the study town and other stake holders to come up with new policy options, programs, and projects.

Défaillance rénale secondaire au surdosage en méthotrexate chez l’enfant cancéreux []

Introduction : méthotrexate(MTX) est un cytostatique utilisé pour le traitement des tumeurs solides et des hémopathies malignes. Son élimination est essentiellement rénale et sa toxicité peut se voir pour des doses >500mg /m². Notre objectif est décrire l’aspect évolutif de la néphrotoxicité au méthotrexate à travers 02 vignettes cliniques. Résultat 1er cas : MA adolescent de 11 ans atteint d'un ostéosarcome fémoral, traité par MTX à haute dose (9g/m²) chez lequel une insuffisance rénale aiguë oligurique de gravité RIFLE (F) avec une créatinémie de 45mg/l, est apparue après la 2 cure de MTX. L’échographie rénale élimine tout obstacle sur voie excrétrice et montre des reins échogènes. La cinétique sanguine de la créatinine et du méthotrexate était perturbée. L’enfant a été traitée par des séances d’épuration extra rénale. 2eme cas : adolescente de 14 ans opérée d’un ostéosarcome ostéogénique de l’extrémité inférieure du fémur droit, puis traitée à haute dose par le MTX. 12 g/m², à la quatrième cure, une insuffisance rénale sévère oligo-anurique de gravité RIFLE (F) s’installe avec une créatininémie à 67mg/l. L’échographie rénale montre des reins de taille normale d’échostructure échogène sans dilatation des cavités excrétrices. Des complications extra rénales à type de mucite gastro intestinale importante et une insuffisance hépatique se sont manifestées à j6 de traitement. Une séance d’épuration extra rénale est décidée à j3 du traitement pendant 9 jours mais la patiente décéda au 10 ème jour du traitement dans un tableau d’insuffisance hépato -cellulaire. conclusion L éliminations du MTX est essentiellement tubulaire et peut précipiter dans les tubules rénaux et pouvant entrainer une insuffisance rénale aiguë .La gestion de sa toxicité passe par la prévention selon des mesures bien codifiées qui doivent être bien suivies.

Area of photon and electron are the major evidence to causes ejection of one electron by one photon and show photon is composition. []

The objective of this work is to show photon is a composition, for this we are using numerical value of area of photon and electron, and develop some theoretical model. In numerical value we calculate the cross-section area of electron and photon, and found that the surface area of a single electron is very very small than that of photon which is incidence on it. So when the photon of large cross-section area incidence on electron electron only absorbed the energy of those part of photon which is in contact with it but not those part of photon energy which is certain distance away from it. So, if the energy absorbed by electron from photon cross-section area is greater than the work function than electron again needed kinetic energy to eject from the surface and for this electron re-absorbed the surrounding remain energy of photon. These remain energy of incidence photon indicate that it is composition which we can call tiny segment photon in other word. This phenomena are seen in cases of photoelectric effect, Compton effect, Raman effect and other type of matter-light interaction. These phenomenon is only possible if photon is composition because composition photon only can goes on distribution of energy.


This study aims to look at the effect of voluntary disclosure to the company’s value in moderation by independent board and management ownership, studies on real estate and property listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange. This study uses a quantitative method that examines the effect of voluntary disclosure to the value of the company. This study was conducted at 37 real estate and property companie listed on the stock exchanges in Indonesia. The variables used in this study are the dependent and independent variables, this study also uses four moderating variables; firm size, liquidity, profitability, and laverage. Data were analyzed using multiple regression analysis, followed by a moderated regression analysis. The results of this study indicate that the voluntary disclosure does not significantly affect the value of the company, as well as with four (4) other control variables that measure companies, liquidity, profitability, and leverage does not affect the value o fthe company. In five of these variables ANOVA test together affect the value of the company. The moderating variables used in this study the independent board and management ownership, the two variables are able to strengthen the relationship between the voluntary disclosure of the value of the Performance Management with significant value for independent board amounted to 0.006 and for property management amounted to 0,035 testing parsial for moderating variables also giving a significant impact on the value of the company.

Pixel-Based Teeth Classification Using Dental Panoramic X - Ray Images with Machine Learning Methods []

Today many people suffer from dental diseases. Identifying the diseases is hard and takes time for doctors. Teeth classification from the X-Ray image becomes important to determine these diseases. Elimination of the pixels, that are not contains teeth pixels, from the image makes easy to understand disorders. So pixel-based elimination is used for this problem. By Using machine learning methods that are Extreme Gradient Boosting (XGB), Light Extreme Gradient Boosting (LXGB),and Cat Boosting training data set is learned. To measure the performance of the methods, accuracy scores are compared.


Abstract The study examined the effect of merger and acquisition and corporate performance of the Nigerian banking industry. Four banks were selected out of the 21 existing merged banks using judgmental sampling technique. Secondary data were sourced from the financial statement of the four banks which covers 22 years pre and post consolidation periods. Variables (Gross Earning, Current Ratio, and Return on Capital Employed) were analyzed using the independent sample test technique. The study finds that there is non-significant negative difference in the performance of return on capital employed in the pre- and post-merger and acquisition periods. Current ratio shows significant positive difference between the pre- and the post-merger and acquisition periods. However, the result shows significant negative difference for Gross earning between the periods. The study therefore concludes that mergers and acquisitions have significant impact on banking sector performance in Nigeria. We recommend that due diligence should adopted in the identification and selection of compatible partners in order to achieve synergy. In the case of policy-induced merger and acquisition, a reasonable time should be allowed for compliance and implementation should be closely monitored.