Volume 7, Issue 11, November 2019 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Abstract An experiment was carried out at the Tree improvement program screen house of Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, Ibadan Oyo state. The aim of this study was to determine the best soil type suitable for Laganaria breviflora production in south west Nigeria. The experiment was laid out in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with four treatments replicated four times. The treatments of the experiments were: clay soil (CS), river sand (RS), clay soil + river sand + top soil (1 + 1 + 1) and top soil (TS). The experiment was monitored for twelve (12) weeks after sowing (WAS) while growth characteristics were measured. Germination was first observed on clay soil + river sand + top soil (1 + 1 + 1) (7th day) followed by top soil (8th day) and least by clay soil (14th day). The results of the study showed that different soil types gave significant (p=0.05) increase in vine length, number of leaves, vine circumference and yield. At 12 weeks after sowing (WAS), top soil filled pot gave the longest vine length (280.50 cm) and the least by clay soil filled pot (40.50 cm). Top soil (41. 00) had the highest number of leaves followed by clay soil + river sand + top soil (1 + 1 + 1) (40.00) and least by clay soil (7.00). Top soil (2.58cm) had the highest Vine circumference followed by clay soil + river sand + top soil (1 + 1 + 1) (2.40 cm) and least by clay soil (1.20 cm). This result suggests that fertile top soil in the cropping systems will increase productivity of Laganaria breviflora. Fertile top soil may be recommended for the production of Laganaria breviflora. Keywords: Seed germination, Growth, Laganaria breviflora, Soil types


The study investigated scalar process management for leadership effectiveness in universities in Rivers State. Three research questions and four null hypotheses guided the study. Descriptive survey design was adopted and a population of 2558 lecturers was used, among this, the population was further stratified to federal (1379) and state (1177) which is 54% and 46% respectively to determine a sample of 344 through a stratified random sampling technique. In order to elicit information from the respondents, a questionnaire instrument tagged “Scalar Process Management for Leadership Effectiveness in Universities Questionnaire (SPMLEUQ). The instrument was face and content validated, while a reliability coefficient of 0.70 was ascertained through Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient. Mean score, standard deviation was used to answer the research question while z-test was used to analyze the hypotheses. The study revealed that The institutional leaders shows the extent of their awareness by closely monitoring flow of authority through enhancement of their level of awareness by assigning defining a set pattern for flow of decision and hence recommended that government and the leaders of the universities in River State should draw up an applicable scalar process management structure that would ensure leadership effectiveness, and also that leaders in the university should clearly define the flow of authority and checkmate line of action to avoid conflict of interest.


The study investigated centralization for higher education policy regulations in public universities in Rivers State. For the purpose of guiding the study, four (4) research questions and three two (2) null hypotheses were generated. Descriptive survey design was adopted in the study, with a population of all the 1808 academic staff in federal university and university of education present in Rivers State. Through a stratified random sampling technique, a sample of 327 academic staff was determined using Taro Yamane formulae. To elicit information for analyses, a self-structured questionnaire tagged Centralization for Higher Education Decision Regulation Questionnaire (CHEDRQ) which was face and content validated by two experts in the field of education administration and education leadership. Using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient, a reliability coefficient of 0.78 was obtained. Mean score and standard deviation and rank order was used to answer research questions while z-test was used to analyze the null hypotheses. The study revealed that centralization of decisions regarding policy directives is very paramount in other to ensure harmony in the university system and hence recommended that the various leaders in the university should ensure that there is a synergy between the policy regulators and the universities, through consultations and collaborations.

Internet Distribution Conduit and Services Market: Evidence from Nigerian Banking Industry []

Abstract Years of Internet marketing activities have demonstrated that the Internet is a veritable worldwide distribution conduit. The purpose of this paper was to investigate the influence of the internet distribution conduit on services market in the Nigerian banking Industry. The population and sample adopted in this study embraced all money deposit banks located in Port Harcourt metropolis.. The study populations are all the management staff of money deposit banks. The sample size for the study consisted of 126 respondents. Random and Convenience sampling were exploited in this study. The data considered necessary for this study was composed from quite a few primary and secondary sources; a self-administered questionnaire was disseminated in the midst of the respondents. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, simple regression, analysis of variance (Anova) and the t test. Quantitative data from respondents was edited, coded and processed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) providing guide. The findings of this study do provide a basic support that success of services market depends significantly on Internet low cost of product commercialization; Success of services market depends significantly on Internet fast distribution of information products. The study therefore concludes that internet distribution conduit has a significant influence on services market, and recommends amongst others that money deposit banks should increase the awareness of management and employees about the Internet as a distribution conduit through free training courses and various campaigns to encourage them to develop internet banking implementation. Keyword: Banking industry, Internet distribution conduit, Nigeria, Service market. Paper Type: Research paper.

Using ETAP Load Flow Analysis of 132/11kv Kohat Substation: A Case Study []

Using ETAP software load flow analysis is accurate and gives high reliable result. This research makes effective use of ETAP (Electrical Transient Analyzer Program) to carry out load flow analysis of 132 kV substation. The actual rating of transformer, circuit breakers, current transformer, potential transformer and isolating switch are taken and modelled in ETAP in the form of single line diagram. This 132 kV grid station located in KPK Kohat Pakistan which is come under NTDCL (National Transmission and Dispatch Company limited). In the operation and design planning for the power system, the most significant and beneficial approach for the investigation of problems relating to power systems can be done by means of load flow analysis or design power flow. In light of a predefined structured power system and transmission system, the load flow analysis provides steady state characteristic data for voltage phase angles and its magnitude, the flow of reactive power in the transmission lines, losses in the system, generation and consumption of reactive power in the bus bar load. In this, an effort has been made to explore power flow in the 132/11kV grid by utilizing ETAP. The data will be collect from Kohat 132/11KV substation over a period of one year, specifically in summer and winter peak loads.


As overall IT spending worldwide is expected to grow continually [1] and IT outsourcing has become more and more popular [2], the functions of a personnel manager in an IT services company, have also become highly critical when managing this atypical workforce comprising contract workers and outsourced employees. Unlike traditional industries, corporate cultures in an IT services company are unique due to its complexities of the workplace environment - the high-velocity competition, globalization and, interdependence among the rivals. These differences change the physics of management and require the personnel managers to have a distinct set of leadership skills to thrive in the IT services industry. For organizations that want to grow and access critical skills, managing their contingent workforce has become critical. However, many might not have considered well of inclusion, diversity, fairness, and trust when constructing organizational systems around their contingent workers. Leading a team with a diverse mix of people from both traditional and contingent workforce has become very challenging for frontline managers as each worker types are accessed and motivated differently.

Effect Of Crumb Rubber On The Mechanical Properties Of Concrete And Future Possibility In Building Structure []

Rubber is the major waste product in India. The rubber waste is produce by the many fields like sleeper industry, shoes industry and automobile industry. It is very difficult to disposed waste rubber without any negative effect on the environment .day by day number of automobiles increases due to population in India. Waste tire landfills give harmful affect on the environment. Waste tire disposal gives water pollution in ocean. Which gives bad effect on ocean species. Fishes or other water species which is consumed by people results harmful affect on human health. Replacement of crumb rubber which obtained by waste tire in concrete can gives a solution in certain range. Crumb rubber which is obtain by waste rubber replaces by fine aggregate by weight 5,10 and 15 percent and change in concrete property investigated due to replacement of crumb rubber. Crumb rubber which is obtained from the waste tire is replaced with fine aggregate by weight. The amount of crumb rubber has replaced by waste rubber 5 percent 10 percent and 15 percent by weight. Mechanical properties of rubcrete change to reinforcement of crumb rubber. Mechanical and chemical property depend upon the individual bonding between the coarse aggregate fine aggregate cement and crumb rubber which has replaced by fine aggregate.


ABSTRACTMarketing efficiency is a measure of the ratio of output employed in marketing of a commodity to the input used in a given marketing channel. This study therefore analyzed the marketing efficiency of processed cassava retailers and wholesalers in Benue state. Specifically the study described the socio-economic characteristics of marketers of processed cassava products; determined the marketing margin of processed cassava retailers and wholesalers, examined the marketing efficiency of the wholesalers and retailers of processed cassava products and assessed the effects of socio-economic characteristics of the marketers on their marketing efficiency. The study concluded that females participate more in processed cassava enterprise than their male counterparts, there is a significant difference in the marketing efficiency of retailers and wholesalers, both retailers and wholesalers are efficient in their marketing system. The study finally concluded that socio-economic characteristics of retailers have significant effects on their marketing efficiency, while those of wholesalers do not.


Cultivation of cereal crops among small holder farmers in Africa is mostly rain-fed and susceptible to climate changes and environmental disasters. This study investigates the resilience (yield stability) of improved maize varieties among smallholder farmers in Tanzania. The study uses the survey data collected by National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) in 2013/2014 whereby a sample of 750 randomly selected smallholder farmers who grown at least one type of improved maize varieties was used for statistical analysis. The mixed effect model has been used to evaluate the resilience of improved maize varieties by calculating the effect size. The total effect size (Cohen’s d) is positive (0.241) and significant at 5 percent level, that implies, under the same growing condition, improved maize varieties are more resilient than local varieties. The regression results show that education, quality of extension services, inorganic fertilizer and pesticides/herbicides are significant factors that positively influence resilience of improved maize varieties at 5 percent level. Therefore, the government should create supportive policies that enable smallholder farmer adopt multiple modern agricultural practices so as to harvest higher yield and hence to ensure food security in Tanzania.


ABSTRACT The study was carried out at the arboretum and in the laboratory of the Soil and tree Nutrition Section of the Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria Ibadan (FRIN) to investigate the influence of topography on soil profile characteristics and the relationship between different topographic positions and soil fertility variation in the study area. Three profile pits measuring 1.5 m x 2 m x 2 m were dug along a toposequence and the pit were described using the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) 1998 procedure. Soil samples were also collected from each horizon of each pit for laboratory analysis. The results obtained indicted that there was a partial eluviation from the pedon of the crest of the toposequence while major eluviation of soil was noticed at the valley bottom of the toposequence with a characteristic soil structure ranging from weak granular to strong granular resulting into higher clay content (31 – 43 %) when compare to soils of the crest and the middle slope which ranges from (13 – 29 % and 11 – 21 %) respectively. The available phosphorus were generally very high across the toposequence (15 – 111. 6 mg/kg), suggesting that the soil reaction in the study area was favourable for phosphorus availability. Fruit tree species where therefore recommended for production along the toposequence while the soil at the valley bottom were also recommended for rice production. Keyword: Toposequence, Pedon, Profile pit, Horizon, Eluviation, Clay and Fertility


ABSTRACT The study was carried out in a screenhouse at the Soils and Tree Nutrition Section of Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria to determine nutrient requirement and record the effect mineral deficiencies and the effect of a super abundance of a particular nutrient under nursery conditions. Degraded soil was collected from within the arboretum of the Institute. The soil was air dried, passed through a 2 mm diameter sieve before being filled into poly-pots of 13cm X 23cm dimension with 2 kg soil capacity. The nutrients solutions were formulated using Minus-one technique (MOET). The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design with sixteen (16) treatments replicated three (3) times. Plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves and dry matter yield were assessed at two weeks intervals starting from two weeks after transplanting. Data collected were subjected to Analysis of Variance and Means was separated using DMRT at 5% level of probability. The result obtained indicated that the phosphorus available in the initial soil is sufficient to support the plant growth without external supply. Nitrogen deficiency in the –N nutrient solution also significant reduced the plant stem diameter (0.76 – 1.09 mm) from 6 – 16 WAT compared to the results obtained from plants of every other nutrient element combinations during the same period. Meanwhile, from 10 - 16 WAT, the plant supplied with +K nutrient element combination recorded the highest values for stem diameter (3.07 – 4.49 mm) compared to all other nutrient element combinations. It is therefore recommended that nitrogen and potassium is essential for the early growth production of Parkia biglobosa in the study. Keyword: Soil, Nutrient, Growth, Dry matter yield, Parkia biglobosa

Parents' perceptions about girls' education []

Abstract Introduction: Education is one of the essential part of the modern era to enhance knowledge and practices at individual as well as community level. Girls’ education is essential for the growth of a family. Education not only make women or girls good educated but it aspires them to possess a good behavior for household works. By exploring parents’ perspectives on different aspects of this issue, the study will clarify different magnitudes of girls’ education. Material and methods: The design of this study was descriptive cross sectional which was conducted in rural community Ali Raza Abad Lahore, Pakistan by using convenient sampling method to evaluate the parents’ perceptions about girls ‘education. 114 parents was respondents of this study. An adopted questionnaire was used for data collection. The data was analyzed by SPSS version 21.Statistical computer software for data analysis. The descriptive study statistics was obtained through SPSS software. Results: The results of this study indicated that of the respondents, 53 (46.5%) were fathers and 61 (53.5%) were mothers. The mean overall score for parents’ perception about girls’ education for the “Benefits of Girls’ education” is 1.749±0.5881. Their perceptions were more positive about girls’ education and parents was in favor of girls’ education until university in any situation. Conclusion: Parents of this community has been shown positive behavior and views about girls’ education because they were known to the benefits of girls’ education which would be a greatest inspiration for the other parents.


This study evaluated the Chemical, Functional and Pasting properties of starch extracted from three varieties of yams using standard analytical methods. Analysis revealed that significant differences exists in Moisture content, Crude fat, Protein, Ash, Carbohydrate, energy as well as amylose. The moisture contents ranged from 5.16 – 7.81%; Protein varied from 5.25- 21.7%; pH ranged from 5.52- 7.48; Fibre ranged from 2.38-2.50%; Ash varied from 3.10-3.65%; Carbohydrate ranged from 64.73- 77.50%; Energy varied from 1514-1553Kcal/100g and Amylose content, ranged from 18.23-35.58 respectively. Also, functional properties showed significant difference (p≤0.5) among starch samples as the bulk densities, dispersibilities, water and oil absorption capacities, wettability and gelatinization temperature varied greatly. The peak viscosity ranged from 2492-5980 RVU; Trough viscosity varied between 2082 and 3472 RVU; Breakdown viscosity varied from 410-2308 RVU while the setback viscosity was from 261-3715 RVU. The peak time in minutes ranged from 4.93-7.00 minutes while pasting temperature varied from 81.65- 90.58 0C. However, knowledge on chemical, functional and pasting characteristics of starches from three varieties of yam as evaluated in this study can provide useful information to end users, both domestically and industrially. Keywords: Chemical, Functional, Pasting Properties, Starch, Yam.


Static pile load tests on foundations are carried out to examine and determine load-displacement behaviours. The test covers the direct measurement of pile head displacement in the response to incremental load. For this study, finite element simulations of field pile load-settlement were done using commercial packages PLAXIS 2D v8.6 and PLAXIS 3D,2013. For both axisymmetric and three-dimensional models, two material models were used i.e., linear elastic for pile and Mohr-Columbs for soils. Input parameters of numerical modeling were estimated using different correlations techniques based on SPT N values of soil and Unified Compressive Strength (UCS) of rock core samples. Finally, a comparison between axisymmetric and three- dimensional model was done, it has been observed thst the result of three- dimensional model is better as compared to the axisymmetric model results. KEYWORDS: Static pile load test, Finite element analysis, PLAXIS, Material models, SPT, Axisymmetric.

Blockchain and Big Data Analytics in the Optimization of Nigeria Vaccine Supply Chain []

Temperature excursion, cold chain maintenance and the attendant issues of maintaining vaccine integrity across the supply chain network till the last mile remain a critical bottleneck to immunization and vaccine coverage. This study takes a pragmatic approach to understand supply chain professionals’ perspective regarding their awareness, acceptability, feasibility, and preparedness to take up innovations to optimize the vaccine supply chain and immunization coverage. Internet-based questionnaire was used to reach different public health supply chain professionals in Nigeria. A community of professionals whose works relates to the supply chain of public health commodity was selected as the sampling frame. This community includes some supply chain professionals in Nigeria who have identified as part of the International Association of Public Health Logisticians, IAPHL. There 200 valid responses of which 70.5% were males, and 29.5% were females. The knowledge of respondents on the vaccine supply chain was as high as 100% among all professions. All also had good awareness on the use of blockchain in vaccine supply chain with the least value of 50.0% for financial/business and project professionals. Blockchain recorded 100.0% acceptability and feasibility among most professions such as IT, financial/business project management and regulatory with minimum acceptability of 88.9% among health/public health development professions. Acceptability and feasibility of blockchain were also very high regardless of respondents’ position or year of experience. Preparedness to take up blockchains was rated highest (96.0%) for international political will and least (54.0%) for national political will. This study found that the majority of participants had good knowledge of vaccine supply chain as well as a good awareness of blockchain though it is a new technology to developing countries. The overall acceptability and feasibility of blockchains were generally high. Preparedness of Nigeria vaccine supply chain to take up blockchains was rated high across all sectors. We, therefore, conclude that blockchain and big data analytics can be adopted to optimize the Nigeria vaccine supply chain.

Productivity of Various Plants in Aquaponics Systems []

Aquaponics is one of the cultivation systems that has multiple advantages, one of which is in the aspect of crop production. This study aims to determine the production of various plants (water spinach, lettuce and onion spring) integrated cultured with stripped catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus) in the aquaponics system. The study was conducted at the Laboratory of Aquaculture, Ciparanje, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Universitas Padjadjaran from June to July 2017. The method used in this study was an experimental method using a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 3 treatments and was repeated 4 times. Treatment A: combination of stripped catfish and water spinach, Treatment B: combination of stripped catfish and lettuce, and Treatment C: combination of stripped catfish and onion spring. The parameters measured in this study were plant productivity (length and number of leaves) and water quality including dissolved oxygen (DO), pH and temperature. The results showed that water spinach productivity was higher compared to lettuce and onion spring. While water quality parameters indicate that the use of the three types of plants produce water quality that still meets the requirements for fish farming.


The fisheries sector is an important sector for the people of Indonesia and can be used as a prime mover (prime mover) of the national economy. Minapadi cultivation is a fisheries sector with a system of rice and fish cultivation which is cultivated together in a paddy field. West Java Province as one of the biggest producing regions of Minapadi fisheries in Indonesia, and is considered as a potential area for Minapadi cultivation. The development of Minapadi cultivation in West Java Province caused a development trend. Trend shows changes in the value of the main indicators that are relatively stable changes in population, changes in prices, changes in technology, and increased productivity. This study has the aim to analyze the development trends of Minapadi aquaculture in West Java Province. The method used in this study is the litelature survey method to determine the competitiveness of minimum aquaculture in 19 districts and eight cities in West Java Province. After all data has been processed, the data will be analyzed descriptively. The technique used to retrieve secondary data in this study is from the statistical data of the Office of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries of West Java Province. The results of this study indicate that the development of mini aquaculture in the regencies / cities of West Java Province experienced fluctuating changes during 2000 to 2016.


The fisheries sector is an important sector for Indonesian people and can be used as a prime mover of the national economy. One region of Indonesia that has potential of fisheries and could be developed as a major driver of regional and national economy is West Java Province. Marine fisheries sector have their respective advantages of each regency in West Java Province. The development of fisheries in West Java led to the development trend. Trend shows the change in value of the main indicators of relatively stable population changes, price changes, changes in technology, and increased productivity. This study has purpose to analyze trend of the development of fisheries in West Java Province. The method used in this study is a survey litelature method to determine the development of capture fisheries in ten regencys and one city in West Java Province which has a sea area. Once all the data is processed, the data will be analyzed descriptively. Primary data in the form of expert judgment regarding the proportion of competitiveness of capture fisheries. Secondary data is statistical data from the Office of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries of West Java Province. The results of this study indicate that the development of capture fisheries in the regencies/cities of West Java Province experienced fluctuating changes during 2002 to 2017.


Glaucoma is one of the leading sources of blindness to over aged individual. It can occur at any age but is more common in older people. Several forms of glaucoma have no deterrent signs. The consequence is so moderate that you may not notice a change in vision until the condition is at an advanced stage. Eyesight loss due to glaucoma can't be convalesced. This paper is therefore aimed at to investigate the occurrence of glaucoma among gender in the area under study. Chi – square test of independency depicted that the disease is gender related. Systematic comprehensive eye test can help detect glaucoma in its primitivity, before significant destruction occurs. Regular, modest physical exercise may help prevent glaucoma by reducing eye pressure.


This study aims to analyze the attributes most consumers consider in choosing fish meatball products in Atas Traditional Market Cimahi City. The method used in this research is the case study method using descriptive analysis. Data were collected by direct interview technique with respondents in Atas Traditional Market using a questionnaire. The attributes observed were packaging color, packaging type, product color, flavour, and price. The questionnaire were used to validity test and reliability test. Respondent characteristics and consumer behavior were analyzed descriptively, while the attributes in fish meatball products that were studied by consumers were analyzed by rating scale and Chi Square. The results indicated that the most preferred attribute fish meatball products was price and choice of attributes of fish meatball products is the packaging color which transparant, the type of packaging was plastic, the color of product was natural, original, and the price was Rp. 10.000.

Adding of Telang Leaf Meal (Clitoria ternatea) to the Physical Quality of Feed and Response to Eating Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Catfish (Pangasius hypophtalamus) []

Clitoria ternatea contains high antioxidants and can be made functional feed that is useful as an preventive for free radicals. This research aimed to evaluate the physical quality of feed mixture of C.ternatea leaves meal with commercial feed for response of tilapia and catfish. This research includes physical quality (aroma, color, and texture) and the response of the fish to the feed. The results obtained are the aroma of C.ternatea is increasing, the color is more green, and the texture of the feed is getting softer, with response of the fish is slowing down along with the addition of C.ternatea leaves meal.


Introduction: Health care professionals are constantly exposed to microorganisms. Many of which can cause serious or even lethal infections. Nurses in particular are often exposed to various infections during the course of carrying out their nursing activities, Aim of the study: This investigation assessed the knowledge and degree of compliance regarding standard precautions among student nurses. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was adopted for this investigation. Cross-sectional studies involve a single examination like a snapshot of a cross-section of a population at a given time. Result; There were 58 respondents in the study. There were 10 (17.2%) male and 48 (82.8%) female respondents. Majority of the respondents or 53 (91.4%) were within the age bracket of 21 to 23 years old with mean age of 21.5 years. Almost all of the respondents 56 (96.6%) were single while only 2 (3.5%) were married. Conclusion: From this investigation that the level of knowledge and compliance of standard precautions among the study population is rather high. However, teaching must be strengthened, particularly with respect to the concepts of nosocomial infection and hand hygiene where students scored less. Future educational strategies maybe enhanced through intensive return demonstration of effective use of protective equipment’s such as masks and eye goggles, requiring students to submit written journal, nursing care plans (NCP’s) and anecdotal record of demonstration and integration of standard precaution practices during clinical exposure. Furthermore, nurse educators may need to provide an environment that models and promotes standard precaution practices by positive role modeling.


Digital transformation is profoundly changing the shape of business today. Companies continue to become “information-driven” in order to remain competitive, or even outrun, their market leaders. Digital transformation is not just about the evolution of devices, it is also about leveraging data to improve customer experiences, open new markets, make employees and processes more productive, and create new sources of competitive advantages. Inevitably, data created by both businesses and consumers would grow exponentially and is resulting in huge demand in enterprise storage for companies around the globe. Professionals in the field of Information Technology should be familiar with Enterprise Storage systems. Enterprise storage devices generally offer higher reliability, availability, and scalability. It is entirely conceivable that enterprise-level storage devices require specialized technical skills to maintain and support, and are more costly than those general storage devices for consumers and small businesses. Therefore, it is imperative for any organization to establish a statistical method to predict usage growth by analyzing usage trends, in order to avoid systems degradation or failure, and budgeting nightmare. By better planning of storage utilization and capacity forecasting, organizations may be able to avoid overbuying hardware or untimely upgrade interruptions and lead to economies of scale.

Elasticity Demand Of Skipjack Tuna Products (Katsuwonus Pelamis) At The Nizam Zachman Ocean Fishery Port, Muara Baru, North Jakarta City []

This study aims to determine how much the elasticity of demand and analyze the factors that influence the demand for skipjack tuna products at The Nizam Zachman Ocean Fishery Port, Muara Baru, North Jakarta City. This research was conducted in February 2019 to November 2019. The method used is a quantitative descriptive method using primary data and secondary data. Data analysis techniques used were demand elasticity, multiple linear regression analysis, correlation analysis, simultaneous test (t- test), partial test (f-test), and classical assumption test. The parameters tested were the price of skipjack tuna, the price of scad fish, the price of bigeye tuna, the price of squid, the price of rice, and DKI Jakarta's per capita income. The results showed that the demand for skipjack tuna in the Nizam Zachman Ocean Fishery Port with the price of skipjack tuna is inelastic, while the results of cross elasticity show that scad fish, big eye tuna and rice are substitute goods, and based on income elasticity, skipjack tuna is a primary item. The demand for skipjack tuna The Nizam Zachman Ocean Fishery Port, Muara Baru, North Jakarta City is simultaneously (jointly) influenced by several factors including the price of skipjack tuna, the price of scad fish, the price of bigeye tuna, the price of squid, the price of rice and DKI Jakarta's per capita income. Meanwhile, the partial demand for skipjack tuna is influenced by among others the price of skipjack tuna, the price of scad fish, the price of bigeye tuna, the price of rice, and the income per capita of DKI Jakarta. The dependent variable demand for skipjack tuna and the free variable is the price of skipjack tuna, the price of scad fish, the price of bigeye tuna, the price of squid, the price of rice and the income per capita of DKI Jakarta has a very strong relationship with a correlation value of 0.998.

The Impact Of Pregnancy, Child Birth On The Lives Of The Teenage Mothers After They Dropped Out Of School []

This study investigated the impact of the pregnancy, child birth on the lives of the teenage mothers after they have dropped outof school. This was to gain insights into the lived experiencesof twenty pregnant teenagers who had dropped out of Senior High School at the Birim Central Municipality due to pregnancy.The qualitative method was usedfor this study.The study found out that the impact of pregnancy, child birth and its aftermath on the lives of the teenage mothers after theyhave dropped out of school are psychosocial effects on the teen mother, and care of the child. It is recommended thatparents should provide the basic needs for school, at home and for their general up keep. Municipal Assemblies should develop scholarship schemes to support needy children especially girls.


The study was conducted in public universities in Tanzania to examine procurement management factors and their influence on performance of public procuring entities. Specific objectives of the study were to determine how procurement practitioners’ competence affect performance of PEs, to determine how procurement practitioners compliance with PPA 2011 affect performance of PEs and to identify how implementation of annual procurement plans affect performance of PEs. The study employed descriptive design. Data were collected through questionnaires and documentary reviews. The study findings revealed that majority of procurement practitioners were competent but had low level of compliance to PPA 2011. It was also found that ARU, UDSM and OUT prepared APP for each financial year except that the APP was not followed according to the stated dates of the plan. It was further revealed that funds were neither adequate nor allocated on time to enable procurement to take place when desired. Hypothesis testing confirmed that competence level of practitioners was strongly related to procurement performance. On the other hand, there was no relationship between compliance to APP and procurement performance. Also it was further confirmed that the relationship between implementation of APP and public procurement performance in public PEs was significant. The study recommends to procurement and supplies related bodies to increase their emphasis on compliance with the Act and regulations through staff training. The study recommends to management to provide funds in time in order to smoothly implent APP. Other researchers can also examine other challenges facing public sector procurement not covered in this study

Treatment of Coloured Community in Conrad's Heart of Darkness and Achebe's Things Fall Apart: A Post Colonial Perspective []

Abstract: The paper deals with the concept of the treatment specifically maltreatment of the coloured community which is considered as one of the darkest chapters in the history of the world. This paper aims at exploring different treatments towards coloured community exposed in Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad and Things Fall Apart by Chinua from two different regions and races considering postcolonial perspective. The study found that in Conrad’s Heart of Darkness the coloured community were treated brutally and disesteemed like animal of Africa. As a European white man, the writer, Joseph Conrad nakedly exposed his own attitude towards the coloured community. On the other hand in Achebe’s Things Fall Apart the writer explained the real African culture where he showed a proper structured society with manly command and prejudice of their own. This research is qualitative in nature and the researcher collected data from both primary and secondary sources.


Bryophytes are considered pioneer organisms, since they were the first to inhabit inhospitable places and to transform them into favorable environments to the emergency of other species. The aims of the current research are to investigate epiphytic bryophytes of Syagrus coronata (Mart.) Becc. (Licuri) under the effect of yearly seasonality, based on the interaction between abiotic microhabitat factors (phorophytes) and bryophytes, as well as to investigate the reproductive biology of common species found in the analyzed phorophytes. Boqueirão da Onça comprises an area of 820,000 hectares in Northern Bahia State, where the Ministry of Environment plans to make the largest conservation unit in the Caatinga biome . Botanical material was collected in 50 organisms (georeferenced) of S. coronata, in two regions: sheath and stem (stipe). The association between species diversity and proximity to environment with waterbodies and to ruderal environment were calculated based on Pearson correlation coefficient (r). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) used factorial analysis replication to compare two treatments (sheath and stem), three blocks (dry-rainny-dry) and five repetitions (sampling units), as well as to evaluate the reproductive system in the. BioEstat 5.0 software. Shannon diversity (H') and Equitability (J') indices were used to compare species diversity and equitability between epiphyte incidence regions under the influence of yearly seasonality. Data were analyzed in the Alpha diversity indices software. Six species distributed in six genera and families, respectively, were indentified. The inventory comprised five mosses and liverwort species. The identified moss species comprised Leucobryum albicans (Schwaegr.) Lindb., Fabronia ciliaris (Brid.) Brid. var. polycarpa (Hook.) W.R.Buck, Helicophyllum torquatum (Hook.) Brid., Leucoloma cruegerianum (Müll. Hal.) A. Jaeger and Tortella humilis (Hedw.) Jenn. The liverwort species recorded in the current study was Frullania ericoides (Nees) Mont. Overall, it was possible proving the association noticed during epiphyte collection and sorting procedures: species are more abundant in sheaths than in stems (F= 4.2985; p <0.05). Thus, there were not statistically significant changes in the number of species (F=1.7015; p < 0.20) between 2013 and 2014.In addition, there was not change in the number of species when sheath/stem and interaction with seasons were analyzed together (F=0.6269; p < 0.54). Thus, the sheath region (H’=1.141; 1.002 ± 1.256) recorded higher especies diversity index than the stem region (H'=0.443; 0.3501 ± 0.5242). Similar equitability data were observed for the sheath (J’=0.636; 0.5594 ± 0.7008) and stem (J'=0.639; 0.5051 ± 0.7563) regions. Moss species H. torquatum preferred type of reproduction was identified based on its intense sporophyte production. Thus, sporophytes were abundant during the dry season, but scarce during the rainny season (97.2% vs. 2.8%, respectively. N =1,139; G=9.88; P=0.015). Therefore, it is possible stating that such analyses enabled better understanding the epiphyte bryophyte community living in the Caatinga.

Thermostable Vaccines in the Optimization of African Vaccine Supply Chain, the Perspective of the Nigerian Health Supply Chain Professionals []

This study captures the perspectives of stakeholders on optimization of Nigeria vaccine supply chain with thermostable vaccines. Temperature excursion, cold chain maintenance and the attendant issues of maintaining vaccine integrity across the supply chain network till the last mile remain a critical bottleneck to immunization and vaccine coverage. Therefore, the study takes a pragmatic approach to understand supply chain professionals’ perspective regarding their awareness, acceptability, feasibility, and preparedness to take up innovations to optimize the vaccine supply chain and immunization coverage. An electronic questionnaire was used to reach different public health supply chain professionals in Nigeria. A community of professionals whose works relates to the supply chain of public health commodity was selected as the sampling frame. This community includes some supply chain professionals in Nigeria who have identified as part of the International Association of Public Health Logisticians. There were 200 valid responses of which 70.5% were males and 29.5% were females. The most frequent age group was 31 – 40 (56.5%). Among respondents, 86.0% had good experience in the vaccine supply chain but only 41.0% had good knowledge/awareness of thermostable vaccines. The overall acceptability and feasibility of thermostable vaccines were 97.5% and 95.0% respectively. Preparedness of Nigeria vaccine supply chain to take up thermostable vaccines was rated 96.0% for international political will, 82.0% for private sector involvement and collaborations, 76.5% for readiness in regulatory and policy, 73.0% for workforce know-how and 54.0% for national political will. Though respondents generally had poor knowledge of thermostable vaccines, yet, they recognized its importance in optimizing Nigeria vaccine supply chain. Acceptability and feasibility of thermostable vaccines were generally high among professionals. We also found that the level of preparedness to take up new innovation product design and formulation was significantly high across all categories of professionals.


This research aimed to analyze the impact of Pb heavy metals on histopathological conditions of the liver, kidneys, and muscle of tilapia. The method used in this research was a survey method with the object used was Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) from Saguling Reservoir and the results of cultivation in the Center for Freshwater Aquaculture Fisheries (BBPBAT) Sukabumi. Data from observations were analyzed in a comparative descriptive manner. The results showed the levels of Pb heavy metals that accumulated in organs at each station were very diverse, and most of them had exceeded the quality standards based on National Standardization Agency of Indonesia 7387: 2009. Pb content in the liver ranged from 0.345 to 0.577 ppm, kidneys from 0.276 to 1.513 ppm and muscles from 0.063 to 0.331 ppm, while the concentration of Pb in water showed a value of < 0.05 ppm at each station. Histopathological observations made, in general, test fish have experienced histopathological changes in liver, kidney and muscle tissue. Liver damage that occurs is with a diagnosis of hepatic necrosis, a kidney with a diagnosis of nephrosis and nephritis, while a muscle with a diagnosis of myopathy.


This paper proposes that poverty is the fast-growing menace, which is hotly debated in almost all countries whether developed or developing, including Pakistan. The study illustrates the impact of poverty and funding over the development of Higher Education in Pakistan and details theoretical linkage between them. Data were zanalyzed by E-views and SPSS Softwares. Where, LnPr and LnBd represents the natural log of poverty and budget and t denotes the time period, and are random variables, indicating that they vary as the entity changes, and their variation is related to the corresponding explanatory variable; and are the coefficients of the explanatory variables, and they are variable among different entities, and are error terms. The results of this study shows that, an increase in funding leads to an increase in the graduation rate of students. As the budget increased the graduation rate and university output is increased. Education enrollment has a significant impact on poverty. This can change the socio-economic status of the people as individuals and in society. The findings of this research conclude that both variables has a major impact on the development of Higher Education in Pakistan. It has been proved that the element of poverty and funding not only influences the standard of Higher Education but also deteriorates it qualitatively.


The complex topographic landscape of the Menchum Division of Cameroon with varied rolling chains of highlands, valleys, plateaux and plains provide great premium and prospects for agro-pastoral activities. Wet season crops cultivation is practiced in the varied landscape with grazing predominantly occupying the upland savannah area. Dry seasonal grazing is carried out alongside crops cultivation in the wetlands. With no defined boundaries of both cropland and rangeland and with each activity constantly in need of available soil moisture and water resources, the implication is manifested in conflicts. This study examines the seasonality implications on water resources, soil moisture and savannah vegetation all of which are vital to agro-pastoral systems in Menchum. Field observation, interviews and administration of questionnaires were major methods for data collection. The rainfall and temperature data were obtained from the Aguli Guage Station. Potential evapotranspiration (PEt) was obtained using the Braney-Criddle Method. Data were analyzed using the 4 Points Likert Scale and the Chi Square Goodness of Fit. Findings reveal that the concept of carrying capacity remains impossible to the pastoralists given that the natural vegetation for grazing does not have a homogenous cover. It further presents the strengths and weaknesses of both the opportunistic and agro-ecological management systems in view of the unprecedented changes in the socio-economic and environmental conditions of the area. The study recommends sustainable agro-pastoral management systems through assisting the farmers and pastoralists in savannah areas to carry out their raison d’être for livelihood sustenance.

Parents perception of children physical activity []

Background: It was a belief of ancient philosophers and physicians like Plato and Hippocrates that there is a relationship between physical activity, health and disease. Physical activity plays a vital role for promotion of health and prevention of life style related disease in an individual. Physical activity promote development and growth in children, it enhances the motor skills, increase muscle and bone strength, loses fat. Children need weight control exercises for normal skeletal development. Aim of study: The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the parent’s perception about their children physical activity. Methodology: Cross sectional study, survey type research model and quantitative data which is obtained through a reliable and valid scales are used in the study. The population for this study is the parents of primary school children in community of Ali Raza Abad. The study duration is 4 months. The questionnaire is adopted from Carman Ka-man Leung. The demographic data consist of 8 questions and the other section which is likert Scale questionnaire is consist of 70 questions. Result: The mean score for children physical competence is 2.31 and the overall mean score is ±1.0505. The mean score for parents support their children in physical activity is 0.88 and the overall mean score is ±0.428. The mean score for parents perception about neighborhood safety for children is 2.16 and the overall mean score is ±0.84. The mean score for the parents ideas about exercise is 1.99 and the overall mean score is ±0.799. Conclusion: This study examined parent’s perceptions about children’s competence of physical activity, neighborhood safety, exercise benefits and exercise barriers, parental support, and parents views about the children’s physical activity. Each of the relationships among the above constructs was analyzed. Parent’s involvement is very significant for children physical activity.


Currently access to mineral fertilizers is not within the reach of all Katanga scholarships, particularly in vegetable growing. In a part of the development of organic waste and the fight against the terminology of soil contamination by trace elements, this attempt was conducted to evaluate the behavior of chives (Allium scheonoprasum. L) on a contaminated soil of Tshamilemba using compost Tithonia diversifolia. Increasing Tithonia compost doses were applied to contaminated soil, next to a normal soil and an unamended contaminated soil taken as control soils. The variance analysis and the Turkey’s Tukey's test were used to compare the averages of different parameters observed through the Minitab 17 software. It is clear from this analysis that the vegetative growth is not Tithonia compost dose-dependent. Parallel to the unamended pots, Tukey's test revealed that plants at control soil of the experimental field showed elevated height while the second witness presented plants short height to 15 days. As for mobility, reduced copper is based on tithonia compost doses on the contaminated soil. 120 t.ha-1 would be the best for the decrease in phytoavailability mobility of trace metals. Key-words: Compost, bioaccumulation, ETM, soil contamination, Tithoniadiversifolia, Allium schoenoprasum, Tshamilemba.


This study aims to analyze the attributes most consumers consider in choosing mackarel tuna products in Atas Traditional Market Cimahi City. The method used in this research is the case study method using descriptive analysis. Data were collected by direct interview technique with respondents in Atas Traditional Market using a questionnaire. The attributes observed were packaging color, packaging type, product color, flavour, and price. The questionnaire were used to validity test and reliability test. Respondent characteristics and consumer behavior were analyzed descriptively, while the attributes in mackarel tuna products that were studied by consumers were analyzed by Rating Scale and Chi Square. The results indicated that the most preferred attribute mackarel tuna products was price and choice of attributes of mackarel tuna products is the packaging color which green one, the type of packaging was leaves, the color of product was natural, spicy, and the price scale was between Rp. 15.000 - Rp. 20.000.

Knowledge and practices regarding sanitation among community resident []

Background: “Health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity”. Hygiene may be affected by lack of clean water. Unclean water, inadequate sanitation and un hygiene lead to health problems. Unclean of drinking water is one of the most serious threats to people in many parts of the world that cause serious diseases. Contaminated water intake causes various diseases such as cholera diarrhea, paratyphoid, typhoid, dermatitis. Hepatitis and Enteric fever. Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study design used for this study paper. The Convenient sampling technique use in this study. A sample size of 153 was selected by using Slovene’s formula .Aim of this study knowledge and practices about sanitation the resident of community Ali Raza Abad Lahore Pakistan. Results: 75.0% (90) participant satisfied with using of water in theirs home and 25.0% (30) participant were not satisfied with using of water in theirs home.87.5% (105) participant were water use as their requirement and 12.5%(15) were not water use as their requirement.92.5%(111) bathroom should have in home and 7.5% (9) bathroom should have not in home.93.0% (112) water should be store after boiling and 8.0% (8) water should not be store after boiling.100%(120) use soap foe hand washing. Conclusions: The results of this study conclude that community people of Ali Raza Abad have inappropriate knowledge about sanitation. Generally, there is lack of knowledge about the practice of sanitation. Community resident were not using any method to treat the water and felt that water is already clean so there is no need to treat it. Majority of people have no knowledge about sanitation effect on health. Community resident have knowledge about the use of soap for hand washing avoids the transmission of human excreta, viruses, bacteria and parasites. Key Words: Knowledge, Practices, Sanitation


Introduction: Vibrio cholera is an acute diarrheal disease that results from the ingestion of food or water infected with vibrio cholera bacteria. It can easily be propagate from one to another community. Inadequate sanitation and poor hygiene practices play a role in cholera transmission. Methods: A quantitative descriptive cross sectional study design was used for this study. Target population of this study was the residents of rural community. Total sample size was 125 participants. Well-developed questionnaire was adopted for data collection. Results: All participants familiar with the word Cholera. Highest rate of tested population (84%) agree that a bacterium is cause cholera. (74%) tested population responded that cholera correlated with drinking water and food, these results are significant. Cholera transmission is correlated with climate 64.8% population agreed. In addition, (68.8%) population agrees with the statement of media play a role in cholera prevention. Conclusion: Awareness of cholera among residents of rural community should need to improve. Cholera is preventable as change their habits and behavior. Its transmission can easily preventable. Key Words: Vibrio Cholera, transmission prevention.

Optimal Placement of Distributed Generation in Power System Using Particle Swarm optimization []

In electric power system, most of the electrical energy losses occur in the distribution system. Power loss in a distribution system is high because of low voltage and hence high current. The overall efficiency of the distribution system can be improved by integrating distributed generation (DG). However, the placement of DG unit at non optimal places can have a negative impact on the distribution system. This paper proposed the use of particle swarm optimization (PSO) for the optimal placement of Distributed Generation (DG) with the aim of reducing system losses and improving voltage profile. Etap 12.6 software was used to model the 73-bus system and the search space was reduced to 35 candidate buses using Newton-Raphson power flow method. The load flow result is further passed to PSO which determines the optimal DG placement. Distributed generation (DG) units of 25 MW gas turbine power plants were implemented on the test system The result obtained shows that 10 buses [Bus17, Bus21, Bus31, Bus37, Bus42, Bus54, Bus57, Bus59, Bus67, and Bus68] indicates the optimal location for DG placement. It was reviewed that the maximum reduction in line losses was achieved and the overall power losses reduced from [37.817MW, 239.832MVar] to [17.543MW,119.842MVar] using particle swarm optimization method. With DG integration at optimal location, the power demand required from the grid could be reduced thus cutting the need to strengthen the feeders connecting the network to the grid.

Treatment of Othello as a Converted Christian having Muslim Background in Shakespeare’s Othello: A Critical Discourse Analysis []

Abstract: The paper endeavors to investigate ins-and-outs of the character, Othello considering the perspectives of two religious beliefs Islam and Christianity Shakespeare showed in Othello. The objectives of the study are to represent the condition of the people of other religions except Christianity in 16th century England and to explore the problems specially the converted Christians having Muslim background faced. The research is conducted considering qualitative approach and the data were collected from both primary and secondary sources. The paper found that Shakespeare and his contemporary writers treated Converted Christians having Muslim Background as outsiders, infidels, lustful, violent people and barbarian. The character, Othello is the example of that ideology. At the same time, the Muslims were regarded as a great threat to Europe, particularly after the expanses of Ottoman Empire.


Urban growth and the concentration of people in urban areas are creating societal problems world-wide. In most towns and cities in Cameroon especially in Bamenda, Yaounde and Douala where urbanization have intensify within the last few years, the colonization of green areas, wetlands, grass lands, forest parks, and communal forest which constitute among other things the ecosystem in these areas have been alarming and calls for concern especially for the sustainability of the ecosystem services in the future. In this study, Bamenda III, which form part of the Bamenda City Council and a primate city par excellence has witnessed dramatic changes in its peri-urban zone. This study thus examines the effect of urbanization on ecosystem services in Bamenda III Municipality. The researcher examines the effect of population growth on urban ecosystem services in Bamenda III municipality. A hypothesis was set and tested at .05 significance level. Data for the study were obtained through primary and secondary sources using a mixed design method of inquiry which combines both quantitative methods and qualitative approaches to explore data on the urbanization trend variables such as population patterns from 2007 to 2018 in Bamenda III Municipality and its implications on the landscape linked to the key ecosystem services. Purposive and systematic sampling techniques were used to survey a sample population of 200, drawn using the Miller & Brewer Sample determination Method (2003). The data generated were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results from the findings showed that urbanization have negatively affected ecosystem services in the municipality.


Abstract; Ears are not only help us to hear, they also show an vital character in the maintenance of balance. Ears may not demand much care but their proper and adequate care is essential to protect their daily optimal functions. using simple steps such as wiping the external ears with a clean washing cloth or with tissue and whenever accumulation of cerumen occurs, the removal should be handled by a clinician. OBJECTIVE(S) The objective of this research is to assessed the knowledge , Attitude And Practice Of Ear Care In Community Of Ali Raza Abad Raiwind Road Lahore. Study Design A Cross-sectional study design will be used this study. DISCUSSION. A crossectional study was conducted to explore the knowledge attitude and practice of ear care in the community people of Ali Raza Abad Lahore Pakistan. A brief demonstration regarding the correct and incorrect ear care practices was also performed. Study questions were mainly oriented towards the participant’s knowledge, attitudes and practices of ear care. CONCLUSSION; According to the previously demonstrated findings, current study suggests that it is highly recommended to educate people and increase their awareness level regarding the ear care habits, especially rural population community people of Ali Raza Abad Lahore Pakistan. However, teaching should be strengthened, in particular with regard to the concepts of knowledge attitude and practice about ear care Future educational strategies can be improved through demonstration of the return of effective ways of ear care. Key word ; knowledge attitude practice ear care.

Challenges in School Inspection for Effective Delivery of Quality Primary Education in Tropical African Countries. []

Abstract This article examines the specific and peculiar challenges school inspectors face in the Tropical African Countries. Tropical African Countries not only share the same climatic, cultural, political and ethnic challenges but equally face the same Primary school inspection challenges. This paper has attempted to highlight them and has shown their effect on the quality of education provided in Primary schools. It has also attempted to shoe the way forward if quality Primary education will be realized in Tropical African countries.

The Contribution of Women Empowerment in Rural Areas Towards Socio- Economic Development []

Abstract After a careful observation and examination of the way rural women are treated and forced to behave, this article has been presented may be to challenge the world to treat women differently, the rural women to step up the fight for their rights and the national governments to design more moderate policies that may see the rural women enjoy their living in rural settings. Although, worldwide, a woman is the nucleus of the family, in rural areas women are not only used as donkeys to collect water, fire wood, fodder and serve food but are playing a significant role in preserving the culture, groom the children and shape their destiny. The opinion of Manibhai (2017) is that although women represent 51% of the total population, they contribute less than 15% to the development of our rural societies while men contribute only 85%. Unfortunately, in spite of their laudable and vulnerable roles, which could not be substituted by machines or men, women have been neglected since generations due to the persistent gender discrimination.The purpose of this article is to examine the contribution of women empowerment in rural areas towards socio- economic development. This article has attempted to expose what many people in the world have not realized as indeed suffering of the rural woman under the thinking that the unprogrammed roles she is subjected to are her unavoidable daily routine. While the rural women do 90% of the work in the home, the men are merely doing a 10% that constitutes meeting friends for gossiping and taking alcohol. Contrary to the men, for the rural women, the day starts as early as 4.00am in the morning with the responsibilities of preparing breakfast for the husband and the children, fetching firewood and cooking food. She takes care of the children and members of the family, their health, orientation and education and attends to various income generating activities. She manages all the household matters, looks after the family assets and livestock, handles the purchases and finances, works for almost 16 hours and is the last to sleep at night.The readers of this article should not remain the same. This article should drive the world into doing something to rescue the rural women to enjoy their human rights as women and mothers in true independent countries. The writers are just tickling the readers and others to rest themselves into the support for the women and to appreciate the goodness hidden in the women and design ways of living with that goodness and enjoy it peacefully. The writers are also tickling the readers to convince the men to play their roles in child rearing, family financial generation and home responsibility sharing.

Challenges Associated with Use of the Foreign Language as a medium of Instruction in Tropical African Education Institutions []

This study explores and identifies challenges associated with the use of the foreign Languages as medium of instruction in the Tropical African Education Institutions across the board. The paper focuses on the practices existing in Uganda, Burundi, Eritrea and South Sudan by a team of experienced instructors and highly trained Education Managers. The study would have focused on many foreign languages but English was chosen because the writer is highly trained in the use of the English language. Data collection was through use of semi-structured interview guides. Random sampling method was used to determine 20 instructors and 30 students from each of these countries for the face-t0- face interviews. Data collected was analyzed using the content analysis method. It was established that learners in the Tropical African Education Institutions find a lot of difficult in learning using foreign languages. Learners have their mother tongues interfering and they depend a lot on them for communication which prevents them from practicing use of the imposed foreign Languages. It was also found that the National governments have little or nothing to do as they lack funding of their education systems so they must continue to use the foreign languages to solicit continued funding of their education.The weak students in classes not only hate the languages but also the instructors who attempt to force them to learn through these foreign languages. The dominance of the strong learners makes it worse for the weak ones find themselves irrelevant in the class. This drives them into regular absenteeism and even when they attend the lessons, they occupy the behind seats just to do watt sapping on their telephone hand sets and also to talk to their friends so as to end up the lessons. At University level, once they sign the attendance lists, they quickly disappear.The effective use of foreign languages as a medium of instruction should start as early as the starting classes of Basic Education if anything good is to be realized. Similarly, the teaching and learning should be only in the these Language without interference of the native languages and students with language proficiency weaknesses should be encouraged to practice speaking, writing and all communication needs to be done in these foreign languages for masterly. Finally, it is recommended that despite these foreign languages being second languages students should be motivated to study in well equipped learning environments with appropriate teaching materials.