Volume 7, Issue 8, August 2019 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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This study was conducted during the period of March 2017 to February 2018. Secondary literature survey and field observation were the techniques of data collection for this study. Nepal has Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) generation of 0.50 kg/capita/day and average rate of 91.3 to 182.5 kpc in municipalities. The developing countries like Nepal are facing this problem in many folds as compared to the developed ones. The worldwide estimation of MSW generated is 1.7–1.9 billion metric ton. But the waste generation rate differs from country to country. Despite various efforts contributed by governmental agencies in waste planning, they are not able to improve at far extent as assumed. However, these days, administration has explained insufficient participatory approach in decision making as one of the main reason for the failure of waste management plan. Participatory approach is not only limited to public involvement but also considers several agencies that initiates participation through various media and helps in upgrading standard.

Influences of Teacher Education Program on Secondary Teacher’s Activities in Bangladesh []

Teacher education is the very important parameter in considering the activities of teachers from their professional viewpoints. The objectives of the paper is to examine the trained teachers activities, commitment and creativeness for the betterments of students. These have been performed by survey data both for head teachers and trained teachers following appropriate methodology and well-structured questionnaires. Students’ performance has been noticed to measure either any positive changes of activities which have been found or not. The findings of the study shown that most of the trained teachers return the answer script after verification. Teachers give more attention to the slow learners but 18.2% of the students said that the trained teachers could not satisfy the slow learners in the classroom, 90.9% of the students are opinioned that teachers used the relevant teaching materials, 97.6% teacher know the creative evaluation, Teacher involved students in question-answer, problem-solving, homework in the classroom of different dimension, Teacher education push the teacher’s potentiality with the familiarization of new teaching curriculum, teaching mechanism, evaluation system, newly introduced govt. rules and regulation etc., Teacher training is important for changing the teacher’s attitude.

Utilization of Clinical Supervision Model Towards Strengthening Instructional Leadership Capabilities of Araling Panlipunan Teachers In a Public School in the Division of Manila during the School year 2018-2019 []

This research aims to strengthen the instructional leadership competencies of eight Araling Panlipunan teachers with the use of clinical supervision model (Glanz, 2006). This intervention was used in a quasi-experimental research involving one group. Pre-clinical supervision and post-clinical supervision were adopted. The data derived from these two episodes of observations of classes which were about the instructional leadership competencies based on the indicators prescribed in the COT-RPMS were compares with the use of statistical treatments such as weighted mean, ANOVA and t-test. The study revealed that during the pre-clinical supervision observation of classes, four indicators in instructional leadership competencies of the teachers were described as somewhat competent and five were described as moderately competent. It was further revealed that with the f-value of 0.499 which is lower than the tabular value of 3.30 the instructional competencies of the eight teachers during the pre-clinical supervision had no significant difference. Meanwhile, during the post-clinical supervision observation of classes the instructional leadership competencies of the Araling Panlipunan teachers improved with the seven indicators described as competent and two competencies described as moderately competent. It was revealed that with the f-value of 0.780 which is lower than the tabular value of 3.30, the instructional competencies of the eight teachers during the post-clinical supervision had no significant difference. Lastly, when the mean competence of the Araling Panlipunan teachers in the pre-clinical and post-clinical supervision observation were compared, it was revealed that the t-computed value which is 7.67 is higher than t-value of 1.895 which means that there is significant difference in the mean competence of the teachers. This indicates that the instructional leadership competencies of the teachers were improved. Based from the findings of this research, the researcher reflected on the following implications and recommendations: a. The school administrators should utilize clinical supervision to help teachers become more competent as instructional leaders; b. The schools should provide seminar for both teachers and schools administrators to discuss the significance of clinical supervision; and c. Since the intervention was only done in a limited period of time, the researcher decided to apply the clinical supervision model considering the longer time frame to validate the result of this study. Keywords: Clinical supervision, COT-RPMS, Instructional leadership capabilities, optimal learning pre-clinical supervision, post-clinical supervision, supervisory program, planning, observing, reflecting

Academia-Industry Partnership in Developing the Basic Metal and Steel Industry in Nigeria []

The Nigerian basic metal and steel industry as we know it today is sickly. This paper seeks to highlight the present day challenges of the industry and proffer solutions achievable via academia-industry partnership and government playing its roles effectively. Information were sourced through Oral interviews with key members of the industry, plant visits and literature review. In this paper, a summary of the history of the Nigerian basic metal and steel industry is provided, the major challenges of the industry such as government policies and difficulty to access raw materials were highlighted, areas of industry – academia partnership which can help to address some of these challenges and the need for government to play its roles effectively are discussed. It is concluded that though the present state of the industry is a sickly one, there is still hope for healing if we take active steps to cause a positive change


This paper seeks to provide a general overview of Disaster Risk Management (DRM) in engineering and technology with special emphasis on Disaster Risk Management as it borders on the Chemical Engineering discipline. Terms such as disaster, risk, risk management and disaster risk management as it concerns the fields of engineering and technology are defined to provide a fine background and refresher for the subject matter under consideration. Hazards identification is established as the basis for risk analysis, assessment and consequently management. A general overview of the disaster risk management process comprising of strategic steps such as planned reviews, hazards identification, risks analysis, assessment and reduction where applicable is described. The peculiarities of the Chemical engineering discipline in the area of disaster risk management are discussed. Causes of chemical process accidents, areas of focus in study and analysis for setting up an effective Disaster Risk Management system as well as recommendations for improved disaster risk management systems in chemical process plants are presented.


Our main objective was to implement a dynamic color correction method applicable to any type of CFA image. To achieve this objective, we developed a set of mathematical equations based on numerical models. The implementation of these mathematical equations allowed us, by taking a white background as a reference, to restore all the colors that make up our product to be imaged, and in a second time to correct the imperfections related to the acquisitions of images. We also note that the noise related to the acquisition conditions and the interaction between the light and the product to be imaged were eliminated more than 95%.


This article addressed an agricultural business negotiation case in Brazil, aiming to improve the negotiation skills of financial agents, through a two-party role-play simulation. In 2018, approximately 63 million customers had past overdue accounts. To negotiate debt collections is sometimes a hard but necessary task. Therefore, this work shed more light on the subject under review, and presents a complete set of teaching materials, useful for scholars, instructors, managers, creditors and other practitioners. The subject was chosen because of replicability in busi-ness scenarios in general, especially in agricultural ones. This case was designed essentially to prevent the conflict escalation that generally ends in the court of law. Key findings with a purposive sample of N=56 financial agents evidenced the necessity of improvement on negotiation in general, such as understanding the customer’s underly-ing interests, value creation before value distribution, to present losing both client and credit, among others. Fur-ther implications suggest that the current teaching case may be useful for developing negotiation skills, which can also be harnessed in other business scenarios. Discussion and future research recommendations compile the pre-sent study.


Introduction/Aim: Medicinal plant is normally used by most people in under developed and developing countries. In this study the effect of ethanol stem extract of Homalium letestui on histological features of paracetamol-induced albino rat injury, using various staining techniques. Method: Thirty six (36) rats where used for this work. Group one served as the positive control receiving normal saline, group two served as organotoxic group receiving paracetamol 2000 mg/kg body weight, group 3 received silymarin 100 mg/mg bw, while group 4, 5 and 6 received 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg of the extract respectively. General staining technique Hematoxylin and Eosin and specific observation technique, Bence Jones which focuses on glomeruli and Bowman’s capsule, were used. Haematological and chempathological investigation were also carried out. Result: In Bence Jonces technique, there was severe basement membrane degeneration of the Bowman’s capsule in the organotoxic group. There was intact basement membrane structure in the normal and Silymarin group, while there was dose dependent improvement in the architecture of Bowman’s capsule for the pretreated rats. In Hα E, Paracetamol treated rats showed severe damage in the kidney cells, which were revealed as severe area of epithelial lining degeneration, glomerular inflammation, Tubular necrosis and vascular degeneration. Pretreatment with stem extract of Homalium letestui (250 -750 mg/kg) and standard drug, Silymarin (100 mg/kg) helped in reducing the cellular damage induced by Paracetamol. Conclusion: Histological work agrees with other parameters suggesting that the plant may prevent or protect kidney architecture

An Assessment on the Level of Research Competencies of Grade 12-Senior High School Students in a Parochial School during the School Year 2017-2018 []

Research is one of the important academic endeavors included in the new K-12 curriculum for the senior high school. In this new curriculum, the students are exposed and trained in the rudiments of research, its nature and different types or methods. Research is considered an important skill that every student should possess being part of the academe. Possessing certain level of competency in this academic endeavor will help an individual to take part in the initiative or move of any institution to create knowledge and contribute significantly in the progress of the nation. As cited by Bueno (2016) research is defined by Kerlinger (1973) as systematic, controlled, empirical, and critical investigation of hypothetical prepositions about the presumed relations among natural phenomena. Successful research is characterized by wide reading or literature review, thoroughness, independent of opinion or critical, originality, creativity and novelty and effectiveness (Bueno, 2016). Research as academic endeavor requires various skills from the persons who conduct it. Perfecto (2010) discussed that research paper requires reading and writing. It is perusing extensively over materials, weighing the relevance of each one and weaving such in information with the researcher’s own ideas so that the paper is not merely a patchwork of quilted ideas but an appropriate integration of personal ideas and professional evidence. There is one subject in the Grade 12 wherein the students are expected to apply the knowledge they gained from the subjects Practical Research 1 and 2. This subject refers to Inquiries, Investigation and Immersion. In this subject, the students should manifest the competencies stipulated in the curriculum guide provided by the Department of Education (Deped) which are mostly about research. This is the first time that this subject is given among Senior High School students where the researcher is also a teacher. Since the subject is offered for the first time, the researcher being a first timer teacher in handling this subject wanted to find out the level of competencies of his students in research. He also wanted to determine which among these competencies students had developed their strengths based on the inputs provided by the teacher during discussion and weaknesses that need to be enhanced in the remaining months before the end of the semester. In order to attain the objectives of this research and answer the problem posed at the beginning, the researcher used quantitative research method specifically descriptive survey. The researcher utilized validated survey instrument to gather the necessary data in this study. Aside from this, interview was also used to further verify the results of the study. Weighted mean and standard deviation were used to treat the data. Based from this research, the following findings were drawn. The weighted mean of the students in the indicator “design a research that is useful” was 3.56 or satisfactory. On the other hand, their total weighted mean in the indicator “list the hypothesis of the study” was 3.06 or satisfactory. The total weighted mean of the students in “writing and reviewing literature and studies” was 3.23 or satisfactory. The total weighted mean of the students in “writing and preparing the method of the study” was 3.16 or satisfactory. The total weighted mean of the students in “writing, presenting and interpreting data” was 3.26 or satisfactory. The total weighted mean of the students in “reporting findings, conclusions and recommendations” was 3.31. or satisfactory. The over-all total weighted mean of the students’ competencies in research was 3.24 or satisfactory. Hence, the competencies of the grade 12-students in research were described satisfactory. Considering these findings, the researcher concluded that the competencies in research of the Grade 12 students need to be improved. Furthermore, based from the conclusion the researcher hereby recommended that the teachers in research should really focus on teaching the important skills in research so that the students will become more capable in doing this task, how to create the hypothesis of certain research, how to properly present their citations in review of related literature and studies. In addition to this, they should train the students on how to analyze their data, teach the students on how to properly present findings of the study and come up with sound and correct conclusions and recommendations. Finally, this recommendation should be used as guide by the researcher in teaching research for the next school years. Key Words: Assessment, Inquiries, Investigation & Immersions, Level of Research Competencies, Parochial Schools, Senior High School Students

Assessment of Nurses' Knowledge towards Management of Patients with Heart Failure []

Abstract: Objective: aimed to assess nurses' knowledge concerning management of patients with heart failure and to find out the relationship between the nurses' knowledge and their demographic data(age, gender, residency, marital status, socio-economic status, years of experience, years of experience in the cardiac units, number of training courses in cardiac disease and level of education). Methodology: a descriptive quantitative study is carried out at Al-Najaf City/Al-Najaf Al-Ashraf Health Directorate / Al-Sadder Medical City from 1st November, 2015 to 1st May, 2016. A non-probability (purposive) sample of (20) nurses, those who were working in the coronary care unit, medical ward and Al-Najaf Center for Heart Disease and Surgery. The data were collected through the utilization of the developed questionnaire, and it is consist two parts: Part 1 Included socio-demographic data, and Part 2 Include (40) items related to nurses' knowledge. Reliability of the questionnaire was determined through pilot study and validity determined through a panel of experts consist of (13) experts. Results: revealed that majority of nurses had poor knowledge regarding management of heart failure. There was non-significant association between the nurses’ knowledge toward management of patients with heart failure and their gender, residency, marital status, socio-economic status, years of experience in cardiac units and training sessions. The study result indicates that there was significant association between the overall nurses' knowledge toward management of patients with heart failure and their age, levels of education. Also there is highly significant relationship between the nurses’ knowledge management of patients with heart failure and theirYears of work experience. Conclusion: The researcher can conclude that the majority of the nurses had poor knowledge concerning management of patients with heart failure. Recommendation: The study recommends that the health directorate should applycontinuous education activities to improve nurses' knowledge toward management of patients with heart failure and also to improve nurses' knowledge toward chronic disease.. Key wards: assessment, knowledge, nurses, heart failure.

A Study of Determination the Level of Students Perception Toward Smoking in Medical Group Colleges of Kufa University []

Abstract Objective (s): The aims of this study were to determine the level of perception toward smoking. It also to examine the relationship between the level of perception toward smoking and students socio-demographic characteristic . Materials and methods: Descriptive design survey study was conducted from March to May 2016. Study sample : A disproportional strata randomization sample of (100) students was taken with equal number from each college (25) . The Study Instrument: Questionnaire was designed to measure the phenomena " Determination the level of students Perception toward smoking in medical group colleges", the final copy of the questionnaire consists of two main parts, the first part concerning of demographic characteristics while the second part includes the questions of perception based on the health belief model. Results: The findings of present study presented that the vast majority of the study sample (91%) with age ranging from (19-25) years, about (81%) were males and the remaining were females, (92%) of students were single, on other hand (80%) of them were non-smokers. Great majority (93%) of students were with high level of perception toward smoking There is a non-significant relationship between level of perception toward smoking and students socio-demographic characteristics. Conclusion: The study concludes that those students were with high level of perception toward smoking . such result is very important because the medical group students play an important role in leading their society toward health promotion behaviors in future. Recommendation: It is important to encourage campaigns “no smoking” in all community settings; encourage any form of supervising of non-smoking behavior among peer groups. Keywords: Students, Perception, Smoking.

Evaluation of Nurses Practice Regarding Indwelling Catheter in Al-Najaf Hospitals. []

Abstract: Objective: this study aimed to evaluate of nurse's practice regarding indwelling catheter in Al-Najaf hospitals and to find out the relationship between nursing practice and their demographic data. Methodology: Descriptive evolutional study (Quantitative) was carried out to evaluate the Nurses practice regarding to indwelling catheter in Al-Najaf City/ Health Directorate of Al-Najaf Al-Ashraf / Al-Sadder medical city and Al-Zahraa teaching hospitals .The study was carried out from January 1st, 2018 up to March 20th, 2018. A non-probability (purposive) sampling technique was used consisting of (60) female nurses that perform indwelling catheter procedure. Data collected through using of a well-designed questionnaire consist of two parts including, Part I: Socio-demographic Characteristics: This part consists of (7) items,( including gender, age, and marital status, level of education, occupational status, residency, and socio-economic status) and Part II: indwelling catheter insertion checklist, that consisting of 21 questions about indwelling catheter insertion. Result: The findings of the present study indicate that the overall evaluations for nurse’s practices are good. In addition there are non- significant relationship between the nurses' practices and their demographic data except with their economic status at p-value less than 0.05. Conclusions: It is concluded that most of the nurses have good practices related indwelling catheter procedure. Recommendations: Based on study conclusion, its need for a conducting and developing catheterization research that may contribute in reducing infectious problems of patient who need temporary or permanent for urinary catheter. Involving the nursing staff in educational courses to motivate their knowledge and practices about urinary catheterization.

Attitudes of Employee Women toward Physical Fitness at University of Kufa []

Abstract Background: Women’s health refers to physical, emotional, spiritual, cultural and social well-being, which indicates that there is further to health than the absence of disease or disability. Therefore, women require physical activity to enhancing mental health, self-image, social skills, cognitive functioning and to improve symptoms associated with mild or moderate depression or anxiety. Methods: The descriptive, cross-sectional study design was performed from the 5th December 2018 to 20th March 2019. The main objective of this study is to identify Attitudes of Employee Women toward physical fitness and to find out the relationship between women’s attitudes and their socioeconomic status. A non-probability sampling technique, purposive sample. That include (140) employee women was selected from faculties at University of Kufa. Results: the total of (140) employee women showed positive attitudes toward physical fitness, no correlation between attitudes of women toward physical fitness and their age and BMI. With respect to relation of participants’ socio-demographic data with their attitudes the results demonstrate the majority of women (96) were married, (119) of them were complete Institute or College. Furthermore, (105) of participants have not any chronic diseases. According to their response about orientations regarding Running or walking sport, (105) of them have oriented toward it, (72) have no oriented toward Fitness drills/aerobics sport. Furthermore, (110) of them not oriented about other sports. That employee response to their participation in physical activity, majority (56) of them never participate in any physical activity per week. Conclusions: The conclusion of the current study showed participants generally expressed positive attitudes toward physical fitness. Majority of them never participate in any physical activity per week. According to association that showed just marital status has significant association with attitude of employee women. Keywords: Attitudes, Physical Fitness.


EVM (Earned value management) is a undertaking management tool that uses records primarily based on value, agenda and work performance to outline the modern fame of the project. This facilitates the supervisor to extrapolate current developments to predict their probably very last impact. this approach is proved effective in fee manage. the primavera is project management software program which enables customers to track and analyze performance of task. The document wizard in primavera creates custom designed reviews that extract precise records from its database. The paper outlines the fundamental principles of the EVM & how it could be used effectively for unique challenge with assist of primavera. Additionally, a few advantages and headaches of EVM as regards to Indian creation area. Many construction tasks be afflicted by time and value overruns because of a multiplicity of things. This technique allows everything in evaluation of all budgeted value of work to real value. The existing has a look at deals with the scheduling and venture tracking manner alongside it also discusses principal parameter’s involving in the calculation of earned cost analysis in fee and time control of civil construction project. Using an example of real time venture, methodologies and analysis are demonstrated in this paper.

Prevelance of virulent Gram positive bacilli causing eye infection []

Purpose: to determine The virulence of Gram Positive Bacilli causing eyes infection .‎‎ Methods: Bacillus cereus was isolated from patients with bacterial conjunctivitis from April to December 2015, on MYP agar media. Fifty - four ‎ bacterial samples isolated from infected eyes. The bacterial isolates were subjected to biochemical tests ,antobiotics sensitivity and then identified by using Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Genes; Chaperonin Gro-EL, Hemolysin BL(hbl) and Phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C ( Pc-plc ) were studied. ‎‎Results: In this study ‎ out of 54 isolates, 14 have positive ‎growth on MYP agar media.‎ Antibiotic susceptibility test ‎revealed that the tested isolates were highly susceptible ‎to imipenem, ‎ciprofloxacin and amikacin with ‎susceptibility percentages (100 %) , followed by Vancomycin ‎and ‎Penicillin G with 88% and 66 % ‎susceptibility, respectively. The isolate No 54 was selected as The most drug resistant bacteria , Then identified molecularly by amplification of Chaperonin Gro-EL gene .The virulence genes of Bacillus cereus E54; hbl and Pc-plc were studied ‎. The genomic sequence of these genes ; Gro-EL , hbl and Pc-plc were submitted to GenBank at NCBI web site (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) in accession number MH837160 , MH844524 and MH837161, respectively. Conclusion: Bacillus cereus E54 causes eye infection was exhibited high resistance against most tested antibiotics and gave positive results with Gro-EL, hbl and PC-plc genes.


Kenya’s agriculture is about 98% rainfed hence sensitive to climate change. Therefore climate-smart agriculture (CSA) should be considered to help farmers mitigate against the impacts of climate change. In view of this, a three year study was conducted at the Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization (KALRO) in Njoro for three years mainly to quantify the effect of crop rotation on water use efficiency (WUE); nutrient use efficiency (NUE) and its associated components of wheat and potato in a cereal- potato cropping system. The trial consisted of three factors including (1) water harvesting (WH=No ridge and Tie ridge), (2) Crop rotation (CR) (Wheat-Dolichos-Wheat-Dolichos; Wheat-Greenpea-Wheat-Greenpea; Wheat-potato-Greenpea-Potato; Wheat-Wheat-Wheat-Wheat); and (3) Soil Fertility Management (SFM) = including four treatments such as untreated control; Calcium Ammonium Nitrate (CAN) at 25, 50 and 75 kg P2O5 ha-1; Farm yard manure (FYM) at 5 t ha-1; and Green manure (L.eucaena triachandra) at 2.5 mt ha-1) for three seasons. The treatments were laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with split-split arrangement with three replications. Data were subjected to an analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SAS statistical package was performed. The result showed a significantly (P<0.05) greater influence on both water (WUE) and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in a situation where wheat was preceded by leguminous crop (Greenpea) than the other two crop rotation systems. Organic sources of nutrients also resulted in a positive influence on the WUE and NUE of both wheat and potato however, the influence was greater in potato than wheat. In conclusion, it was confirmed that cereals are grown after legumes had a positive influence on NUE and its associated components. This manifested the significant contributions of the study to the CSA concept because the reliance on the crop of cereals (wheat) with legumes and the use of organic sources of fertility in short cropping cycle would help to mitigate against the impacts of climate change.


This study identified determinants of adoption of the new improved wheat varieties (NIWV) among farmers of two Counties in Kenya and subsequently assess the factors influencing the adoption and disadoption of NIWV. Two econometric techniques were used to address the objectives. Firstly, a probit regression was employed to identify factors affecting the adoption of NIWV. Secondly, probit regression was used to analyze the determinants of the dis-adoption of NIWV adoption. Thirdly, Tobit regression was used to analyze the duration model for adoption. Results revealed that variables such as education, group membership, farm size and quantity of grain harvested, influenced adoption of NIWV. While education, access to extension, dairy farming and price of wheat grain influenced dis-adoption decision. Access to extension, quantity harvested, distance to farmer’s field, and number of years that the farmers has adopted the NIWV influenced the duration of adoption. Ministries of agriculture, variety release systems, and government seed companies can speed up adoption by clearly describing the advantages of the NIWV supported by reliable data and aggressively demonstrating and promoting these varieties.

Latin American crisis and Dragon’s New Silk Route Policy []

While humans have engaged in trade since the earliest times, the importance of international trade has grown dramatically due to improvements in transportation and communication. International trade affects people on a daily basis, from the food people eat to the clothes they wear. Whether the effects have been positive, including increasing wealth and welfare, or negative, such as increasing unemployment and inequality, is hotly debated. International trade is very much in the public eye given disputes among major countries about adherence to rules, fairness, and sharing the benefits. Let us look into the Latin American scenario, and who is taking the advantages.

Design and Manufacture a solar water heater by using plastic pipes under different atmospheric circumstances of Basra city. Iraq []

In this research, a solar water heating has been constructed and it’s performance has been evaluated under different atmospheric circumstances of Basra city, (Latitude 30° 33' 56.55"N, Longitude: 47° 45' 5.86"E). This region is well known for its plentiful solar radiation. An experimental investigation was carried out on solar water heater (type H-Section) under the same conditions. The solar water heater consists of seven parallel plastic tube diameter of (1.5 cm), and the total area of the solar water heater is (0.45 m2). The maximum efficiency of the experimental solar water heater (type H-Section) varies from (5% - 29% ).

Energy comparison of MPPT techniques for PV Systems under different atmospheric Conditions []

This article compares maximum power point tracking (MPPT), which plays an important role in Solar Photovoltaic (SPV). Fluctuation in electricity or power generation economically is not marketable and therefore electricity production must be kept at maximum power point (MPP) all the time. The cost of electricity from the PV array is more expensive, mainly due to the fact that its production is not very efficient than other electricity generation from non-renewable resources. Therefore, MPPT controllers are applied to improve the performance of PV systems with different requirements and conditions. The photovoltaic system is connected to a DC/DC boost converter to increase the output voltage. To extract the maximum power from a PV system, MPPT algorithms are implemented. In this project, we present a comparative simulation study of three MPPT techniques: Fuzzy Logic (FL), Incremental Conductance (InC), and Perturb & Observe (P&O) based MPPT controller under constant and variable environmental conditions. The simulation results show that FL based MPPT can track the MPP with faster response and good performance compared to the conventional (P&O) and (InC) algorithms by continuously adjusting the duty cycle of the DC/DC converter to track the maximum power of the solar cell. Thus, increasing the efficiency of the entire system. MATLAB/Simulink toolbox is used to develop and design the model of the PV solar system equipped with the proposed MPPT controller.

Improving the Performance of Family-Owned Small and Medium Scale Enterprise: The Role of Disruptive Innovation []

The role of disruptive innovation in promoting the performance of family-owned small and medium scale enterprises has not fully been explored in Africa especially Nigeria. Therefore, this paper is focused on examining the role of disruptive innovation in improving the performance of family-owned small and medium scale enterprises. The study administered 390 copies of questionnaires, while 310 were retrieved from family-owned SMEs in Ado Ekiti. Multiple regression and correlation were deployed to show the relationships between the variables. The findings revealed that disruptive innovation has a strong relationship with sales growth and a weak one with profitability. Therefore the study recommends that family-owned SMEs should deliberately ensure improve the technological features of their products and study market dynamics to ensure profit maximisation and strengthen their business growth, hereby boosting business performance.


Educational institutions in the present time are expected to provide excellent services and programs in order to meet the demands and various needs of their clients. They are also expected to concretize their philosophy, vision and mission through directed meaningful endeavors and activities. Considering this truthful reality, they are expected to conduct evaluation on the key result areas like curriculum and instruction, faculty and administration to find out how at par they are in the implementation of the criteria under these. Nowadays, schools opt to subject themselves in the process of accreditation for them to see how they effectively implement their programs in the different key-results areas. The results of this accreditation are used as bases in making strategic plan through this way their actions become purposeful and directed. This research aims to find out the extent of implementation of the accreditation based criteria on the three key-result areas which include curriculum and instruction, faculty and administration among the accredited RCAMES schools in Manila. There are six Parochial Schools in Manila selected as participants in this study. The administrators and the teachers from these schools were asked to answer a survey-questionnaire which is based from the standardized self-survey questionnaire of the PAASCU. This research adopted the quantitative research method and descriptive survey was utilized. The data derived based from the evaluation of the respondents were analyzed and interpreted. At the end, their evaluations were compared in order to find out if there are significant differences existed in such evaluation of the criteria under the key-result areas. This became the basis in the development of a three-year strategic plan. Based from the results, this research revealed in the area of curriculum and instruction that the respondents agree that the curriculum implemented in their schools is in compliance with the department and reflects their school’s philosophy vision and mission. It was also revealed that schools fully utilized individual and groups activities in learning and they ensured that these observe the nature of their students. Respondents also agree that their schools adopt grading systems and used as basis to recognize the performance of the students. But, there are some sustaining their practices on the review of the special program, strengthening of the medium of instruction, strengthening the completion of assignment on the part of the students, strengthening the use of guidance data for the purpose of instruction, and updating of instructional materials and books. Based fro evaluation of both respondents, the all the criteria in this KRA were implemented moderately extensive and were functioning well. While on the area of faculty, it was revealed that there is clear procedure in the selection and hiring of faculty members. The schools provide necessary preparation for teachers. The faculty members relate and communicate well with the students. Orientation program is given properly to teachers. There is functional salary schedule implemented. The leaves of absence of faculty, probation and temporary employment and tenure of faculty members are properly implemented. Notwithstanding this result, the following sustained such as rigorous need assessment to identify the needs of the teachers, not all teacher possess the preparation beyond minimum requirement, retention of faculty members, load given to teacher, extensive use of guidance data and other related resources to improve instruction, seminar about socio-political issues to develop teachers’ consciousness, sufficiency of benefits and salary, and review of procedure leading to dismissal of teacher. All the criteria in this KRA were implemented in moderately extensive and were functioning well. Lastly in the area administration, the provided with sound direction and effective support. The administration is efficiently organized in the integrated school. The administration also monitors the grading system and supervises the teacher made-test. The non-academic personnel are aware of the PVM. The schools adhere with the standard in the issuance of documents. The financial officers and staff are capable and qualified to do their tasks. Despite of this result, the sustainable programs must be practiced for achieving better practices on capacity of the administration to make sound decision, extent of participation of the faculty and academic-non-teaching personnel in policy formulation and decision making, selection of students, review of financial transaction procedure and review of accounting procedure. All the criteria in the administration KRA were implemented moderately extensive and were functioning well. It was also revealed in this study that there were no significant differences existed on the evaluation of the administration and the teacher on the three key-result areas. Therefore, they agreed that all of these were implemented moderately extensive and were functioning well. Thus, the challenge for the schools is to sustain their practices and achieve excellence to ensure that all the criteria on the three KRA’s are implemented extensively and are functioning excellently. If this will be achieved they will attain excellent educational outcomes the significant indicator of accredited schools. Keywords: Accreditation, Accreditation Based Criteria, Administration, Curriculum & Instruction, Faculty, Implementation, Key-Result Areas, Philippine Accrediting Association of Schools, Colleges and University (PAASCU), Parochial School and Strategic Plan

Effective Management of E-Records in Local Government Authorities in Tanzania: An analysis of impeding factors []

Although Local Government Authorities (LGAs) in Tanzania are increasingly adopting Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in performing their duties, they still experience practical problems with regard to adequate and systematic long-term management of the e-records they generate, capture or receive. This study assessed challenges that LGAs face in the management of the e-records they generate to ensure continued access and use. To collect data, this study used survey. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Factor Analysis with corresponding mean value was used to identify the ERM challenges in LGAs. The findings show that, despite the increased use of ICTs, LGAs lack a clear strategy for e-records management (ERM). The study revealed contradictory perception of ERM among the top management, IT personnel, records professionals, secretaries and other staff in LGAs. This has resulted to the development of computerized systems without the involvement of records professionals. Consequently, the e-records generated by LGAs are considered as an integral part of ICT activities and are assigned to IT personnel who are not record management professionals. E-records are left without legal protection, professional and top management support. In many LGAs the management of e-records for continued access and use is accorded low priority and is not guided by ERM policy, professional and legal requirements or standards. Based on the findings, the intervention programmes with involvement of records professionals who are technically well versed in record management, IT personnel and other stakeholders should be undertaken. ERM should have legal, managerial and budgetary support.

Development of Aluminium Matrix Composites Reinforced with Carbonised Coconut Shell and Silicon Carbide Particle for the Production of Automobile Piston []

In the present work, an effort has been made to develop a hybrid aluminium matrix composite for automobile piston production. Aluminium is widely used as a structural material especially in the aerospace industry because of its light weight, but its low strength and melting temperature however were always its big challenges. An easy method of solving this problem is the use of reinforcing elements such as SiO2, SiC particles and whiskers or other compounds. Al6061 alloy was selected as the matrix material while carbonized coconut shell particles (CCNSp) and silicon carbide particles (SiCp) as reinforcement. Composites were prepared using powder metallurgy technique with 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 wt % of reinforcement. The requisite mixtures were obtained using high energy mixer and loaded into a steel mould and compressed using a Compac hydraulic press of 500kN capacity to obtain the green compacts. The green compacts were carefully ejected and sintered in a muffle furnace at 527oC for 1hour. Physical and mechanical properties were investigated. For green compacts, a range of 2.3478-2.4510g/cm3 and 7.041-11.230%, were obtained for density and porosity respectively while for sintered compacts, 2.3496-2.5173g/cm3,5.045-9.118%, and 197.2-255.9MN/m2 were obtained for density, porosity and compressive strength respectively. Microstructural examination of the developed composite materials revealed that the reinforcement particles were uniformly distributed in the base matrix and that bonding took place between the base matrix and reinforcements on sintering.


Sustainable procurement is vested under the umbrella of sustainability, choices that retain the correct environmental, social and economic balance to guarantee long-term organizational success. The main objective of the study was to assess the effects of sustainable procurement practices on organization performance. The study was further guided by specific objectives such as to determine the effects of local buying practices, determining the effects of the adoption of eco-friendly packaging, assessing the effects of reverse logistics and identify the effects of ICT adoption in procurement on the organization performance. The study was anchored on stakeholder theory, Knowledge Based View, Technology Acceptance Theory and Resource Based Theory. A conceptual framework was formulated to show the relationship between the selected sustainability procurement practices on organization performance. The study was done using literature review whereby several relevant journals were reviewed randomly. The study revealed that local buying, eco-friendly packaging, reverse logistics and ICT adoption has a significant effect on organization performance. The study recommended the adoption of the selected variables for organizational sustainability. The study further poised for future researchers to use different research design to see whether similar results can be found.

Gully identification and Mapping of Soil Erosion Risk Using Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation of Orlu Zone, Imo State []

Gully erosion is a serious geo-environmental problem globally, the areas in Orlu Senatorial Zone of Imo State, Nigeria has experienced varying degrees of erosion menace leading to land degradation and loss of valuable properties. Identification of gully locations from satellite images, development of erosion risk maps and calculation of rate of soil loss are important advancement in GIS technologies. Gullies in the study area were identified using Earth Explorer and Sas Planet remote sensing software. Investigations were carried out to distinguish gullies from other existing open cavities. Gully heads were picked as points using Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers. Soil erosion risk map was prepared based on rate of soil loss, determined using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). The RUSLE factors of soil erosion (R, C, LS, K and P) were computed from collected rainfall data, landsat imagery, soil analysis and Digital Elevation Model to develop the soil erosion risk map. A total of 91gully erosion sites were identified out of which 80 were active. The resultant erosion map was compared to the satellite remote sensing based maps of identified gully sites. The erosion risk showed dominance of gullies and high annual soil loss in the northern part of the study area respectively


ABSTRACT This paper is a review of the challenges and effects of climate change on ground water quality. Looking at the destructive effect and consequences of climatic change that is associated with weather challenges on broader perspectives, it was noted that there is significant relationship between climate change and ground water quality. Stratified sampling techniques were use on 16 sample of water collected from hand dug well and borehole and each water sample were subjected to both chemical and bacteriological test in the laboratory. Analysis of water quality were determine as it relates to health, the results revealed that ground water were found to be more contaminated for both chemical and bacteriological contaminates, as a result of the influence of climatic effects which pose a serious challenge on water quality of Jimeta Environs. Conclusion were drawn that the quality and quantity of water to a large extend determines the outbreak and spread of water borne diseases. Therefore some recommendation were made in order to enhance the quality of ground water and measures to be put in place to address the challenges of climate change and the possible remedies on its effects, this include strict adoption on water and Environmental Laws, treatment of water for public supply, proper disposal of waste management practices and avoid locating new water source close to contaminates among others. KEY WORD: Climate Change, Ground Water Quality, Challenges


Background: Substance abuse is a complex and multi-faceted problem that adversely affects nations. Nigeria is concerned about the factors that promote substance abuse menace and how it can be curbed among youth especially, the undergraduate university students. It is against this background that this study examined the factors that influence substance abuse among undergraduate students in tertiary institutions in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Methods: Probit model was used to assess the factors responsible for substance abuse in private and public tertiary institutions in Nigeria. Cross-sectional data were obtained through the administration of questionnaire to one hundred and sixty students from private and public universities. Results: The results of the study show the determinants of substance abuse among private university students are age of the students, poor academic performance and sociocultural factors such as parental/guardian lifestyle, peer pressure. However, for public university students, the major determinants of substance include; the amount of school expenses, source of school sponsorship and the cost of substance. Conclusion: To reduce the occurrence of substance abuse, proper monitoring of the newly admitted students in private university by both parent and school management should be embraced, while in a public university, substance abusers should be identified through random and periodic drug test and be referred to counseling unit for rehabilitation.

Improving Academic Performance of Grade 7 Students in Asian Studies through Harnessing Vocabulary Knowledge of Historical Terms []

This research aims to improve the academic performance of the students in Asian Studies by harnessing their vocabulary knowledge in historical terms. Qualitative method of research was used in this study with descriptive method as the design. There were 43 students who became participants of the study. The data were analyzed and treated with the used of the percentage, frequency, mean, standard deviation and ranking.This research revealed that the performance of the students in all parts of the test in Asian studies is within improved level. Meanwhile, if the whole test will be considered it can be seen that the performance of the students is described as improved. This indicates that harnessing the vocabulary knowledge of the students in historical will contribute significantly in improving their performance in the test.After conducting this study, the researchers realize that harnessing the vocabulary knowledge of the students must be emphasized in any lesson specifically in History subjects. Since some of the words used in the books are not usually used in the daily conversation of the students, it is important that from the beginning of lessons the teachers should unlock the difficulties of the students. In short, the teachers should provide provision for the students to be exposed to difficult historical terms that are unfamiliar to them. They can ask the students to locate these terms in the materials that they are using and look for the meaning of these terms in the dictionary. Once they already find the meanings of these terms, the teachers should use these as springboard of the lesson.Realizing the benefits of harnessing the vocabulary knowledge in historical terms of the students in improving their performance, the researchers are committed to continue this intervention in Asian Studies and to the other History subjects. There will be 1 or 2 minutes to be allotted in the lesson plan which is intended for unlocking of difficulties. The teachers will also include in the assignment of the students to look for difficult words that they cannot understand and look for the meaning of this words in the dictionary to make their understanding more profound. Since this research only involved few numbers of the participants, the results of this is not conclusive hence the same study must be conducted in the future which will involve large number of participants. It is recommended that an experimental research should be conducted to verify the result of this study. Key words: Historical terms, Harnessing Vocabulary Knowledge, Academic performance

A study of Psychological Violence Against Health Care Workers in Emergency Departments of Al-Najaf AL-Ashraf City Hospitals []

Background: The recurrence of physical and non-physical violence against health care workers in emergency departments is a negative phenomenon in societies that cause high rates of injury to workers with mental fatigue, physical illness and result in deterioration of the treatment service and patient care. Methodology: A descriptive survey study was conducted on health care workers in emergency departments in teaching hospitals in AL-Najaf AL-Ashraf city to identify the most common forms of violence against health care workers, as well as the relationship between severity and types of violence against health care workers and demographic characteristics. This study conducted by using the WHO 2003 questionnaire on violence against health care workers in their workplace. The questionnaire consists of two main parts. The first part covers the demographic characteristics of health care workers, while the second part contains types of violence against health workers, characteristics of the perpetrator, the effects of violence and responses of health care workers after being subjected to violence. Results: By using a comprehensive assessment of the violence types where psychological violence was the most common types of violence with psychological violence reaching 33.7% and the result of the present study also showed a logical significance between psychological violence and health care workers in the night shift. Conclusion and Recommendations: The final conclusion of the study showed that health care workers in emergency departments were subjected to violence and abuse from patients and their relatives. Therefore, the study recommended to encourage continuing education courses for health care workers on how to respect the rights of the patient as well as strengthen coordination between the security services and the management of the health institution to support the emergency department.


This paper examines Military Administration in Nigeria: 29years of Sad Political experience and Democratic Truncation. It discusses the issues of corruption and constitutional violation. Finally it assesses the inability of the military to prevent the civil war in Nigeria and the frequent military coups. The data were collected from two major sources which were primary and secondary sources. The primary sources include oral interview and archival materials while the secondary sources were books, newspapers, journals, articles etc. It was found that the military juntas were more involved in corruption, extravagancy, and political instability then civilians. Again, it was found that the military administration lack the training, tactics and strategies for civilian rule. It was also found that the civil war in Nigeria could have been avoided if the military administrators were tactful and diplomatic in handling the issues that led to the war. Finally the frequent military coups prevented Nigeria from practicing stable democratic government till 1999.

The Economic Burden of S.aureus Colonization among Diabetic Patients with Foot Ulcers (DPFUs): Case of Vihiga County, Kenya []

Background: S. aureus remains the predominant pathogen in diabetic foot ulcers which has been associated with increased mortality and hospital costs. However, economic burden of S. aureus colonization remains unknown since no study has been conducted on the subject matter. Aim: To investigate the economic burden of S.aureus colonization among DPFUs: case of Vihiga County, Kenya. Method: Pus samples from DPFUs were collected S. aureus screening. Results: 52.4% of DPFUs and colonized with S. aureus were poor earning less than Sh. 5,000 a month. Colonization with S. aureus had a negative economic effect on income earned by the diabetic patient with foot ulcer on a monthly basis. Recommendations: Enroll the diabetic patients with foot ulcers into transfer payments program and sensitize them on wound management practices to reduce their poverty profile and wound colonizations.

Connecting users and communities through repatriation of recorded musical traditions and cultural materials []

The post-independence era in Zimbabwe has witnessed huge efforts being made in the repatriation of both tangible and intangible cultural heritage artefacts back to their original indigenous communities. During the colonial era significant cultural materials were taken to foreign lands were some have summarily disappeared with others finding their way into international museums and archives. The advert of political independence and international cooperation amongst nations has seen a rise in the repatriation of recorded musical traditions as well as traditional materials back to their owners. This paper discusses the challenges that populate this initiative as some receiving communities are not readily equipped to derive value in the tangible and intangible repatriated heritage

Plant diversity in Saint Catherine, South Sinai, Egypt []

Abstract The present study aims to assess the plant diversity in seventeen different locations including 275 studied stands in Saint Catherine area, South Sinai. The vegetation survey resulted in identification of seventy different plant species. The plant cover of each species was measured and twenty-one environmental factors in different landforms were measured in the study area. Species richness, Shannon diversity index, and Simpson diversity index were calculated in all studied locations. In addition, the relation between the environmental factors and plant diversity was estimated statistically using linear model. Results of the present study showed that Simpson index agreed with species richness that Mt. Elsarw has the highest diversity value where the exposure degree ranges from 130° to 340° and the average elevation is 1703 m.a.s.l and a wide range of landforms are present (terraces, slopes, fissures, gorges, and ridges). According to Shannon index, W. El-Arbaein has the highest diversity value where the exposure degree ranges from 110° to 330° and the average elevation is 1736 m.a.s.l. According to richness, Simpson, and Shannon indices, Mt. Catherine has the lowest diversity value where the exposure degree ranges from 40° to 200° and the average elevation is the highest of all the studied locations (1840 m.a.s.l.) where it only supports the growth of a small number of plant species that prefer high elevation, low temperature, and fissures present on the walls of the mountainous regions such as Chiliadenus montanus, Stachys aegyptiaca, Tanacetum sinaicum, and Centaurea scoparia. In addition, elevation is found to be the most important environmental factor affecting distribution and diversity of plant species in the study area.


Fourier Transformation Infra-red spectroscopy analysis investigated the presence of sulphur compounds in wet season edible crops (Beans, Maize, rice, Okro and tomatoes) .stretching bonds of absorbed wavelength intensities showed dissolved sulphur compounds in form of ions from the soil into their shoot system revealed the following range of bands.C-S (800-600 cm-1); SO3 (1260-1150 cm-1 );SO2 symmetric (1160-1120 cm-1); S=O (11060-1040 cm-1)


Hypertension is a major risk factor that contributes to cardiovascular disease, including coronary artery disease, stroke, and heart failure. Aim of the study: That handgrip exercises may also be effective for assisting with blood pressure management and adjust ability of a low-intensity working Methods: Twenty high normal and pre hypertensive individuals without pharmacological, aged between 50and 65 years, males and Females, conducted with handgrip exercises for 8 weeks. Participant's performed 4×2minute isometric handgrip exercises with their non-dominant hand, each separated by a 3-minute rest period, 3 days a week. Results: Blood pressure measurements were conducted at baseline and at the end of the protocol using a wrist blood pressure monitor. Eight weeks of isometric resistance training resulted in a 7-mmHg reduction of resting systolic blood pressure (SBP) (136±12 to 129±15); (P= 0.04). Reductions of 4mmHg were also seen in mean arterial pressure (MAP) (100±8to96±11);(P=0.04).Conclusion: handgrip exercise of maximum voluntary contraction significantly reduced SBP and MAP. Isometric handgrip (IHG) exercise training might be a simple, effective, inexpensive and non-pharmacological method in lowering blood pressure Keywords: hypertension, handgrip exercises

Effects of Coke Furnace Sludge on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Brick []

In this research waste materials (coke furnace sludge) is used to replace clay to investigate the mechanical and physical properties of bricks. The hand moulding process is used to make bricks to investigate the effects of coke furnace sludge on the mechanical and physical properties of brick. The drying and firing shrinkage shows acceptable results. Density compressive strength, impact strength, bending strength of bricks varies with increasing waste percentage in comparison with local clay bricks. Coke furnace sludge shows the least amount of loss on ignition among the waste bricks. By using coke furnace sludge, most of the bricks shows second class properties and many of them shows first class properties. So, the replacements of coke furnace sludge influence much in properties of the brick.

Contribution À La Connaissance En Teneurs Et Caractéristiques Lipidiques De Quelques Plantes Fourragères Au Nord Kabare, Province Du Sud Kivu, Rd Congo []

En dépit des lipids qu’elles contiennent en ites petite quantité, les plantes fourragères représentent une source importante d’acides gras dans les rations des ruminants surtout ceux dont les fourrages font l’essentiel de leur alimentation. La plupart des études évaluent les répercussions des acides gras du fourrage sur les lipides du lait. Dans la présente étude nous évaluons les teneurs et caractéristiques des lipides et composition en acides gras dans les fourrages de Digitaria velutina échantillonnés dans différents pâturages dans le Territoire de KABARE au Sud-Kivu en République Démocratique du Congo. Il s’avère que tous les fourrages analysés dans les trois sites (BYAHI, NYAMAKANA et TSHIBATI) contiennent des lipides fortement représentées. Les teneurs en lipides sont respectivement 7.2 ; 19.4 et 12.7% des feuilles sèches, les densités 0.9240 ; 0.9238 et 0.9239 et les points de fusion allant de 36 – 38 ; 37 – 39 et 37 – 40 oC respectivement. Le pâturage de NYAMAKANA contient une plus forte teneur en lipide suivi de celui de TSHIBATI. Les densités trouvées sont toute relativement élevées par rapport à celles de la plupart des A partir de teneur en lipide et de leurs caractéristiques physiques disponibles on a fait des estimations sur les acides gras composition ainsi, la souche de NYAMAKANA est riche en acide gras polyinsatureés avec 7.8 g/100g de feuilles sèches de fourrage. De ce fait, avec leurs teneurs en lipide relativement élevées, tous ces fourrages sont appréciables sur cet aspect diététique, en premier le pâturage de NYAMAKANA suivi de TSHIBATI et enfin BYAHI. En perspective il faut étendre ces études sur différentes saisons et différentes années pour mieux évaluer la fluctuation en ces nutriments.

Identification De Quelques Éspèces Fourragères Dans Les Paturages En Groupements De Bugorhe, Bushumba, Irhambi Et Miti En Territoire De Kabare, Rd Congo. []

158 espèces fourragères ont été inventoriées dans les groupements de Bugorhe, Bushumba, Irhambi, et Miti dans le territoire de Kabare, Sud Kivu, en RD. Congo. Ces espèces sont celles que nous avons identifiées comme entrant dans l’alimentation des ovins et bovins de ces groupements.L’objectif visé était d’identifier les principales plantes fourragères de ces groupements en vue d’améliorer la disponibilité alimentaire en fourrage. Dans cette étude, la méthode de quadrat et celui de transect ont été utilisées. Les résultats révèlent que ces espèces appartiennent à 115 genres et 32 familles, mais aussi avec 115 espèces qui sont herbacées alors que 45 sont ligneuses. Les principales contraintes aux activités d’exploitation du fourrage naturel, sont liées surtout à la gestion de l’espace, mais aussi au non entretien du pâturage.

Situation Des Maladies Et Ravageurs Dans Les Planta-tions Du Café Arabica (Coffea Arabica, L) À Kabare Nord En Province Du Sud Kivu, Rd Congo []

In North Kabare region, coffee Arabica production in continuously decreasing as said by TAKUBUSOKA (2005). In order to insure what are the reasons, a survey has been conducted in July and August 2017. The results of this study show that there is: - Low knowledge of farmers for pests and diseases in the region; - Infertility of soils under coffee plantations in the region; - It was fund variable incidence and severity of pests and diseases in coffee Arabica in farmers’ plantation in this region; - Pyrale was fund with high incidence(66%) in Mudaka region and severity notation of (2.5); - Coffee Rust was fund everywhere in the region but with very great incidence (89,2%) in Katana region, but has low notation severity(2.5); - The well Known disease by famers (55%) is the Die-back, fund everywhere in farmers’ plantation with a medium incidence (35%) and severity with notation (3.0) in Mudaka region. These pests and diseases as shown, have negative impact on yield coffee arabica in the region where soil fertility still be low.


L’objectif de cette étude était d’évaluer la rentabilité financière de l’oignon et de la pomme de terre dans le groupement de Mudaka en territoire de Kabare en vue de déceler la culture qui soit plus rentable pour améliorer le revenu des producteurs. Pour ce faire, une enquête a été menée auprès des paysans producteurs pour récolter les différentes informations nécessaires au calcul de la rentabilité financière de ces deux cultures par ha. L’oignon était la culture la plus pratiquée par rapport à la pomme de terre; la pomme de terre occupe la plus grande superficie par rapport à l’oignon soit 0,522065ha contre 0,14213ha Cependant, le coût de production de la pomme de terre était nettement élevé (998,34$ par ha) et correspondait au double de celui nécessaire pour produire l’oignon (576,63$ par ha) suite à l’acquisition des semences, les produits phytosanitaires, ct. ; En ce qui concerne le taux de rentabilité financière, il est ressorti de cette étude que la pomme de terre était plus rentable (105,78%) par rapport à l’oignon (52,95%) malgré les coûts élevés de production