Volume 7, Issue 11, November 2019 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Processing of nilem into fish protein hydrolyzate is an alternative diversification of fishery products that is expected to be accepted by the community. One of the protein hydrolysis can be done enzymatically which one or several polypeptide groups (proteins) function as a catalyst and is able to accelerate the process of chemical reactions. The purpose of this research is the effect of adding the best concentration of the papain enzyme to the degree of hydrolysis of the nilem fish protein hydrolysis. Materials and methods to be used are experimental methods with 4 treatments and 4 replications followed by observing the degree of hydrolysis and yield using statistical analysis. The hydrolysis process of the protein of the nilem fish using the papain enzyme produces a degree of hydrolysis with an average of 25.82% - 32.01%, the average value of the smallest degree of hydrolysis is found in treatment D (concentration of papain enzyme 7.5%) of 25.82% . The highest value of hydrolysis degree in treatment C (papain enzyme concentration 5%) is 32.01% as the best result to produce hydrolysis degree of protein hydrolyzate of nilem fish in each treatment does not produce any significant difference and yield results show papain enzyme concentration significant effect on the yield of nilem fish hydrolyzate with a range between 1.10% - 5.12%. The highest yield in protein hydrolyzate of nilem with papain enzyme concentration of 7.5%. The effect of adding the best concentration of papain enzymes to the degree of hydrolysis of the best nilem fish protein hydrolysis was 5% with an optimal time for 6 hours.


Typhoid intestinal perforation is still prevalent in many developing countries. Despite the advances in the management, the outcome in these patients in resource limited countries is still very poor. Perforation can be single or multiple occurring in both ileum and colon but none have been reported in the stomach. We therefore report a 22year old male who presented with high grade continuous fever of two weeks and generalized abdominal pain and swelling. of five days duration. Prior to development of abdominal pain had received over-the-counter medications comprising of multiple Non-steroidal anti inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS: ibuprofen, diclofenac) pain relief (paracetamol), antibiotics (ampiclox, flagyl) and others. He is not a known peptic ulcer disease patient, and does not drink alcohol or smoke. A provisional diagnosis of intestinal perforation secondary to typhoid fever was made.He was resuscitated and urgent investigations were done and included ; biochemical profile, complete blood count, widal test, chest x-ray showing upper abdomen, abdominopelvic ultrasound. The deranged parameters were corrected and patient had emergency exploratory laparotomy.Intra operatively, gross peritoneal contamination, fibrinous exudates in between bowel loopsand two perforation at ileal anti mesenteric border and gastric lesser curvature were noted. Peritoneal decontamination with copious saline lavage was done. Perforations were biopsied and closed and broad spectrum antibiotics continued with intensive care admission. Patient was followed up on out patient after discharge with no further complaints.Conclusion: Gastric perforation can occur in patients with typhoid fever ileal perforation following abuse of over-the-counter medications. During exploration this should be searched for especially when there’s such history.


Nilem (Osteochilus hasselti) is an endemic fish (native) of Indonesia that lives in fresh waters, such as rivers and swamps. Biscuits with the addition of nilem protein concentrate can be high protein foods, but the addition of nilem fish protein concentrate to biscuits can affect organoleptic quality such as color, aroma, texture, and taste. This research aims to determine the appropriate level of addition of fish pro-tein concentrate to the preferred level of biscuits. The design used is a non-factorial Completely Randomized Design (CRD), with four lev-els of treatment namely without the addition of nilem protein concentrate, addition of nilem protein concentrate 7,5%, addition of nilem protein concentrate 10%, and addition of nilem protein concentrate 12,5%. The parameters tested were organoleptic namely color, aroma, taste and texture carried out by 20 rather trained panelists. The results showed that biscuits with the addition of 10% nilem fish protein concentrate were the most preferred by consumers with organoleptic values (Color 7.5, aroma 7.3, texture 6.9, taste 6.5).


Nilem (Osteochilus hasselti) is an endemic fish (native) of Indonesia that lives in fresh waters, such as rivers and swamps. Biscuits with the addition of nilem protein concentrate can be high protein foods, but the addition of nilem fish protein concentrate to biscuits can affect organoleptic quality such as color, aroma, texture, and taste. This research aims to determine the proximate composition of biscuits with the addition of nilem protein concentrate. The design used is a non-factorial Completely Randomized Design (CRD), with four levels of treatment namely without the addition of nilem protein concentrate, addition of nilem protein concentrate 7,5%, addition of nilem protein concentrate 10%, and addition of nilem protein concentrate 12,5%. The parameters tested were proximate analysis including water, ash, protein and fat content. Based on proximate analysis, biscuits with the addition of nilem protein concentrate have a water content of 3.72%, ash content of 1%, protein content of 22.34% and fat content of 20.95%.


Brownies is a cake made from flour, has a blackish brown color with a distinctive sweet taste of chocolate. The addition of bonylip barb protein concentrate (FPC) to brownies is expected to be able to produce brownies with higher protein nutrient content and is preferred by panelists. This study aims to determine the amount of bonylip barb protein concentrate that can be added in to produce the most pre-ferred brownies. This study was conducted in March-August 2019 at the Laboratory of Fisheries Product Processing, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Padjadjaran University. The method used is an experimental with 4 treatments of bonylip barb protein concentrate addition at 0%, 7,5%, 10% and 12,5%. The parameters observed consisted of organoleptic characteristics which include color, aroma, tex-ture and taste of brownies. The results showed that 10% addition of bonylip barb protein concentrate produces the most preferred brownies with color hedonic mean value 7,6, an aroma 6,9, texture 7,2 and taste 7,8.


This research aims to obtain the composition of proximate brownies with the addition of bonylip barb protein concentrate. Proximate parameters observed were water content, protein content, fat content and ash content using the Association of Official Analytical Chem-ists (AOAC) method. This research was conducted in March-August 2019 at the Laboratory of Fishery Product Processing, Faculty of Fish-eries and Marine Sciences, Univeristas Padjadjaran and Laboratory of Chemistry Research, PPBS, Padjadjaran University. The method used is an experimental method with the treatment of the addition of 10% bonylip barb protein concentrate. The results of the research on the proximate test of bonylip barb protein concentrate showed that brownies contained 17,19% water content, 8,02% protein content, 14,37% fat content and 1,20% ash content.

Evaluation Domestic Food Waste Utilization As Alternative Feed In Catfish Culture (Clarias gariepinus) []

Domestic food waste is one of the wastes that can be utilized as catfish feed. This research was conducted to determine the performance of catfish fed with domestic food waste. The treatment consists of two, namely feeding using domestic food waste (A) and commercial feed (B) as a control, each treatment repeated 7 times. The study was conducted for 36 days consisting of 6 times sampling. The parameters observed include absolute growth, daily growth rate, survival and feed conversion (FCR). Data were analyzed using Least Significant Different Test. The result showed that the use of domestic food waste has an insignificant least different from a commercial feed. Domestic food waste has the same potential both with commercial feed to be used as catfish feed. The feeding-based utilization of domestic food waste provides an absolute growth value of 20.80 g, the daily growth rate of 1.48%, the survival rate of 98% and the conversion ratio of 2.3.


The research airmed at investigating and describing the influence of the village fund use allocation in the fields of the village development and empowerment on the improvement of the social resilience, economic resilience and enviromental resilience atand empowerment on the improvement of the social resilience, economic resilience and enviromental resilience at Jeneponto Regency. Data used in the research were the secondary data with the multiple linier regression method representing the combination of the time series data of 2017 and 2018 and the cross section of 74 villages at Jeneponto Regency. The data were analysed using Chow’s test and Hausman’s test to the obtain the regression result by the method of the Fixed Effect Model (FEM) and Random Effect Model (REM). The research result indicates that the village fund use allocation in the field of the village development has the positive influence of the social resilience and economic resilience, but it has the negative effect in the enviromental resilience. Whereas, the village fund use allocation in the field of the community empowerment does not have the influence on the social resilience, economic resilience and enviromental resilience at Jeneponto Regency.

A Study on Wedderburn - Artin Theorem for Rings []

The study depicts that a Wedderburn Artin – theorem for rings is considered to be a semisimple ring  which is isomorphic to a product of finitely many  matrix rings over division rings , for some integers , both of which are uniquely determined up to permutation of the index i.


Today’s, information technology has become more important and seen as strategic partner to face the global challenges of modern economy i.e. pressure of intricacy of technologies, economic improbability and quick response. Technological advancement and fast access internet facility give a big push on business cycle to redesign and re-manage their organizations as per the same. This situation requires that port staff is to be aligned with the new changes, challenges and technical advancement and also increase in their level of competencies so that their function is maximized in new age of information technology.

Combustion Potentials of Briquettes Produce Sawdust: Alternative Energy Source []

The study aimed at aggregating pulverized sawdust from Marine and Illoabuchi sawmills in Port Harcourt into briquette for energy generation and evaluating the physical, chemical and combustion characteristics of the briquettes. The experimental design was 2 x 3 Factorial Experiment arranged in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications, and the data collected were subjected to one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), t-test and regression analysis using the SPSS version IBM 21 and MS-Excel 2013. The sawdust was oven dried at temperature of 105oC for 30 minutes to moisture content of 7% and binding agent-starch at different concentration of 30% and 40% in ratio 1:3 and 1:4 respectively. The results showed that t-test of bulk density (BD) was significant difference (P≥0.05: P-value=0.00879) between briquettes from Illoabuchi and Marine: mean BD of Illoabuchi sawmill (0.207g/ml) was higher than BD (0.146g/ml) MB sawmill. Briquette densities of 30% and 40% starch showed that there was significant difference (P<0.05:0.047761) between them from Illaobuchi but no difference (P>0.05:0.265129) between 30% and 40% starched briquette from Marine Base. Result on combustion properties showed that percent volatile matter (VM) was highest in briquette of Marine Base (14.791±1.34%) followed by sawdust from same source with 13.845±0.91%, and lowest %VM (11.531±1.54%) was observed in briquettes from Illaobuchi. Similar trend was observed in %AC as it was highest in briquettes of Marine Base (1.046±0.07%) followed by sawdust from MB with 0.996±0.08% and sawdust from Illoabuchi and lowest %AC of 0.745±0.07. The result also showed that briquettes formed from sawdust of Illaobuchi and Marine Base sawmills contained protein 0.52% and 2.27% respectively. Combustion of briquettes indicated that it is less choky and smoky, cheap, ubiquitous, environmentally friendly and organic thus may mitigate the duo of climate change and global warming by reuse and recycle of wood waste reduce deforestation and degradation if utilized on large scale. The pulverized sawdust should be moulded or packaged in order to aggregate, enhance and maximize its potentials as an alternative for fossil fuel and automated briquetting machines should be sourced.


In Benue State, there are three religious institutions (Christianity, Islam and African Traditional Religion) that play certain roles in the management of disasters, but the roles played by these religious bodies have been largely unexamined. This study examines the roles of selected religious institutions in disaster management in Benue State. In doing so, the study examines how these three religious bodies namely, Christianity, Islam and African Traditional Religions organize care-oriented management and mitigation-oriented management approaches. The methodology adopted for this paper is basically descriptive. This is a qualitative approach. Data for the study was obtained from primary sources which include discussions and interview reports from the sample which was drawn from donors, agency staff, government personnel, local community leaders, elders, health officers and teachers, and also from secondary sources such as journal articles, textbooks, lecture notes, newspapers and academic research projects. The contents of numerous data gathered are analysed descriptively. Policy measures have been suggested for ultima disaster management performance. The paper suggests among others that Benue State government need to incorporate religious institutions and their policies in disaster management effort in the state in order to enhance qualitative and comprehensive care services. Keywords: Religious Institutions, Disaster and Disaster Management


The increasing use of technology will require reconsideration not only of the services provided, but also of the means by which those services are delivered. A consensus has emerged that both the counsellor and ICT have an important role to play in the delivery of enhanced career guidance services via the internet (Vuorinen, 2006). But a broader understanding in the perceptions of guidance practitioners regarding their role and the role of the internet in meeting guidance goals and delivering career guidance services is needed because that understanding will determine effectiveness in the use of the internet in their practice. In fact, practitioner perceptions of the role of technology will have an impact on how their practice will evolve. Thus, the aim of this paper is to examine what changes have occurred over time, if any, in the perceived role of technology in career guidance among practitioners who are experienced internet users.

Relationship between Remittance and Economic Growth in Sri Lanka an Autoregressive Distributed lag Model (ARDL) []

This present research study investigates the long-run relationship between remittances and the economic growth in Sri Lanka. Remittances make a vital contribution to Sri Lankan economy for many years. In 2018, the country received over USD 7 billion of remittances, accounting for 7.9% of the GDP and often attributed to temporary migrant workers. The main objective of this study is to examines the impact of the remittance on economic growth (GDP) in Sri Lanka based on the annual time series data from over the period 1980–2017. This analysis is employed Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) models to examining the unit root properties of the variables and Consequently, this study used the diagnostic tests such as the residual normality test, heteroskedasticity and serial autocorrelation tests for misspecification in order to validate the parameter estimation outcomes achieved by the estimated model. The stability of the model is checked by CUSUM test. The findings of the bound test confirm that the variables are cointegrated. Further the results reveal that there is a statistically significant long run positive relationship between remittance and GDP growth rate in Sri Lanka. The empirical finding reveals that one percent increase in remittance and gross fixed capital formation increase the GDP by 5.7 percent and 7.5 percent in the long run respectively. Similarly, household consumption and the foreign direct investment and GDP growth rate have not significant relationship in the long run.

An Overview of Blockchain Technology in Government Sectors Use Cases, Benefits and Challenges []

The ability of using blockchain technology to record transactions on distributed ledgers offers new opportunities for governments to achieve strategic objectives such as citizen’s satisfaction and happiness, service efficiency and cost optimization. Many government entities such as United Kingdom, Estonia and others have taken steps to use Blockchain technology in governments sectors. Dubai Government is aiming to become paperless by adopting the Blockchain technology for all transactions by 2021. Blockchain is much more than a foundation for crypto currency. It offers a secure way to exchange any kind of good, service or transaction. We review the literature to identify the potential use cases and application of Blockchain to enable government services and smart cities. The analysis shows that is huge potential for Blockchain technology to be used in to enable smart government services. This paper also highlights the challenges and limitations in application of Blockchain in government sectors.

The Potential of Gmelina Fruit Extract as Natural Herbicide []

To gather additional and appropriate documentation of my thesis/research study. (for the purpose of Research/Thesis study to be appreciated.)  To enhance and contribute in support of the Implementation of “Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000 in Eastern Visayas State University” and follow its prohibitions and other applicable LAWS on the EVSU campus.

The Impetuses and Hurdles of Renewable Energy Applications and Development in Montserrat []

The economy of Montserrat was severely disrupted by volcanic activity which began in July 1995. Prior to this date, Montserrat is an open and dependent micro-economy with limited economic activity which is the biggest threat to sustainable energy development. Above all, Montserrat dependency on the fossil fuel is the biggest obstacle for the long term economic growth. The combination of these challenges gives impetus for Montserrat to diversify its economy via a green economy that will pave a way for the long term economic stability while addressing environmental and social concerns in the country. Montserrat has adapted long-term plans for a transition to green economy. A major strategy is to replace fossil fuels with renewable energy (RE) sources as the fundamental energy source. Montserrat has substantial RE resources for the provision of energy services and production, yet these resources remain untapped. It is therefore crucial that the use of these abundant resources should be heightened. This paper examines and discusses the potential and current RE utilization and development in Montserrat from the perspective of sustainable development. The status of the different RE resources and their application/utilization, including details of existing projects in the country, are carefully explored and discussed. The possible impetuses for a huge advancement of RE applications and development in Montserrat are also discussed before explaining the major hurdles and challenges faced by the energy sector as regards RE. Measures and policies required to facilitate the utilization of RE in Montserrat are proposed. These evidence-based policies could guide the delivery of affordable and sustainable energy solutions for all by 2030 in Montserrat.


The overall study objective was to explore the socio-economic determinants influencing consumer choices in motor vehicles industry with regard to Toyota Kenya. The study was guided by the following specific objectives; to determine how pricing affects consumer choice on motor vehicle at Toyota Kenya and to establish how branding affects consumer choice on motor vehicle at Toyota Kenya; The researcher used descriptive survey research design in collecting the data from respondents. The target populations were consumers from Toyota Kenya. The researcher applied the procedure of stratified random sampling for selecting a sample which represented the whole population. The size of the sample of this research was 70 respondents which represented 10% of the population size. The researcher applied both primary and secondary sources in collecting data. The study carried a pretest for purposes of increasing the instrument reliability and validity. Data analysis involved qualitative and quantitative analysis. Data presentation was in form of Bar graphs, Pie-charts and Tables. Qualitative data was provided in form of explanatory notes. The study established that pricing influenced the choice of Toyota model the respondent were using. The study established that branding influence customer choice of the model. The study concludes that pricing and branding had a significant effect on consumer choice of motor vehicles. The study recommends that Motor vehicle companies in Kenya must adopt better pricing strategies that will help them in persuade customers to buy their vehicle model. To increase their market, share and increase customer loyalty the study recommends that motor vehicle companies to come up with brands that will strongly influence the consumer choice of their brand.

Implementation of Poverty Alleviation Program With Integrative Holistic Thematic and Spatial Approach At Maros District []

This study begins with the phenomenon of poverty alleviation policies in Maros DistrictDistrict The problem in this study is how the concept of poverty reduction programs implementation using integrated holistic and spatial thematic approaches in Maros DistrictDis-trict. The method used in this study is qualitative research with case studies. Data collection method is done by using in-depth interviews. The determination of informants as study subjects is based on the person who is considered to know best and with certain considerations that is having the information needed by the researcher. The results showed that the poverty reduction program with a Thematic, Holistic, Integrative and Spatial approach in Maros District had been implemented, but it was not yet effective. This is reflected in the four ap-proaches that there are still less using these approaches. This study recommends the Government of Maros DistrictDistrict in this case the Regional Development Planning Agency to form a special team to assist the task of supervision and guidance on the implementation of policies so that they can run well.


All over the world, politicians fancy up their language in a special way to give extract effect and force to their message to the electorates in order to achieve their objective of winning more votes. This language can be embodied in rhetoric, propaganda, promise, colloquialism, word coinages, pidginized and figurative expressions. Political leaders to inspire and set the mood of public about a particular issue use attractive political slogans. It is argued that a specific characteristic of political slogans make them the prime instrument for government communication, but at the same time the same characteristic make them the most vulnerable instrument as well. Political campaign slogan has continued to play important roles in voter’s education and enlightenment in Nigeria. The electorates have witnessed many political campaign slogans such as “one nation, one destiny” of late Shehu Shagari led National Party of Nigeria (NPN), “Hope” of the Late MKO Abiola of the Social Democratic Party (SDP), Gbasibe (take it there) of the “Olusegun Mimiko of Ondo State, “change” of Mohammadu Buhari led All Progressives Congress (APC) and Power to the Peoples of the Peoples Democratic Party (PDP). However, none of these political slogans have a more devastating effect in capturing the mood of the electorates as the “O to gee” (Enough is enough) in Kwara State. It was observed that man as political and social animals engages in the practice of politics as a social and noble activity to express his political agenda either positively or negatively. Therefore, the paper concluded with some recommendations that if political campaign slogans are well-structured, they capable of being an effective tools for driving government policies, ensuring mass participation of citizenry in political activities, electioneering process and aiding an election of popular candidates with attractive manifestoes at the poll.


Efficient electrical power system is the backbone of today’s world. Prosperity of a country is supported on supply of reliable electricity. For this purpose, electric distribution system is optimized to provide reliable electricity to their customers. This paper focuses on a novel approach towards reliability improvement by deploying distributed power generation (DPG) into ring distribution system. Therefore electrical transients and analyses program (ETAP) is used to model, simulate and take out results to authenticate the proposed system.

Impact of Micro Finance Institutions on Rural Household Income and Saving; a Case of Illubabur and Bunno Beddells’ Ocssco []

Now a day the significance of microfinance in least developing countries especial where the conventional formal bank is lacking is paramount. Microfinance enhances agricultural productivity of the poor farmers those lack access to formal banks due deficiency of collateral. In this paper, we evaluated the impact of microfinance on income and saving of households using cross-sectional household survey data gathered in 2018 from a sample of 304 in South West, Ethiopia. Logit regression and propensity score matching (PSM) techniques were employed for data analysis. The results revealed that adoption of microfinance had a significant positive impact on household income and saving. The results confirm the role of microfinance institutions in improving household income and saving level among microfinance users smallholder farmers is higher compared to non users.Government and microfinance players should work together to make easy the accessibility of the institution to the farmers.


This study aims to analyze the fish products that become consumers preferences in Atas Traditional Market of Cimahi City and analyze the attributes most consumers consider in choosing fish products in Atas Traditional Market. The method used in this research is the case study and using descriptive analysis. Data were collected by direct interview technique with respondents in Atas Traditional Market using a questionnaire. The attributes observed were packaging color, packaging type, product color, taste, and price. The questionnaire were used to test validity and a reliability test. Respondent characteristics and consumer behavior were analyzed descriptively, while the preferences of fish products, such as mackarel tuna, fish balls, and shredded fish, as well as the attributes in fish products that the most considered by consumers were analyzed by Rating Scale and Chi Square. The results Indicated that the fish products which became the consumer's preference in Atas Traditional Market were mackarel tuna. The most preferred in choosing mackarel fish products is the packaging color which green one, the type of packaging was leaves, the color of product was natural, spicy, and the price scale was between Rp. 15.000 - Rp. 20.000. The most preferred in choosing fish meatball products is the packaging color which clear one, the type of packaging was plastic, the color of product is natural, the taste was original, and the price scale was Rp. 10.000. The most preferred in choosing shredded fish products is the packaging color which clear one, the type of packaging was plastic, the color of product was natural, spicy, and the price scale was between Rp. 15.000 - Rp. 20.000.

Review of the Pre 2018 Privatization and Lesson for the Current Ethiopian Privatization []

The main Objective of the paper is to review privitization history in Ethiopia and drow lesson for the current privitization process.


Abstract The project dynamic has significantly permeated translation companies in Kenya but there exists certain lapses within the organization that have had various effects on the performance of projects of the entities. The purpose of the study was to thus establish whether there was influence of certain determinants on performance of projects at the translation companies. Thus, the specific objectives were to establish the influence of project leadership, monitoring and evaluation, capacity building on performance of translation projects in Nairobi; and also assess the effect of organizational culture on the performance of translation projects in Nairobi. The study was anchored on the following theories; Dynamic Capabilities Theory, Theory of Planned behavior and Durkheim’s Theory of Culture. Based on the type of data collected for the present study, this study was hinged on descriptive survey research design. For the present study the target population was the 332 management and operational staff working at the 7 translation companies. Stratified sampling was used to delineate the staff in terms of their positions. Simple random sampling was used to select 101 respondents from each stratum. To gather primary data, the study used structured questionnaires. To gather information on performance of translation projects, documents Checklist was used. The study used inferential statistics to help test the hypotheses. Here, Pearson’s correlations analysis was used and multiple regression analysis was used to ascertain the degree to which the independent variables predict the dependent variable at 95% significant level. The results show that: there was no effective transformational leadership (r=0.668, p< 0.00; β1 = .398), capacity building (r=0.681, p< 0.00; β1 = .373), monitoring and evaluation (r=0.533, p< 0.00; β1 = .359) and conducive organizational culture (r=0.729, p< 0.00; β1 = .401) at the translation companies which negatively influenced performance of translation projects. The study thus recommends that: The management of the translation companies must employ the use of transformational leadership that is charismatic, inspiring and forward looking if they are to improve performance of translation projects. The management of the translation companies must ensure they have monitoring and evaluation department and plan to specifically deal with monitoring and evaluating the progress of projects. The management of the translation companies should create an in-service capacity building framework that is robust and consistently trains staff to be abreast of the changing requirements of the translation market. The staff themselves should also engage in self-sponsored capacity building to help hone their skills. The management of the translation companies should create a consensual organizational culture that builds on the organizational goodwill so as to improve the performance of translation projects. Keywords: Project Leadership, Capacity Building, Monitoring and Evaluation, Organizational Culture, Performance