Volume 6, Issue 8, August 2018 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication


The research presents the comparative analysis on the mechanical properties of a Metal-Matrix Composite (MMC) reinforced with palm kernel/periwinkle shell ash for automobile applications. Four specimens consisting of Sample A (300g of aluminum), Sample B (295% of aluminium, and 5% of Silicon Carbide [SiC]), Sample C (290% of aluminium, 5% of Silicon Carbide and 5% of palm kernel [PKSA]) and (285% of aluminium, 5% of Silicon Carbide, 5% of palm kernel and 5% of periwinkle shell ash [PSA]) were produced using stir casting method and their mechanical properties (hardness, tensile strength, microstructure) were evaluated. Particle reinforced Al-MMC can be synthesized stir- casting method. Commercially solid aluminium (up to 99.1% purity) served as the matrix while Silicon carbide, palm kernel shell ash and periwinkle shell ash particle were used as the reinforcements. It involved the melting of the aluminium solid followed by adding the reinforced particles for different weight percent to the melt. The microstructural examinations revealed a uniform distribution of the reinforcements. From the analysis of results obtained, we found that the ultimate tensile strength of aluminum based metal matrix composite decreased as we added the weight fraction of SiC; increased as we added the weight fraction of PKSA and decreased as we added the weight fraction of PSA particles. The elastic modulus of aluminum based metal matrix composite decreased as we added the weight fraction of SiC, increased as we added the weight fraction of PKSA and decreased as we added the weight fraction of PSA particles. The hardness of aluminum based metal matrix composite increased as we added the weight fraction of SiC, and decreased as we added the weight fraction of PKSA and increase as you add the weight fraction of PSA particles. The ductility of aluminum based metal matrix composite decreased as we added the weight fraction of SiC, and increased as we added the weight fraction of PKSA and PSA. Conclusively, with the observations made on the mechanical properties of pure Aluminium metal reinforced with SiC, PKSA and PSA, SiC and PKSA have a better mechanical properties if used as reinforcement material in Aluminium metal matrix composite. Thus, this work has provided ways of converting commercial wastes, especially palm kernel shell and periwinkle shell which are posing environmental problems, to useful substances.

The Utilization of Chlorella sp. in Feed to Growth Performance of Gouramy (Osphronemus gouramy.Lac) Grower Phase []

This study aims to determine the optimal doses of of Chlorella sp. meal into the feed which results in a high growth rate in the gouramy grower phase. The study was conducted in January until March 2018 (40 days) at Production Hall of Gouramy and Nilem Stockpip (BPPSIGN) Singaparna-Tasikmalaya. This study used the Completely Random Design (CRD) method, consisting of four treatments and four replications, namely commercial feeding (control), Chlorella sp. 1%, 2% and 3%. Parameters observed were feed convertion ratio, absolute growth and water quality. The feed convertion ratio and absolute growth data were analysed using variance analysis (ANOVA), while the quality of water was analysed descriptively by comparing it to the water quality standard SNI 2006. The results showed the best treatment was achieved within the dose 3% Chlorella sp in feed, which result feed convertion ratio of 2,85, absolute growth 44,66 gram and water quality parameters between 25,95-27oC, pH between 6,15-6,54 and Dissolved Oxygen (DO ) between 5,16-5,96 mg/L.


This study aims to determine the effect of carrot starch in enhancing the color brightness and to figure the optimal concentration of carrot starch added to artificial feed to enhance the color brightness of swordtail fish. This research was conducted at Hatchery Building 4 Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences of Padjadjaran University from May to June 2018. The research method used is a Completely Randomized Design experiment consisting of five treatments and three replications. The carrot starch addition treatment used 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10% of carrot starch based on the feed amount. The parameters observed is color value by using Toca Color Finder as the main data while increased weight and survival rate act as supporting data. The color observation data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis analysis, if there were significant differences, Z test would be performed. The weight gain was analyzed using Analysis Off Variance (ANOVA). F test was performed in order to figure the effect of treatment upon the parameters, if there is a significant difference then Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) would be performed. The results concluded that the addition of 10% carrot starch is the best treatment, resulting in 6.78 color brightness value enhancement on the tail and 7 color brightness value enhancement of the swordtail fish head.


Career Development Plan is one of the most important developmental processes in a student’s university experience. Deciding on a career is a developmental process, marked by significant events and experiences. Employers want well-rounded students that enhance their in classroom education with key career-related experiences. Students should strive to fine tune their career goals carefully. So creating Career Development Plan is a major issue of student life. Career Development Plan is to provide an action plan for students to follow during his undergraduate years. That will help student’s acquire knowledge of him, career paths, and academic and career opportunities. Career decision-making is a process, and while activities are suggested over a four-year timeline student can set his own pace in pursuing career development and use the timeline accordingly.

Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Cutting Parameters on Cutting Temperature Using RSM and ANN in Turning AISI 1040 []

In the present research, experimental investigation is done to identify the impact of cutting parameters (feed rate, cutting speed and depth of cut) on the cutting temperature in turning of AISI 1040 by using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). Response surface methodology (RSM) is used to design the experimental layout consisting of 16 datasets using Central Composite Design (CCD). Significance of the cutting parameters is determined utilizing statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) which indicates that all the three cutting parameters have noteworthy impact on the cutting temperature. The 3D response graphs present cutting temperature is increased with the increase of feed rate, cutting speed and depth of cut. Desirability Function Analysis (DFA) is employed to decide optimal values of cutting parameters. It is suggested from DFA that minimum temperature is obtained at lower feed rate (0.100 mm/rev), lower cutting speed (62.172 m/min) and lower depth of cut (0.200 mm). Afterward, main effects plot is analyzed to show the variation of response with the three input variables and the result found from main effects plot is almost coherent to the results found from 3D plots and Desirability Function Analysis (DFA). The predicted results using ANN indicate good agreement between the predicted values and experimental values. The R² value for model θ is noticed to be 0.99081. The deviation between experimental values, RSM predicted values and ANN predicted values is very minimum which presents the efficacy of the proposed RSM and ANN model. But MAPE for RSM is 0.001336 and ANN is 0.006245 which evidently indicates that the prediction capabilities of RSM model are better as compared to the ANN models for this experiment.


The new dimension of collaboration, brought by collaborative platforms, induces a new management approach that must consider methods of observation and behaviour analysis as a means to optimize the productivity of organizations. From this point of view, although they have evolved a lot in recent years, especially with social networks, the contextualization of digital interaction traces within collaborative platforms remains a major topic for the performance of data operating systems. The work that we present in this paper is part of the projects of implementation of collaborative and learning management systems, collaborative work and services, in a IT Environment for Human Learning vision (IEHL), more precisely, on the intelligent architectures of the platforms aiming at a better or-ganization around the concept of unity of interaction which introduces a sort of contextualization of the collected digi-tal traces. The resolution of the problem of the personalization of IEHL is moreover essentially dependent on the ability to produce relevant and exploitable digital traces of the individual or collective activity of the users (learners in particular), who interact with an IEHL. In the present work, we are interested in the organization of collaborative tools and its impact on the performance of digital interaction traces analysis mechanisms. Our study is based on the results of observation and analysis of human interactions within collaborative platforms, in particular those developed within the framework of our projects.


The present study was conducted to determine the efficacy of cow urine as plant growth enhancer by treating methi plant with different concentrations of cow urine i.e. 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% & 5% and blank was maintained using tap water. By following this procedure protein & chlorophyll content was estimated. Among these concentrations 5% was showing higher protein & chlorophyll content. Along with this the cellulolytic activity of cow urine was also determined by observing clearance around the colony on CMC agar plate. The lipase activity of cow urine was estimated by performing lipase assay which is titrimetric analysis. Both showed positive results for cellulase & lipase activity.


Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of death with coronary artery or heart disease being the single most important cause of death worldwide. Oxidative stress and inflammation are cooperative events involved in the development of atherosclerosis which is the underline factor in coronary artery disease progression. This study was designed to investigate plasma lipid profile namely total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc) and triglycerides (TG), plasma antioxidants; namely Vitamin C and E, Catalase, Superoxide dismutase and Glutathione peroxidise in coronary artery diseased patients. Plasma malondialdehyde(MDA) was also determined in these patients. A total of 200 angiographically diagnosed coronary artery duseased patients of both sexes attending various teaching hospitals, medical centers and general hospitals across Southwestern Nigeria were screened for this study. Significant risk factors such as cigarette and diabetes were excluded from the study. They were matched with equal number of normal subjects. The result of the study shows a significant increase in the plasma level of both total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in coronary artery diseased patients while the plasma level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly lowered in these patients when compared with the control subjects. Similarly the plasma level of MDA in these patients was significantly higher than the control subjects. The result also shows a significant decrease in the plasma level of the various antioxidants considered in these patients when compared with the control subjects.


PCA is a statistical approach that analysis a data table in which observations are describes by several inter correlated quantitative dependent variables. It uses mathematical principals to transform number of possibly correlated variable into a smaller number of variable called principal component. One of compute intensive application of PCA is face recognition. In PCA, every image in the training set is represented as a linear combination of weighted eigenvectors called eigenfaces. These eigenvectors are obtained from covariance matrix of a training image set. The weights are found out after selecting a set of most relevant eigenfaces. Recognition is performed by projecting a test image onto the subspace spanned by the eigenfaces and then classification is done by measuring minimum Euclidean distance. Some of the modules such as Covariance Module, Jacobi Module, Eigenface Module required more time for execution. These modules will be made parallel with the help of parallel programming models such as OpenMP and MPI and performance & evaluation will be made between sequential and parallel implementation.


Real-time PCR has been used to quantify the gene expression of selected genes to compare among different isolated cancer stem cells. These genes were detected are linked with the reproduction, cell apoptosis and chemotherapy. These genes used as markers to investigate cancer stem cells and as target therapy. In addition, to identify the expression pathways of some genes which related with BCSCs that identified to contribute to tumourgenesis as well as drugs resistance. The expression of these genes will be used to isolate BCSCs from tumour samples or breast cell lines which based on CD44+/CD24-/low, which considers as a crucial marker or ALDH+ phenotypes. Because this isolation will help to analyse the molecular mechanisms which present by self-renewed and differentiation of cells. There is evidence proposed that the isolation of BCSCs will allow the discovery of target therapy and this will remove the mass tumour and breast cancer by using these genes which will up-regulate or down-regulated as it was conducted by several papers. In addition, to clarify the expression of selected genes markers in the isolated BCSCs and the tumourgenicity that is a phenomenon degenerated by a subpopulation of the tumour cell which known as cancer stem cells. In this investigation that aimed to isolate BCSCs from the bulk of breast cancer cell. This extraction of breast cancer stem cells was identified by using sphere formation assay. The total RNA was extracted from the isolated breast cancer stem cell in order to detect the expression of novel markers such as;(ALDH3A1) Aldehyde dehydrogenase 3family member A1, the main cancer stem markers CD44,CD133 and finally tumour necrosis factor receptor super family 9(TNFRSF9) by run Real-Time PCR.In this part of our project, we will look at different genes and their expression profiles that are related to the same cells. These isolated stem cells could be tested to quantify the expression profiles of selected genes CD44, CD133, ALDH3A1 and TNFRSF9 as crucial biomarkers.We investigate cancer stem cells by molecular analysis that includes detection and clarification of the down and up-regulated genes between the strengthened cancer stem cells (spheroid), single and parental cells. Therefore, this isolation allows us to identify the bulk cells to select more specific target therapy.

Isolate and identified cancer stem cells by using MCF7 human breast cancer cell line, using mammospheres formation in two different methods []

Cancer represents one of the most significant challenges facing biological and clinical research. A higher understanding of the theory and mechanism of cancer will allow scientists to develop an active target therapy of cancer diseases. It has been suggested in several studies that a tumour that has been derived from many cells that have the ability to rapidly reproduce many more new cells and increase the tumour. Cancer stem cells are one of these types of cells which have been isolated in different parts of the body such as in the breast, prostate and colon. Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) have been shown in several studies to comprise of small parts of cancer cells which lead to an increase the prognosis of breast cancer. This type of tumour cells able to develop tumour generation. The focus of this research will be in breast cancer (BC) which still the main issue of public concerns. As a result of many studies which show that BC remains the popular cancers among women in the world. In China, for example, more than million cases each year. In spite of all the concentration to discover a new, fast diagnosis method and treatment, BC still forms the second causes of death among women in the world. The majority of cancers incidence are belonged to uncontrolled on the rapid growing of the cells.In this project, MCF7 human breast cancer cell line used to isolate cancer stem cells by using mammospheres formation in two different methods.The main target of this work was to isolate cancer stem cells from human breast cancer cell lines and compare with the parental cells, single and cancer stem cells which we have identified by using spheres formation assay.


Mobile banking has become abstract concept this upcoming economy, it facing critical challenges in today’s world and more often it got impacted by HR recent trends Digital HR and GIG economy. The study contains a questionnaire based primary study. In which a questionnaire is developed and checked through convergent validity and face validity. Later results discussed in detail. Challenges to Mobile banking, Mobile banking serves, digital HR and Gig economy have a significant positive relationship with individual performance. IT shows individual performance while using mobile banking do have a huge scope. This paper is the first effort to come up with the effect of Recent HR trends, Challenges and Services to Individual performance using mobile banking.


In Mobile Cloud Architecture (MCA) empowers constrained resources mobile devices to execute the complex application with collaborative way. The offloading system is a process in which mobile application can be divided into local execution and cloud execution in order to minimize energy consumption of mobile CPU. However, existing offloading systems do not consider data transfer communication energy while performing mobile offloading system. They have just focused on mobile CPU energy consumption. In this paper, we are investigating the energy consumption mobile CPU and communication energy collaboratively while performing mobile offloading for complex applications. To cope up with the above problem, we have proposed Energy Efficient Task Scheduler (EETS) algorithm, which aim is to determine optimal task execution in offloading system in order to minimize mobile CPU and communication energy. Simulation results show that EETS outperforms as compared to baseline approaches.

Impact of Firm Specific Factors on Profitability of Firms in Food Sector []

The aim of this study is to examine the impact of firm specific and macroeconomic factors on profitability of food sec- tor in Pakistan. This study explores the impact of firm specific factors on profitability of companies listed in food sector of Karachi stock market in the presence of food inflation by employing multivariate regression analysis in common ef- fect setting for the period of 2012-2018. The firm specific factors include debt to equity, tangibility, growth and size and macroeconomic factor include food inflation. Findings of study reveal the presence of significant negative relation- ship between size and profitability. However, tangibility, growth of the firm and food inflation are found insignifi- cantly positively related to profitability. Similarly, an insignificant negative relationship is observed between debt to equity ratio of firm and its profitability. Empirical results provide evidence that the profitability of food sector is shaped by firm specific factors and not macroeconomic variables. One important limitation of study is that it only considers one macroeconomic factor i.e. food inflation. In future studies more macroeconomic factors will be explored to examine their impact on profitability of food sector firms. However, this study still provides significant insight about dynamics of profitability in food sector and helps in making optimal decisions of resource allocation in food sector of Pakistani equity market.


The research is aimed at exploring Foreign Direct Investment and its impact on economic growth of Nigeria. The study covers 31-year period between 1985-2016. Simple ordinary least-square regression model is used to measure the effects and relationships between the independent variable and the dependent variable using E-views 9.0. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) serve as the independent variable while economic growth as the dependent variable. GDP, exchange rate, inflation rate, unemployment rate, total savings and interest rate were used as proxies for economic growth. Data on FDI, GDP, exchange rate, unemployment rate, savings and interest rate were retrieved from the CBN Annual Statistical Bulletin, World bank Report and National Bureau of Statistics. The stationarity property of a time series data can be examined by conducting unit root test in order to ascertain the stationarity or otherwise of the series variables (Akinola,2016). Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) test due to Dickey and Fuller (1979, 1981), and the Phillip-Perron (PP) due to Phillips (1987) and Phillips and Perron (1988) were used to ensure the stationarity of the time series data i.e dependent and independent variable. The finding showed that there is a strong and positive relationship between FDI and economic growth in Nigeria. The government of Nigeria must put all hands-on desk, formulating policies and necessary reforms to ensure that foreign direct investments are attracted to benefit the populace at large. It also recommended that Institutionalized corruption both in private and public sectors must be fought, if the nation must attract FDI, we must change our ways of doing things.

Transition probability of particle’s Quantum State []

This study mainly focused on calculating the transition probability of a particles in a given quantum state based on the idea of quantum jump,since Quantum particles can change their quantum state very quickly. By Using perturbation theory method, the approximation probability transition of particle’s quantum state is calculated interms of time and Time depen- dent Schrodinger equation is solved by a systematic approch. Finally, the probability of transition of particles were expressed interms of time.

Cloud Computing Simulation Using CloudSim Toolkits []

Cloud simulation aims to power the next generation data centers and enables application service providers to lease data center capabilities for deploying applications depending on user QoS (Quality of Service) requirements. Cloud Simulation applications have different composition, configuration, and deployment requirements. Quantifying the performance of resource allocation policies and application scheduling algorithms at finer details in Cloud computing environments for different application and service models under varying load, energy performance (power consumption, heat dissipation), and system size is a challenging problem to tackle. in this paper we propose CloudSimulation:an extensible simulation toolkit that enables modeling and simulation of various Cloud Simulation environments. The CloudSim toolkit supports modelling and creation of one or more virtual machines (VMs) on a simulated node of a Data Center, jobs, and their mapping to suitable VMs. It also allows simulation of multiple Data Centers to enable a study on federation and associated policies for migration of VMs for reliability and automatic scaling of applications between user and hosts due to cloudlet.

Design and Development of Arduino based automatic fan control system using PIR and LM 35 sensor []

As we know that automatic system and automation is the requirement of today’s technology. We are moving toward automation day after day. It is one of the tending topic. So in this project we will provide two functions. First one is, control the turned on/off the fan with respect to the human detection rather than the use of manual switching system. Other function is control the speed of a fan with respect of temperature set. In this project Arduino Uno forms the processing part. Which firstly detect the human with the use of PIR sensor and senses the temperature with the use of LM35(Temperature sensor). Arduino Uno senses the temperature and control the speed with the set temperature. This is set by the user. When the current temperature is greater than or equal to the set temperature the fan turned on otherwise it will stay off. For turning on here should be two condition supposed to be true. One is object detection and other one is temperature should be appearing at set temperature. After turning on the fan speed will be change accordingly with temperature. Whenever the temperature will be increase fan speed will be increase.This paper presentation will present the whole working process of our system. There are six (6) portions in this paper. Introduction part has detail introducing of the project, objective of our system, justification to make the project and about the scope of the project. Literature review has some review about the relevant project of our field. Methodology has detail description about the workflow which we used during the time of project completion. We gave here the justification of using the workflow as well. We have discussed about hardware requirement, Software requirement, block diagram, description of the component used in the project and about the flow chart. And described why this project will matter to the user. We also have discussed that how much effective of our project in practical life. In the conclusion we gave some statement about the limitations and the scope of future enhancement of the project.

Knowledge Creation as Predictor of Employee Performance in Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria []

Knowledge is increasingly being recognized by organizations as a vital asset and it is required if organizations are to perform effectively and efficiently in this era. This study examined Knowledge Creation (KC) as a predictor of employee performance in Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi. The study adopted a correlational survey design involving academic staff of the Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi. Primary data was obtained using self- administered structured questionnaire as the research instrument. The target population of the study is the 1200 academic staff of the Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi. The sample size was obtained using the Krejcie and Morgan (1970) table for determining minimum returned sample size for a given population. For our population, the table placed our sample size at two hundred and ninety one (291). The sample size therefore is 291 and will be used for the study. The sampling procedure to be used in this study is the purposive sampling technique .The internal reliability of the research instrument was tested using Cronbach Alpha Coefficient and only items that have an alpha reading of 0.70 and above were considered .After data cleaning, only data of 245 respondents were finally used for data analysis. The hypotheses were tested using Spearman’s Rank Order Correlation .The study findings reveal that there is a positive significant relationship between Knowledge Creation and Performance of academic staff of the Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi. The recommendations included that the management of Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi should conduct more training and development sessions with a view to helping staff members imbibe new and better ways of carrying out their task more effectively and efficiently.


In this paper the unsteady laminar free-convection flow of a viscous incompressible fluid, past accelerated infinite vertical plate with variable temperature and mass diffusion in the presence of chemical reaction and magnetic field is considered. The Laplace transform method is used to obtain the expression for skin-friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number. The effect of velocity profiles are studied for different physical parameters like Prandtl number, thermal Grashof number, mass Grashof number, Schmidt number and time.


The research aimed at designing and implementing a hybrid approach where flood event was simulated by integrating hydrological model HEC-RAS (Hydrological Engineering Centre) with GIS (Geographical Information System) so as to identify and analyse flood prone zones in Lokoja north central Nigeria. The present study developed a hybrid approach in identifying flood risk zones and assessing the extent of impact of the hazard by integrating HEC-RAS and GIS technologies. This GIS-based approach, which allows visualizing and quantifying the results in a spatial format, was applied to Lokoja. 2015 flood event was simulated to expose the extent of the current infrastructure of the area to flooding. A single data entry of river channel geometry and flow into the HEC-RAS computer program is sufficient to model steady flow, unsteady flow, water surface profiles, sediment transport/movable boundary computations, and water quality. In this research, steady flow was simulated along River Niger and flood hazard extends derived using HEC-RAS/HEC-geo RAS. For simulating, first used HEC-geo RAS to define the river channel and extract cross sections from the TIN, then the results of pre-RAS within the steady flow data and the other required data imported to the HEC-RAS for process and ultimately provided the inundation extends of 2015 flood event.The results indicated that hydraulic simulation by integrating HEC-RAS model GIS is effective for various kinds of floodplain managements and the developed methodology was efficient in modelling and visualizing the spatial extent of different month’s scenarios and in determining flooded areas at risk. It was found that changes in water elevations of the River Niger made the downstream areas more at risk. The simulated output is validated by comparing the simulation output with the observed data of 2015 flood event from the National Waterways Authority (NIWA) Lokoja mentions the inundation depth of River Niger as at the time of the flood event to be 37m. The inundation depth level obtained through HEC-RAS simulation of the flooded month to be 35m. The difference in the estimation (which is less by 2m) of the inundation depth level by HEC-RAS simulation could be attributed to the usage of Land use and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data in the model. As the results yielded by the HEC-RAS model are close to the observed data of 2015 flood, the model can be assumed as valid to perform assessment of flood event for the study area.


No nation will ever develop and have a self-reliant economy if its human capitals are not entrepreneurially innovative, creative and productive. To achieve this, schools are meant to be the primary educational environments through which skills and other entrepreneurial activities are being imparted to the teeming students. To this end, the school leadership needs to intensify efforts in exhibiting its basic roles in fostering entrepreneurship education. Based on this premise, the paper came to justify the basic roles that an educational management can play towards actualizing entrepreneurship education in educational institution in an attempt to promote self-reliance among the students for national development in Nigeria. After making a conceptual clarification of the major concepts, the paper outlined and discussed the major roles which among others include: providing advocacy awareness to both parents and students, providing positive leadership, providing technical assistance and establishing favorable linkages with other sister institutions. Similarly, the paper recommends the need for extending entrepreneurship education beyond educational institutions, government at all levels need to make fund available to the educational managers for shouldering the matters arising concerning the entrepreneurial demands of the schools as there is also the need to establish monitoring and inspection departments for carrying out monitoring and supervision functions of the entrepreneurship education and programmes in the schools. This will boost the Nigeria’s economy to a highest level of development.


Recycled aggregate consists of the original aggregate and cement mortar layer remaining of the old concrete. Physical and mechanical properties of recycled aggregate dependent on the properties, as well as on the quantity of remaining mortar. Removing and strengthening the adhered mortar are the two main methods for improvement the properties of recycled concrete aggregate. In this study, how the quality of recycled aggregate can be improved by surface treatment is studied. From the study it is fund that after surface treatment, the quality of recycled aggregate enhanced significantly.


Highways and Railways will continue to be the major transportation modes in Nigeria for the foreseeable future for the movement of people, goods and services. The intensity of the motor traffic is continuously increasing and will be further increased for some years. The analysis aims at improving on the beam and slab deck design by eliminating several joints associated with simply supported concrete decks. To accomplish these, the Guyon-Massonet-Bare method is used.


High cost of Portland cement had hindered the availability of affordable infrastructure in materials as alternative relying on locally available and otherwise wastes from agricultural produce. Utilization of agricultural by-products as partial replacement to cement will reduce their environmental challenges and increase the affordability of cement based infrastructures since cement constitute a major proportion of the costs. Most agricultural by-product ashes have been found to improve the strength properties of cement based material especially at their later ages. The durability of cement based materials such as chloride ion permeability, porosity, water absorption and thermal conductivity is substantially improved. Nigerian agricultural sector is still dominated by subsistence farming, however, rice husk and saw dust could be available in commercial quantity in rice and timber mills respectively.


As we know that automatic system and automation is the requirement of today’s technology. We are moving toward automation day after day. It is one of the tending topic. So in this project we will provide two functions. First one is, control the turned on/off the fan with respect to the human detection rather than the use of manual switching system. Other function is control the speed of a fan with respect of temperature set. In this project Arduino Uno forms the processing part. Which firstly detect the human with the use of PIR sensor and senses the temperature with the use of LM35(Temperature sensor). Arduino Uno senses the temperature and control the speed with the set temperature. This is set by the user. When the current temperature is greater than or equal to the set temperature the fan turned on otherwise it will stay off. For turning on here should be two condition supposed to be true. One is object detection and other one is temperature should be appearing at set temperature. After turning on the fan speed will be change accordingly with temperature. Whenever the temperature will be increase fan speed will be increase.This paper presentation will present the whole working process of our system. There are six (6) portions in this paper. Introduction part has detail introducing of the project, objective of our system, justification to make the project and about the scope of the project. Literature review has some review about the relevant project of our field. Methodology has detail description about the workflow which we used during the time of project completion. We gave here the justification of using the workflow as well. We have discussed about hardware requirement, Software requirement, block diagram, description of the component used in the project and about the flow chart. And described why this project will matter to the user. We also have discussed that how much effective of our project in practical life. In the conclusion we gave some statement about the limitations and the scope of future enhancement of the project.

Development and Characterization of Aluminum Matrix Composites Reinforced with Carbonized Coconut Shell and Silicon Carbide Particle for Automobile Piston Application []

In the present work, an effort has been made to develop a hybrid aluminium matrix composite for automobile piston application using locally available material: Al 6061 alloy was selected as the matrix material while carbonized coconut shell particles (CCNSp) and SiCp as reinforcement. Composite were prepared using powder metallurgy technique with 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 wt % of reinforcement. The requisite mixtures were obtained using high energy mixer and loaded into a steel mould and compressed using a Compac hydraulic press of 500kN capacity to obtain the green compacts. The green compacts were carefully ejected and sintered in a muffle furnace at 527oC for 1hour. Mechanical and thermal properties were investigated. For green compacts, a range of 66.17-107Hv, was obtained for hardness, while for sintered compacts the values obtained are 72.57-105.47Hv, 172.25-207.61MN/m2 and 2.2136-2.5804x10-5K-1 for hardness, tensile strength and coefficient of thermal expansion respectively. Microstructural examination of developed composites materials reveals that the reinforcement’s particles were uniformly distributed in the base matrix and that bonding took place between the base matrix and reinforcements after sintering.


The activity concentrations of 238U,235U,226Ra,232Th and 40K were measured using HPGe detector for soil samples collected from western and Mid Libya.The average activity concentration of 226Ra,232Th and 40K for all 20 samples were found to be 39.81±9.28, 26.58±4.82 and 31.05±67.6 Bq/kg while 235U was detected only for first 6 samples in the average 96.16±19.69Bq/kg . The results obtained for the corresponding nuclides 226Ra, 232Th are slightly agreed with the world wide average values of30,45 [1] respectively while 40K was smaller than worldwide average (400Bq/kg). The average outdoor absorbed dose and the annual effective dose rates due to 226Ra,232Th and 40K were observed to be 47.02±7.9nGy/h,57.66±6.69µSv/y,82.5±16 Bq/kg and 0.27±0.06 respectively which acceptable and are less than the world average by 10 %.


Methods and ways of predicting the future population as well as carrying capacity of the Sokoto Source Local Government are being considered and taken care up using Malthusian law of Population. A model is generated that will be used to estimate the future population for Sokoto Source Local Government. It was found out that the population of the Sokoto Sourth Local Government will attain equilibrium at P (2292) = 1,858432481 i.e. when t =282 in the year 2292. The leadership of the Sokoto Sourth Local Government can now understand their population growth better have been established for them a model that will help provide them with the needed information of their population growth to aid proper planning and distribution resources.


For more than half a century, there has been heated debate on the sources of economic growth in developing countries. Factors perceived growth are ranked by overwork for capital investment and technological changes, foreign aid, foreign direct investment, investment in human capital, increasing the return on investment in new ideas for research and development. Positive or negative impacts outlined above on traditional sources of economic growth have been documented in scientific research. Other researchers have also considered the importance of institutional factors such as the role of political freedom, political instability and accountability in economic growth and development.Despite the increasing importance of remittances in total international capital flows, however, direct or indirect ratio between remittances and development and economic growth has not been studied adequately. This study examines the impact of private transfers in economic development using timely data spanning the period 2005-2015 in the Republic of Macedonia. According to empirical results, private transfers have stimulated economic development in countries where financial systems are less developed, offering an alternative way to finance investment and to help the country's liquidity.


The present study was conducted with objective to determine the causes of despair in unmarried girls. A sample size 159 respondents out of 264 was selected through random sampling procedure from three Mohallahs of Union Council Jahngrha, district Abbotabad, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The conceptual framework of the study comprised of legal framework for the protection of females as independent variable and causes of despair in unmarried girls as dependent variable. Chi-square test was used to find out association among study variables. The study found that a significant association was established between despair and ensuring girl’s rights to education to achieve their social potential (p=0.000) and the legal measures of domestic violence achieving its objective completely (p=0.008). Awareness rising among masses through use of mass media, local political and religious leadership regarding religious and legal rights and status of women so that view of marriage and dowry as a capital transfer is publically negated, devising policies that can make it easy for poor and middle class females to access judiciary, minimize domestic violence through implementation of law, enhancing female learning and strengthening moral base of marriage and family to measure morality instead of economic benefits in mate selection were recommendations in light of study findings.


The land-use/land-cover (LULC) pattern of a region is an outcome of natural and anthropogenic process. Land-use/land-cover change has become a central component of current strategies in managing natural resources and monitoring environmental changes. The present study was carried out with an integrated approach using Remote Sensing and GIS techniques for land cover change detection. Landsat TM of 1989 and 2011 and ETM+of 1999 imagery were used to evaluate forest cover dynamics during 1989 to 2011 in the Godawarikhola Subwatershed, Lalitpur, Nepal. The aims of the study were to quantify and map the spatio-temporal pattern of forest cover change in term of landuse changes between1989-2011 and to explore the proximate cause behind those processes. Supervised classification was used to prepare landuse maps using the maximum likelihood algorithm. Image classification was carried out by emphasizing six main categories. Ground verification was done in February, 2014.The study revealed that there is decrease in forest cover from 1989 to 2011. In 1989 forest coverage area was 80%, where in 1999 it was 53.9% and in 2011 it was 50.7%. This shows that there is a rapid decrease in forest cover from 1989 to 2011 with the rate of changes 16.48% and 9.6% from 1999 to 1999 and 1999 to 2011 respectively. This compensates to increase in agricultural area where in 1989 its coverage was 11.5% of the total study area, which increased to 27.9% in 1999 and in 2011 to 36.66%. The overall accuracy was 78% for both year maps.For a clear comparison between the landuse/ landcover changes in total and in a managed community forest, Diyale Dada community forest having total area of 224.71 was selected. And accordingly, its landuse/ landcover map was developed using GIS. During 20 years period from 1988 to 2009, forest area is increased by 4.80%. The cultivation land is decreased by 14.26 %. The increment of shrub land is the highest and indicated that the cultivated land has transformed to shrub and forest land. The status of Diyale Danda Community Forest shows the total species richness of 26 in which tree density was found to be 1785 individuals per hectare.


Influence of online advertising on consumer brand awareness and patronage of United Bank for Africa (UBA) was investigated. Most consumers have not adequately adopted online transaction even when they are aware of its existence. The extent online advertising influences consumer brand awareness, the extent online advertising influences consumer purchase behaviour and the extent online advertising influences consumer brand recall of UBA products were the research objectives. The scope of the study is the influence of online advertising in UBA Enugu. Population of the study is all customers of 5 branches of UBA who are educated and are connected to the internet. Sample size was determined using Freund and Williams’s method as the population is indefinite. Purposive sampling technique was adopted and survey method was used to gather primary data using questionnaire instrument. Content validity was conducted to sort out for consistency of the questionnaire and reliability was achieved using Cronbach’s alpha and a value of 0.890 was arrived at. Findings revealed online advertising significantly influences customer brand awareness of UBA products. Also, it was discovered that online advertising has no significant influence on consumer purchase behaviour. And also, online advertising has no significant influence on consumer bran recall of UBA products. The study recommends that the banks should design their online advertising in attractive texts, images and even videos to create better awareness of their various products. Bank marketing executives should persuade customers on one-to-one bases to adopt the online banking transactions. Also, financial institutions who haven’t adopted online advertising must key into it to foster consumer brand awareness and patronage.


Knowledge and understanding of sports performance throughout a sports career can be a long-term planning tool. The objective of the study was to define and mark the moments of evolution of swimmers, as well as to understand how the individual envolves throughout his sports career. The sample was formed by the coaches participating in the Portuguese National Championships of Swimming. The results show that the sport evolution is continuous but with greater evolution and incidence in the juvenile stage (15/16 years). We conclude that it is important to have a holistic perspective on the athlete 's sports career, taking into account the critical points of this career, providing tools that reinforce the simultaneous domains of personal development.

Central-Local Political Relations and Land Policy Implementation []

This study sought to find out central-local political relations and land policy implementation in the Districts of Kasese, Sheema and Bushenyi in Uganda since the Uganda National Land Policy (UNLP) 2013. Using mixed methods design data was collected from 436 participants and respondents was analysed using SPSS 23 for quantitative analysis and general content analysis for qualitative analysis. The study found out that central-local political relations are not entirely satisfactory and are in need of addressing so they can lead to good land policy implementation. The study recommended: harmonizing existing laws and regulations with the UNLP 2013; to further decentralize land rights administration and delivery of secure land rights by engaging and integrating customary land institutions and practices as required by the 2013 to allow for further local participation; divorce politics from administration.


This study was designed to explore resource allocation as a strategy for poverty alleviation using the counties of Igara and Sheema in Bushenyi District as a study case. The study targeted 382 residents, 52 officials; 40 development partners (Non Governmental Organizations) and 12 District sector heads. A research design was employed. The findings revealed that the policies used during resource allocation include the Local Government Act 1997, Universal Primary Education, Primary Health Care, National Agricultural Advisory Services, The National Budget and Operations Maintenance Policy. It was concluded that there exists resource allocation and it has a relationship with poverty alleviation. Also the conduct of some officials involved in resource allocation is unprofessional. To enable informed decisions in resource allocation, the paper recommends that extensive studies be conducted to determine the nature of poverty and consultations made with locals in determining policy. Corrupt officials in the process of resource allocation should be identified and disciplined to deter others.


In every economy, development is initiated by the practical application of scientific knowledge and such is best achieved by the basic knowledge from vocational technical educational skills which advances the economy. This paper examine and emphasis the importance of vocational technical education in Nigeria, its past, present and future. The reason for the missing of the technological development track that lead to the nation being a consumer nation rather than a productive nation that resulted to the nation importing most of the simple goods they consume ranging from tooth picks to machines, failure to develop vocational technical education has brought about bad economy, poverty, unemployment, and mass exodus of the youths to foreign lands for greener pasture, whereas other nations followed their technological development tracks that resulted to their greatness.


This paper investigates heavy metals and dissolved oxygen concentration due to the industrial and shipping activities along Okpokiri River Stretch. Five surface and sediment samples were collected from the Okpokiri River for analysis using known standard methods The samples analyzed for were heavy metals such as (Ag, Zn, As, Cr, Pb, Cd, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ni, and V) and some physicochemical parameters (BOD, COD, pH, Temp, THC, TPH, Salinity, DO, Color, and Turbidity). The results of the physicochemical parameters and the heavy metals of the sediment samples were obtained by the XLSTAT(Excel solver) alongside their descriptive statistics. The results showed that the dissolved oxygen (DO) could not deplete the oxygen level as a result of the industrial activities at the Okpokiri River. However, Iron (Fe), Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu) and Lead (Pb) were the most significant pollutants present due to the activities at the berthing area and abandonment of broken down vessels. Some parameters were within the range when compared to the Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR) and Federal Ministry of Environment (FMENV) regulatory indices.


The increasing reuse of low concentration sewage and industrial effluent in agriculture not only promotes sustainable agriculture but also preserves scare water resources and maintain environmental quality. In present study the impact of combined sewage and industrial effluent was studied on wheat in Marh Block Jammu (J&K). The observations revealed insignificant (p > 0.05) stimulatory effect on shoot length, root length, no. of nodes, no. of leaves no. of grains on panicle, dry wt. of panicle, dry wt. of grains, avg. weight of grains during Ist year study period and no. of grains, dry wt. of whole plant and avg. weight of grains during 2nd year study period. Whereas significant stimulatory effect was observed on dry weight of whole plant during 1st year study period and shoot length, root length, no. of nodes, no. of leaves, dry wt. of panicle, dry wt. of grains during 2nd year study period.


Total Quality Management has played an important role in the development of contemporary management practices. Quality is considered as a key strategic factor in achieving business success. In order to enhance the competitive position and improve business performance, companies worldwide, large and small, manufacturing and service, have applied the principles of Total Quality Management. Public universities like any other businesses operate in a competitive environment. Students who are their primary customers need to be academically and generally satisfied with their services which will in turn lead to future businesses. This study sought to evaluate the influence of total quality management practices on student satisfaction in public universities in Kenya, to establish the relationship between total quality management practices and student satisfaction, to examine the influence of top management commitment on student satisfaction and to determine the impact of employee involvement on student satisfaction in public universities in Kenya. This study adopted descriptive research design. Data was collected through questionnaires and interviews for primary data. Data analysis was done using descriptive statistics and regression analysis through the use of SPSS. The study concludes that the adoption of total quality management practices such as top management commitment, employee involvement, process management and customer focus is critical in improving quality of education and thereby improving student satisfaction. The study recommends that all public universities need to include all the quality management practices in their daily activities and do regular evaluation to ensure continuous improvement.


Effective Automobile layout is of paramount importance for setting up workshop facilities and equipment in attaining minimum turnaround time. It also brings about increment in productivity and profitability. The Federal polytechnic Ado-Ekiti Automobile workshop does not meet with the standard workshop layout; this implies the need to develop an improved integrated workshop layout. In achieving the improved layout, standard workshop within the country were visited (most especially Akure and Ado-Ekiti), literatures were consulted and questionnaires were administer and considered. A new layout model was developed in accordance with standard workshop which will give room for effective automobile service delivery. The management needs to invest more in the procurement of up to date machines and equipment, employment of more man power with different specializations regarding automobile services and implement the application of the developed layout model.


Lead is one of the highly toxic heavy metal and being a dangerous environmental pollutant and exerts harmful effects on plant growth. The effects of different concentrations (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 ppm) of lead on seed germination and seedling growth performance of wheat (Triticum aestivum) as compared to control was studied. Lead treatment in the form of lead acetate at 100 ppm completely inhibited the seed germination and seedling growth of T. aestivum as compared to control. Lead treatment at 40 ppm produce significant (p < 0.05) reduction in seed germination while lead treatment at 20 ppm concentration produced significant reduction in shoot length as compared to control. Root growth is an important growth variable and found greatly reduced at different concentrations of lead treatment. The treatment of lead at 20 ppm produced significant (p< 0.05) reduction in seedling dry weight of T. aestivum as compared to control. However, increase in concentration of lead treatment at 80 ppm was found sufficient to cause significant reductions in seedling dry weight of T. aestivum as compared with control.The seedlings of T. aestivum were also tested for percentage of tolerance to lead. The results showed that T. aestivum has high tolerance to lead at 20 ppm (92.50%) and lowest at 80 ppm (64.50%) of lead. T. aestivum seedlings showed better percentage of tolerance (73.25 %) to lead at 60 ppm. The seedlings of T. aestivum were tested for the establishment of seedling vigor index (SVI) to different level of lead treatment. The results showed that T. aestivum has greater seedling vigor index was (1893) to lead at 0 ppm and lowest (302) at 80 ppm of lead. T. aestivum seedlings showed moderate SVI (1586) at 20 ppm lead treatment. T. aestivum showed better SVI (847) to lead treatment at 60 ppm.


pH-sensitive indicator bromocresol purple was immobilized in sol-gel membrane. Inorganic silicate TEOS was utilized as a precursor during experiments. Different factors influencing the properties of final material were studied. Spectral characteristics of the indicator were also investigated.


It was on Monday, the 3rd of April, 2011, when Mr. Charles Mulinge, the Managing Director (MD) of Farmchem Limited, a firm dealing in agricultural input products, received a phone call. "Hallo!" he answered the phone. The caller went on but a look at the MD"s face was not amusing. After about five minutes, he banged the receiver back. "What is it with these middlemen?" he mumbled to himself. The caller was a field officer covering Mount Kenya Region. “Sir is there something wrong?" His secretary enquired. "That was Mount Kenya Regional Manager reporting again that the distributors in his region are not delivering orders to the farmers on time and are overcharging by a markup of 10%, making our products more expensive and therefore not moving". After a long pause, he asked the secretary to invite the operations, finance and sales & marketing managers for an immediate meeting in his office. "Gentlemen, good morning again" he greeted his management team and continued. "Today we consider and decide whether we should maintain the status quo or shorten our supply chain by selling directly to farmers". The meeting continued.

Determinants affecting the economic performance of the banking Sector of Pakistan []

In the following study researcher found many important determinants which exceedingly affect the fiscal performance of the banking segment of the developing country like Pakistan. To follow these factors or the determinants which may combine by leverage, Liquidity and intellectual capital as well? Moreover Capital competence or adequacy ratio and risk by credit have marvelous effect for the monitory routine of the investing sector of the selected country like Pakistan. Researcher highlighted the banking sector which included many banks which are hold by private owners some banks of special nature some are industrial nature banks and many other banks as other countries banks operational in Pakistan. Researcher has chosen the six privately hold banks and that are the oldest banks of Pakistan and that have largest channel in Pakistan. Researcher examine the intellectual capital (IC) performance by measuring value added intellectual coefficient simply says VAIC methodology. Here for the examination investigator take twelve-monthly published fiscal information of marketable financial institutions and put into regression analyses, analysis contains fixed effect model, along with the random effect model and this includes more importantly Hausman random effect to make clear this revision. There is activist importance affiliation lies amid leverage and credit risk with productivity and affirmative unimportance association amid value additional academic capital, and moreover capital competence and liquidity by productivity or the economic productivity.


The ligand 2,2'-[iminobis(ethane-2,1-diylnitriloeth-1-yl-1-ylidene)]diphenol, was synthesized and characterized by a panel of spectroscopic techniques such as UV, IR, and NMR. In addition, computational methods of the ligand were studied by the prediction of drug classification and acute rodent toxicity using software program such as SuperPred and GUSAR respectively. The obtained results indicate the probability of the ligand to be a topical anti-inflammatory, antifungal and anti-acne, comparable to Ethyl hydroxybenzoate, Salicylic acid, Salicylamide and Potassium salicylate with ATC-Prediction accuracy (%) of 51.67%. In vivo topical anti-inflammatory effect of this Schiff base was examined using the xylene-induced edema method. Results revealed the inhibitory action of the ligand on ear edema with an I% = 44.21%, this result was confirmed with docking study which indicate the high anti-inflammatory effect of the ligand with best docking score of -5.9kcal/mol against Cyclooxygenase-2 Protein (COX-2). In vitro antifungal effect of this Schiff base was examined against F. oxysporum, and A. niger, the result indicate higher antifungal effect against F. oxysporum with diameter of inhibition zone of 23, 20, 13 and 13 mm after 48, 72, 96 and 144h respectively and lower effect against A. niger with inhibition zone of 35, 10, 0 and 0 mm after 48, 72, 96 and 144h respectively. We conclude that the ligand can be a safe topical anti-inflammatory and antifungal agent in the future.

The Effect Of Carrageenan Flour Addition On Catfish “Otak-Otak” Preference Level []

The purpose of this research was to found out the percentage of carrageenan flour addition to catfish “otak-otak”and increase consumption of fishery products in the community. This research was conducted at Fishery Products Processing Laboratory, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences and Food Chemistry Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture Industry Padjadjaran University from March to May 2018. The research used is experimental method with the addition of carrageenan flour by 0%, 0.5 %, 1%, 1.5% and 2% based on surimi. The observations parameters were made on the level of impression that included the appearance, aroma, texture and taste by semi-trained panelists, fold test, water content test, ash content, and fiber content in catfish “otak-otak” . The results of this concluded that 1.5% carrageenan flour addition on catfish “otak-otak” was the most preferred treatment by panelists compared with other treatments with 7.5 mean value of appearance, 7.4 aroma, 8 textute and 7.9 taste, with water content of 12.05%, ash content of 1.80% and fiber content of 2,05%.


This research reports the concentrations of pesticide residues in Tilapia zilli sold within Wukari Market using gas chromatography equipped with electron capture and flame photometric detectors.The organochlorine pesticides OCPs determined included: α-BHC, β-BHC, Lindane, Chlorothalonil, Heptachlor, Aldrin, o,p’-DDE, Endusulfan I and II, p,p’-DDE, PCB 153, PF-38, p,p’-DDT, Cypermethrin a, b and z.Of these only β-BHC and Endusulfan II were detected at 0.386±0.0014 µg/g and 0.413±0.00071 µg/g, respectively. The organophosphates: Mevinphos, Dichlorvos, Dimethoate, Pirimiphos methyl, Malathion, Methyl parathion, Dichlofenthion, Pirmicarb, Diazinon, Carbofurane, Ethion, Carbofenothion, PF-38, Bromophos ethyl, Isofenphos, Parathion, Chloropyrifos, Fenthion. Of these only dichlorvos (0.032±0.012 µg/g) was found within the limit of detection.


Due to the perceived performance implications of GSCM, research in this area has grown in recent years. However, the literature is limited on the performance implications of GSCM on firms especially in the developing countries. Thus, the literature has yet to furnish an accepted explanation on whether a positive relationship exists between Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) Practices and firm performance. This dissertation has responded to this challenge through the exploration of the consequences of GSCM practices on the performance of manufacturing firms in Kenya. The study was guided by the following objectives: to establish the effect of green procurement on the performance of the manufacturing firms, to establish the effect of green manufacturing on the performance of the manufacturing firms, to establish the influence of green distribution on the performance of the manufacturing firms, to establish the effect of environmentally-oriented reverse logistics on the performance of the manufacturing firms and to establish the moderating effect of supply chain ecocentricity on the relationship between green supply chain practices and the performance of manufacturing firms. The study is built on the theoretical framework of the ecological modernization, resource based view, stakeholder, corporate environmental responsibility and social network and investigated four potentially important dimensions of GSCM and how such dimensions, in turn, shape firm performance. Specifically, a theoretical model was developed and tested on the basis of the hypothesized relationships among the four dimensions of GSCM, Supply Chain Ecocentricity as the moderating factor, and how these dimensions relate to firm performance. Significant results and good fit indices tested with multiple regression model and confirmatory structural model. Positivism paradigm approach, mixed method research and the cross-sectional survey research design were adopted in this study. The target population for this study were the manufacturing firms in Kenya. The study population were the manufacturing firms registered as members of the Kenya Association of Manufacturers as at 2014 and the respondents were the designated heads of supply chain management of these firms. A semi- structured questionnaire was administered through the e-mail survey. Secondary data was obtained from both published and unpublished records. The questionnaire was tested for validity and reliability. Both quantitative and qualitative techniques were used to analyse the data with the assistance of SPSS software program version 22, Ms-Excel for window 8 and Analysis of Moment Structures (AMOS) version 18. Supply chain ecocentricity moderating effect was tested by F-test. The study found that Green Procurement, Green Manufacturing, Green Distribution and Environmentally Oriented Reverse Logistics were individually predictors of firm performance with Green Manufacturing being the most significant predictor. In contrast, the study established that Supply Chain Ecocentricity is not a moderating factor in the study. The results support the current theories related to the study. Consequently, this study provides firms’ managers with insights of how firms can develop a competitive edge through the implementation of GSCMPs. This study therefore, recommends that factors associated with Green Supply Chain Management need to be embraced by firms in their performance strategic plans as they have significant impact on performance. Further, the government should adopt a mixed policy on ecological management by focusing on both statutory regulations and internal directives with direct impact on firm performance such as tax rebate on eco-equipment and processes. The study concludes that greening initiatives within the manufacturing firms supply chain management has the potential of positively influencing their performance in terms of cost reduction and environmental product differentiation.


Gibberellic acid (GA3) is a phytohormone that is needed in small quantities at low concentration to accelerate plant growth and development. So, the favorable condition may be induced by applying growth regulators exogenously in proper concentration at a proper time in a specific crop by GA3. Gibberellic acid is such a plant growth regulator, which can manipulate a variety of growth and development phenomena in various crops. GA3 enhances growth activities to plant, stimulates stem elongation. The early days to flowering, plant height, the number of branches plant-1, siliqua plant-1, siliqua length, seed siliqua-1, 1000 seeds, seed yield and oil content under the concentration of GA3 10 g ha-1, while days to maturity and number of branches-1 were observed under the concentration of GA3 5 g ha-1. The maximum plant height and oil content in Con-II, number of branches in Oscar, siliqua plant-1 in Dunckled, siliqua length and 1000 seed in Abasin, seeds siliqua and seed yield were observed in Rainbow. The interaction of varieties and concentrations indicated that maximum plant height and siliqua plant under concentration of 10 g ha-1 GA3, number of branches plant-1 under the concentration of 20 g ha-1 GA3 in Dunckled, siliqua length, seed siliqua-1, 1000 seed, seed yield and oil content were observed under concentration of 10 g ha-1 GA3. The present results concluded that Rainbow, Dunckled, Con-II, and Oscar under the concentration of 10 g ha-1 GA3 found the best concentration for yield and yield attributes of canola.


In recent past years, the Internet and Mobile is widely used for communication. The developments in mobile commerce applications make a revolutionary change in the banking services offering anytime, anywhere banking. Today, with the technological advancements in mobile communication and the Internet, the common man’s day-to- day requirements are meet at his door step. Mobile banking permits everyone in the country to access the banks for various transactions at their own places.Communication became easy attention toward Information Security. Data Security is the core issue addressed in the research. The problem with current banking applications is the security shortfall. To solve the current M- Banking security deficit, author proposes the secure mobile banking frame work structure by using Cryptography and Steganography methods. In proposed framework AES Symmetric Cryptography algorithm and LSB of Image Steganography algorithm are used to enhance the current security short fall of M- Banking with minimum cost. In this approach bank encrypted and hidden transaction data in the Image to send it to bank’s customer and the customer should decode and decrypt to get the original data.


As synthetic colorants used in natural fibre products, children’s toys and handicraft products cause toxicity to the consumers. To overcome this issue it is imperative to find out safe eco -friendly dyes from natural resources. With this intension in the present study seven types of colors, violet indigo, blue, green, yellow, orange and red yielding plant sources were identified. The color yielding components in the plants were separated. The color imparting extracts were tested in several handicraft products and it was found highly beneficial. Using the barks of the tree Caesalpinia sappan, flowers of the plant Nyctanthes arbortristis, barks of Rubia cordifolia, flowers of Michelia champaca, cutch of Acacia catechu and rhizomes of Curcuma longa., the dyes prepared from these plants and were tested for their fastness properties . Dye preparation technology was identified for their application in a commercial products.


The effect of biodegraded low density polyethylene(LDPE) blends on the growth rate of soy bean plants was studied under the agricultural environmental conditions. Corn (Zea Mayz) starch which is a bio-filler was extracted, characterized, and incorporated into the synthetic low density polyethylene pellets, to initiate it’s decomposition. The starch/plastic compatibility was improved by addition of a coupling agent(maleic anhydride- g-polyethylene), injection molded and extruded as sheets. Microbiological analysis of the soil sample was carried out to ascertain it’s inhabitants. Some mechanical, water absorption, percentage weight-loss, and physical tests were carried out on the blended plastic blends for a period of 180 days before the plantation of the soya-bean seeds. The growth rate of the soya bean plants were monitored after germination at 7 days intervals for a period of 120 days. The growth rate of the plants was observed to increase, with the increase in starch contents, extent of decomposition and soil burial periods.

Fortification Of Soybean Flour On Catfish Nugget Preference Level []

This research aims to determine the percentage of soybean flour as a source of vegetable protein in catfish nuggets prefered by panelists. The method used was experimental method with the comparison of soybean and tapioca by 0%: 100%, 10%: 90%, 15%: 85%, 20%: 80% and 25%: 75% based on the amount of flour used. The parameters observed were made to the preferences level (the appearance, aroma, texture and taste characteristics performed by semi-trained panelists), folding test, moisture content, ash content, protein content and fat content in catfish nuggets. The results showed that 15% : 85% comparison of soybean and tapioca flour was the most preferred treatment by panelists compared to other treatments with 8.0 mean value of appearance, 7.6 aroma value, 8.1 texture value, 8.0 taste value, and proximate test results for moisture content is 67.50%, 1.93% ash content, 15.78% protein content and 7.57% fat content.


Education is an instrument of power, prestige, survival, greatness and advancement of men and nations. It is also an agent of change, a key to knowledge and accelerated development. It is often viewed as a sequence of stages of intellectual, physical, and social development. Education had also been viewed as a continuous process where individual continue to learn, relearn and unlearn norms, values and attitudes to make them fit to the society they live. Various successive governments in Nigeria had placed education at its focal agenda in their service delivery to its people. Over the years, education has focused on access and parity that is, closing the enrolment gap between girls and boys, while insufficient attention has been paid to retention and achievement or the quality and relevance of education.Providing a quality, relevant education leads to improved enrolment and retention, but also helps to ensure that boys and girls are able to fully realize the benefits of education. The primary focus on girls’ access to education may overlook boys’ educational needs. This approach also fails to confront the norms and behaviours that perpetuate inequality. Gender issues in education had attracted national, international and intellectual recognition and interests. The perspectives, various interests and focuses had been on human rights, women inequality, women empowerment, girl-child educations, feminism, female educational opportunities performance etc. It is the opinion of this paper that these relative gender issues are more prevalent, obvious and consequential in Nigeria.

Protocol Coordination for Reliable Data Transfer and Error handling in MANET []

Mobile Ad-hoc Networks have been increasing their popularity in recent years due to ease of deployment and low cost of its components. No infrastructure based network support is not required for MANETS because each node communicates with other nodes though the radio frequency. The routing protocols are challenged with establishing and maintaining multi-hop routes in the face of mobility, bandwidth and power constraints. The services provided by the current technologies for multimedia transaction is not sufficient in terms of quality of service and timely delivery of data. In this paper we tried to solve these type of problems by proposing reliable data transfer protocol, which is capable of delivering multicast and unicast data in mobile ad- hoc networks. The protocol has been designed to work on top of the IEEE 802.11 protocol without any modifications in the hardware structure.