Volume 7, Issue 8, August 2019 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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The Effect of Leaflets on Postpartum Treatment on Attitudes and Actions of Pregnant Women in the Katobengke Community Health Center in Baubau City in 2019 []

This study aims to determine the differences in attitudes and actions of pregnant women before and after giving leaflets about postpartum care in the Katobengke Health Center area of Baubau City in 2019. This study is an intervention study in the form of quasi experiment design with time series design. The population in this study were 131 pregnant women. In this study determining the number of samples using numerical analytical methods in pairs. The method of sampling uses purposive sampling, namely sampling techniques that are based on certain considerations, so that the sample in this study amounted to 26 respondents. Data analysis was performed using the SPSS program (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) version 22. The analytical method carried out consisted of univariate and bivariate analysis methods. The results showed that: (1) there were differences in attitudes of pregnant women before and after giving leaflets about postpartum care, (2) there are differences in the actions of pregnant women before and after giving leaflets on postpartum care, (3) there is the effect of giving leaflets on attitudes based on maternal characteristics in the age category (20-35 years and> 35 years), education (junior high, high school, diploma -sarjana), occupation (not working and working), number of children (primipara, multipara), gestational age (7 months and months), and (4) and the influence of leaflets on actions based on maternal characteristics in the age category (20-35 years ), education (high school), employment (not working), number of children (primipara), gestational age (7 months and months). Keywords: leaflets, post partum care, attitudes, actions, pregnant women.


This paper fit a time series model to the monthly food inflation rate price in Nigeria’s between 2014and 2018 and provided a year forecast for the likely food inflation rate in Nigeria. The study attempts to outline the practical steps which need to be undertaken to use autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) time series models for forecasting Nigeria’s food inflation rate. Inspecting the ACF and the PACF at the lag, k = 1,2,3…, we discovered that the tentative model is a subset of ARIMA(2,1,3), and the model ARIMA(1,1,2) was preferred base on the AIC &BIC. Then the ACF plot of the residuals shows that the residuals of the model is stationary, and the normal quantile plot indicates that the residuals is normally distributed. Finally, we compared the forecasts for the months of January, February, March, April, June & July to the original values in 2019, and RMSE of 2.999.

To what extent can bamboo replace steel reinforcement in reinforced concrete slabs? []

This research was undertaken to investigate the feasibility of bamboo reinforced concrete and if it can replace steel reinforced concrete for future construction. Two slabs reinforced with two bamboo culms and three bamboo culms were tested under four-point loading to investigate the flexural strength or bending strength. Slab2 reinforced with three bamboo culm showed strength that is a third bigger than the strength of slab1 containing two bamboo culm. Also deflection of slab2 also showed twice the deflection of slab1. Water proofing agent should be used as this will minimize the water absorption and sand/adhesive should be applied to increase the bond strength between the bamboo and concrete. The ultimate tensile strength of bamboo is 138 N/mm2. This is almost half the ultimate tensile strength of mild steel. Under certain condition and a strict preparation bamboo can be used as a rebar for concrete for light weight structures.


Abstract Modeling infectious diseases is a tool which has been used to study the mechanisms by which diseases spread. One of the commonly used models is the Susceptible ,Infected and Recovered (SIR) model .The objectives of this study were to develop a model for which value of Birth and Death are known when SIR model close population and SIR open population are equal .SIR model with closed and open population was examines and from the model we discovered that that only birth in to the population are susceptible which implies that all people in the population were exposed to particular disease Also the equation for the infective indicate that there is no death and that all people that infected are liable to recover which means the all number that infected were recovered .The new model is given to be Keywords: Modeling. Open ,Close and Population

Comparative Evaluation of Heavy Metal Accumulation in Water and Sediment of Elele-Alimini Stream, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. []

Heavy metal concentrations in water and sediment of Elele-Alimini Stream were studied between April and June, 2019. Surface water samples were collected from three stations and analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer following standard method. The results showed that the mean concentration of Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni and Cu in water(mg/l) were respectively 0.0368+ 0.035, 2.044+ 0.201, 0.194+ 0.064, 1.159+ 0.166 and 0.423+ 0.253 while that of sediment (mg/kg) were 0.069+ 0.048, 2.089+ 0.223+ 0.115, 1.289+ 0.114 and 1.289+ 0.114 respectively. Metals concentrations in sediment were higher than that of water with station 2 values consistently higher than stations 1 and 3 for both sediment and water with only copper showing significant difference across the stations at P< 0.05. The order of magnitude of metal concentrations in water and sediment were Cr> Ni Pb> Cu Cd and Cr > Ni > Cu> Pb>Cd respectively. The results Showed that the concentration of all the metals investigated in this study except Cu were slightly above the respective MPl/WHO, WPCL and CMC,CCC and USEPA recommended limits for natural water. Also the metal concentrations in the sediment were also above the oral reference dosage (RFD). The prolonged presence of these heavy metals in this water body might affect aquatic life and eventually threaten the life of the inhabitants of the area. It is therefore recommended that continuous monitoring need to be carried out to determine the long term impact of anthropogenic activities in the area to ensure the safety of health of man and that of aquatic life.


This paper examined the nature of electronic banking related fraud on deposit money banks in Nigeria, it effects and the controls put in place to prevent financial loss. The evolution of e-banking, major channels for e-fraud, factors responsible for the high rate of fraud, nature and methods by which computer and ICT can be employed to defraud banks. The study adopted case study research design of data collection which was based on the use of secondary. The paper focuses on Nigerian Electronic Fraud Forum (NeFF) Annual Report 2016. It was observed that the 2016 witnessed 19,531 fraud cases reported as against the 10,743 recorded in year 2015 and this represent 82% increase. However, there was a marginal reduction in attempted fraud value and actual loss. The study revealed that there is a significant relationship between e-banking practices in Nigeria and the rate of increase in the security of banking transactions. The practice of e-banking has significantly increased the volume of banking transactions. It has also improved service delivery to customers and easy. The study shows that the effect of electronic fraud would result in loss of money which belongs to either the bank or customers. It could also destroy the bank’s reputation among others. The researcher concluded that despite the security problems associated with electronic banking practice in Nigeria, it has improved the operational efficiency of banks. Based on these findings, the researcher recommend that Government through CBN should provide adequate security measures for various electronic banking channels, review of BVN framework and sensitization of customers on electronic banking operations among others


Urban agriculture is an industry that produces, processes, and markets food, fuel, and other outputs, largely in response to the daily demand of consumers within a town, city, or metropolis, on many types of privately and publicly held land and water bodies found throughout intra-urban and peri-urban areas. The aim of this study was to determine the awareness and desirability of urban farming, and its impact on inhabitants in Qasimabad, Hyderabad. The data were collected through questionnaire survey. Afterward, data were analysed using SPSS software. Results revealed that the inhabitants have lack knowledge about urban farming. They do not know about the seeds, seasonal fruits and vegetables. People have limited access towards resources, is the major constraint in urban agriculture. People also showed positive response to urban farming, as it is healthy activity. Suggestions are provided to promote urban agriculture at neighborhood/community level.


This research is about the Performance evaluation and beneficial process in construction industry, these provides annual feedback to staff members about job effectiveness and career guidance. Appraisal is an important instrument in the manpower management, if it is performed correctly and logically, it can conduct the organizations to their goal and the personnel will achieve their interests. In this paper we study the effects of performance appraisal result s on the employees in the construction industry. For studying the research 395 samples was selected by chance. The data collection instrument was a 37-quastion questionnaire including 35 closed questions measured by Likert's scales. sign tests were used to analyze the data. The total results, Performance Evaluation were average and high. The effects of result s’ annual Performance Evaluation on the job motivation were high. On the basis of the findings this research and those analyses, Performance Evaluation is major factor on motivation. For this reason, its need to attention's managers and personnel.


Abstracts The comparative analysis of water hardness and pH of Boreholes in Port Harcourt Polytechnic, Rumuola was carried out from about ten boreholes water in different stations in the school premises. This analysis was done through volumetric analysis and the use of Ex-Tech pH conductivity meter. The mean results obtained from the various stations or locations showed that the water from the various locations is soft and acidic when compared to the standard values of water hardness and pH of World Health Organization (WHO). The result also indicates that the various water sources contains insignificant level of Calcium and Magnesium Carbonates and Sulphates. Keyword; water, magnesium carbonate, hardness, boreholes etc.


The concentration of Lead in the extract of washed edible fruits from different markets located along major roads in Port-Harcourt such as Rumuola, Rumuokoro, Oil-mill, Mile 1 and Town were evaluated using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results obtained showed that the lead concentration from Rumuola, Rumuokoro, Oil-mill, Mile 1 and Town were 3.51746gm/l, 5.94136gm/l, 15.05802gm/l,8.13581gm/l and 12.82715gm/l respectively . The result indicated that lead is present in toxic amount on exposed fruits along major roads as a result of lead pollution from combustion of leaded gasoline in PORT-HARCOURT .


Intermolecular interactions of mixed organic electrolytes solutions formed by the combination of dimethylformamide(DMF) and Propylene carbonate (PC) solvents with Magnesium perchlorate Mg(ClO4)2 salt were studied.The mixtures were prepared and characterized for their physical and thermodynamic properties. These properties include conductivity, dielectric constant and cell voltage. The cells of Mg2+ ion containing electrolytic solutions of the binary mixtures were also studied. Molar conductivity measurements investigated at 250C demonstrated that the mixed systems exhibit a wide electrochemical stability and improved property than the pure solvents. The properties of the mixed electrolytes were affected by ion-solvent and solvent-solvent interactions. The results have been interpreted on the basis of the intermolecular interactions among the component molecules of the system. The mixing ratio of the organic solvents for optimal battery performance is established to be between 50-70% PC for the battery system because it is at this range that the system gave the highest conductivity and electromotive force .


Scientists collect data, analyze the results, and build conclusion to their research. To gain more valuable impact, scientists also transfer their knowledge to society. Science communication is particularly important to enhance the research and also better understanding of the society to help the nature. This research was conducted in four different locations: Jakarta, Pangandaran (West Java), Bali, and East Nusa Tenggara. Participants chosen included government and private stakeholders as well as industry, communities and tourists, students and educators, and the conservation community. This research was conducted in a span of 4 years (2015-2018). The results obtained that to provide information related to MD to various audiences have different ways. For agencies and stakeholders in government, sharing in-formation needed is how to find long-term solutions. For educators and students basic understanding is needed regarding MD. For the community and the community is synergy with the local government. Moreover, in this study it was also found that with different ways of conveying, the transfer of knowledge would be easier. This is evident from the ease of the audience to absorb the knowledge if done with the right method. The challenge in the future is to use online media to get more viewers. With a new social media and simple method, scientist can easily use online forms, free templates from internet to build flyer, banner, information about marine debris.


The purpose of this study was to indentify challenges facing students with visual impairment in Sebeta School for the Blind. Available and random methods were used in this research. Teachers, students, caregivers and directors were participants in this study. Mixed research design was used in this study. Data were gathered through interview, observation, FGD and questionnaire. The reliability of the questionnaire was 0.72 which was measured by using Cronbach Alpha. The data, which were obtained through questionnaire, were analyzed by descriptive statics and the data gathered from observation, interview and FGD were analysed in narration form. The major challenges facing students in Sebeta School for the Blind were shortage of Braille materials, rare follow up from care givers for students in academic activities, teachers lack of training about the teaching method of students with visual impairment, shortage of Special Needs Education teachers in the school, low competency of students and teachers Braille skill, absence of counselling and guidance services, inappropriate training on mobility and orientation for students . The research recommended that the school principal had better fulfil Braille materials, give training for teachers on Braille skill and teaching method of students with visual impairment, provide appropriate mobility and orientation and counselling service in collaboration with the Sebeta Special Needs Education College, district and regional educational bureaus. Care givers had better follow students in academic activities in addition to the non academic services.


The success of any introduced ICT to the achievement of organisational objectives is highly dependent on the Human Resource development to match of the staff. The study seeks to determine the Influence of Human Resource development and ICT policy on organizational performance of Telecommunications Service Providers in Kenya: a case study of UNITEL services limited. The specific objectives were to determine the influence of Human Resource Development in ICT on organizational performance, determine the impact of ICT policy on organizational performance. A descriptive survey study design was used and stratified sampling technique applied. Data was collected quantitatively from UNITEL services limited staff using a questionnaire. A total of 40 staff was sampled with 33 questionnaires successfully being returned. Descriptive analysis was conducted on the data using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 22. The results findings established that on ICT Human Resource Development, above 48% of the respondents strongly agree that ICT good knowledge, experience in ICT, Adoption of new technology and induction of new employees enhances productivity. On ICT policy and organisation performance it was found that only 37.9 % of the respondents agreed that ICT policy has a positive correlation on the performance of the organization. This implies that may be most of the UNUTEL staff are not aware of the ICT policies governing their organization. The study recommends that The organization should come up with some policies that aims at training its staff to enhance their skills and competency this can be achieved by conducting periodic in-service, seminars to update the staff on the current changes in ICT field and remain competitive and have a competitive advantage over its competitors in the same field. The company ICT policy should be improved and staff trained on its contents.

Oxazines and its derivatives: Potential leads for discovery of new and potent antimicrobial and antituberclosis drug, a review. []

Oxazines are heterocyclic compounds containing oxygen and nitrogen in the same ring which have great biological importance. Many synthetic and intermediates of oxazines show important biological activities like sedative, analgesic, antipyretic, anticonvulsant, antitubercular, antitumour, antimalarial and antimicrobial. In this era of multi-drug resistance (MDR), efforts are on accelerated to synthesized new compounds which will be helpful in combating MDR related diseases. This review focuses on the currently reported synthesized oxazine derivatives with antimicrobial and antitubercular activities. The review also X-ray the synthetic routes of these compounds. We found 132 synthesized oxazine compounds with significant antimicrobial (antibacterial and antifungal), and antitubercular activities. We hope that this review will be of great interest to Medicinal Chemists in their quest to find new active pharmaceutical ingredients for drug discovery and development.


Artificial Neural Network is used in predicting the amount of rainfall-runoff that will predict the future amount of discharges in Tumaga River, Zamboaga City, Philippines. The study used five (5) meteorological parameters for the model - rainfall, humidity, maximum temperature, minimum temperature and average temperature. Actual river discharge data were also gathered that is part of the output data in the model. These parameters were gathered from the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAG-ASA) and were used as the input parameters in the MatLab. The study produces a model that has good correlation coefficient and the trend graph is similar to that of the data gathered from PAG-ASA and the predicted values. The findings concluded that the generated model could be utilized for predicting river discharges.


This study aims to analyze Techno-Socio-Economic Losses of Fisheries Catch Mackarel Tuna (Euthynnus affinis) in the waters of Pameungpeuk Garut, This research was conducted in January until the month of July 2019 in Garut. The method used is a case study (case study) and surveys. Respondents retrieval techniques used in this research is a snowball sampling technique. Snowball sampling is a method for identifying, selecting and taking respondents on a network or chain of ongoing relationships, the selection of key informants who were randomly assigned to provide information in accordance with the purpose of research. Analysis of the data used in this research using Likert Scale and Multiple Linear Regression in data processing techniques, the authors use a scale of measurement obtained from the respondents. The results showed thatThe most significant factor affecting the amount of shrinkage of the Mackarel Tuna catchesin waters Pameungpeuk Garut which is sorting fish in fish sorting is done in terms of the quality grading, shelf life and size of fish,


Hepatitis B virus is a serious global health problem, which account for about 2 billion infected cases and 400 million chronic infections worldwide, accounting for about 1.2 million-mortality rate annually. This study was carried out to detect the Seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) among Students of Nasarawa University, Keffi. The samples were collected and tested using the one-step rapid strip (Royal care), and Combo Test Device (Skytech USA) was used to confirm the positive samples. Out of the 168 samples tested, 12 (7.1%) were found to be HBsAg positive. The distribution of hepatitis B surface antigen in relation to age group was higher in the age group 13-19 years with seroprevalence of 9 (7.3%), and lower in the age group 6-12 years with 3 (6.7%). The distribution of hepatitis B surface antigen in relation to gender was higher in males 8 (11.6%) compared to females 4 (4.0%). The study found a seroprevalence of 7.1%, which shows that the students are at risk for hepatitis B viral infection. The Nasarawa State government through the ministry of health should consider a vast or mass vaccination and treatment program that will cover undergraduate students of Nasarawa State University to curtail further spread of the virus among other students. Keywords: Seroprevalence, Hepatitis, Virus, Infection, disease,

Research paper on "Determination Of Hiv Infection Susceptibility Among Abo And Rhesus Blood Groups In Calabar Municipality, CRS, Nigeria". []

Abstract This study aims to verify the susceptibility of ABO and Rhesus blood groups to HIV/AIDS infection in Calabar Municipality, CRS, Nigeria. The susceptibility levels of ABO and Rhesus blood groups to HIV/AIDS infection was investigated in 300 confirmed HIV/AIDS patients in Calabar, using the HIV/AIDS Unit of the nGeneral Hospital Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria. Venous blood samples were collected with the help of skilled Laboratory Scientists, from the confirmed HIV/AIDS patients into sterilized, labeled blood specimen bottles and serological analyses. ABO and Rhesus blood grouping were performed simultaneously with reagents (anti-A, anti-B, anti-AB, and anti-D) using agglutination on tile method. The result of Rhesus blood determination was confirmed using washing, sensitizing with bovine albumin, rewashing and adding human globulin and then observe for agglutination as positive result. The study has revealed the different levels of association of ABO and rhesus blood groups with HIV/AIDS infection. It was also found that blood group O was generally more frequent among the participants in this study. There were more of blood group O victims of HIV/AIDS (122/40%) of the 300 participants and AB blood group had least number of HIV/AIDS patients (43/14%), thus confirming the reports of some earlier studies. Similarly, Rhesus negative (Rh-) blood group tended to show high susceptibility to HIV/AIDS (264/88%) than Rhesus positive (Rh+) blood group (36/12%). Statistical analysis using Pearson correlation test to verify the relationship between ABO and rhesus blood groups with HIV/AIDS proved significant at P < 0.05. Keywords: ABO and Rhesus Blood groups, HIV/AIDS, Rhesus factor, Calabar, CRS.

Elasticity Of Demand Marine Fish Consumption in Caringin Central Market Bandung []

This study aims to analyze the factors that influence the demand for marine fish consumption and determine the value of elasticity of demand for marine fish consumption in Caringin Central Market, Bandung. This research was held in February until April 2019. The method used was descriptive analytical method using primary data and secondary data. The sampling technique used in this study was purposive sampling. Purposive sampling technique is a sampling technique that is carried out by taking samples from the population based on certain criteria. The results of the study shows that the factors that influence the demand for marine fish consumption are the prices of sea fish (prices of skipjack tuna, prices of round scad fish, prices of milkfish), prices of rice, and income. The value of price elasticity and cross elasticity in demand for consumption sea fish are inelastic. The income elasticity on demand for skipjack tuna and milkfish is elastic while the income elasticity on demand for round scad fish is perfectly inelastic.

The Use of Shrimp Waste Concentrate in Feed Formulation to Growth Rate of Tilapia Seeds (Oreochromis niloticus) []

Tilapia is one type of fish that is favored by various circles of Indonesian. This makes the cultivation of Tilapia continues to be a business opportunity so that continuous improvements are made that are closely related to the quality of good feed and to try balance the feed, the addition of shrimp waste concentrate was carried out.This study aims to determine and analyze using the level of shrimp waste concentrates in feed formulations that provide the best growth rate on tilapia seeds. The research method used was the experimental method using a Completely Randomized Design (RAL) consisting of 4 treatments addition of Solid Nutrition Concentrate (SNC) based shrimp waste and 4 replications, namely treatment A (SNC 0%), treatment B (SNC 2%), treatment C (SNC 4%), and treatment D (SNC 6%). The parameters observed were specific growth rate (SGR) and survival rate (SR). Results of the research that has been done it can be concluded that the addition of shrimp waste concentrate with 2% treatment on feed is able to provide the most effective and efficient results, namely the daily growth rate of 1.70 ± 0.05% and survival rate of 97.50 ± 5.00%, and the addition of shrimp waste concentrate can be made into a feed supplement in tilapia cultivation.


Abstract This study examined the use of acceptance sampling technique as an efficient tool for quality assurance in deciding whether a given lot of product is to be accepted or rejected in the market. This study designed two single sampling plans with a sample size of 125 from a lot of size 1350 bread loaves and an allowable number of defectives as 4 and 6 (i.e. c=4 and 6). The result indicated that the probability of rejecting the manufacturers’ product of good quality by the consumers is about 0.371 (producers risk, α=0.371) with the first plan of c = 4. However, the second plan proved more efficient in controlling quality in the industry with c = 6, the producers risk, α=0.235 with the least average total inspection value. The continuous improvement and review of acceptance sampling plan is important to improve the products quality and ensure continuous customer satisfaction.


In the current age of ICT (Information and Communication Technology), online shopping has become a necessity. Almost all shopping websites are in textual form which is only beneficial for literate people. The basis of this research is to address the prevalent issue towards electronic shopping for illiterate and semi-literate people of KPK (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa), Pakistan. An ICT solution is proposed to reinforce the importance of alternatives (auditory, visual and tactile etc.) to text. Two similar applications are developed with and without audio support. We test the developed website on 31 participants (20 illiterates and 11 semi-literate) including female. The results show that the solution with audio support is better understood by illiterate and semi-literate as compared to without audio solution. There is a clear difference between illiterate and semi-literate users while using the website without audio support. This show that without audio assistance the ICT solution is non-usable for illiterate. Semi-literate complete their task rapidly as compare to the illiterate. Our research also confirms that the usability is not affected by age. Gender plays a role in presenting the different usage of the interface. Sketches proves to be useful for illiterate. Overall results show that the proposed solution is usable for both illiterate and semi-literates.

Effect of Addition EM4 Probiotics in Feed On Growth Rate of Nilem Fish (Osteochillus hasselti) Juvenile []

This research aims to analyze the effective concentration of EM4 probiotics as an additive in commercial feed to show the best survival rate, growth rate and feed efficiency of Osteochillus hasselti juvenile. The research method used is the experimental Complete Random Design (CRD) with 4 treatments and 3 replications. The treatment A (control), B (concentration of probiotic EM4 10 ml kg-1), C (concentration of probiotic EM4 15 ml kg-1) and D (concentration of probiotic EM4 20 ml kg-1). Observed parameters are survival rate, specific growth rate, growth of length, feed efficiency and water quality. The results showed that the addition of EM4 probiotic concentration 15 ml kg-1 in feed gave the best results on the specific growth rate of Osteochillus hasselti which was 2.14% and feed efficiency is 59.26%.

Fisheries resources management: between ecological and economical approach []

The complexity in the management of marine biological resources is due to the manifold variables concerning environmental phenomena, technological aspects and socio-economic problems as well as the uncertainties in the assessment of stochastic processes related to the exploited populations. After a short review of the state of art at world level, the authors focus on the Western Indonesia and Eastern Indonesian seas providing information on global capture production of fishery resources and economical aspects of fishing activity, raising the need for a management approach that should be robust with uncertainties, suitable for multi-species fisheries and that meets ecosystem objectives. In this respect, the authors report the main recommendations of the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries and measures indicated in the Council Regulation (IDR) 1967/2006 and Marine Strategy Framework Directive.

Ecosystem approach to inland fisheries: research and implementation strategies []

Inland fisheries are a vital component in the livelihoods and food security of people throughout the world, as well as contributing huge recreational and economic benefits. These valuable assets are jeopardized by lack of research-based understanding of the impacts of fisheries on inland ecosystems, and similarly the impact of human activities associated with inland waters on fisheries and aquatic biodiversity. To explore this topic, an international research was organized in order to examine strategies to incorporate fisheries into ecosystem approaches for management of inland waters. To achieve this goal, a new research agenda is needed that focuses on: quantifying the ecosystem services provided by fresh waters; quantifying the economic, social and nutritional benefits of inland fisheries; improving assessments designed to evaluate fisheries exploitation potential; and examining feedbacks between fisheries, ecosystem productivity and aquatic biodiversity. Accomplishing these objectives will require merging natural and social science approaches to address coupled social–ecological system dynamics.

Environmental Issues, Social Perception and Coastal Erosion Management: Case Studies from Papua Province []

Abstract. Coastal zone is a dynamic environment and each coastal area is a unique natural system. Erosion control should be treated within the framework of an integrated coastal erosion management scheme and as an integral part of an Integrated Coastal Zone/ Area Management Plan. Erosion management is a muti-discipline task. It is not just an engineering problem. Environmental, social and economic parameters should be incorporate in the system, available tools such as EIA, SEA, Fiscal Instruments etc., should be implemented, public participation and civic engagement should be enhanced. This paper addresses the above issues through the following case studies from Papua Province. The Environmental Impact Study for proposed coastal structures in Southern coastal of Papua Province. EIS questioned the engineering solutions which were proposed for combating erosion, something which created conflicts with the coastal engineers, the local authority, the local community and the competent authorities and decision makers. The methodology/approach of this EIA/EIS will be presented in this paper, which was quite innovative for Papua Province, together with a description and evaluation of the conflicting situation. The pilot study on social perception for coastal erosion issues in the Southern coastal area, which was prepared within the framework of regional project (pilot study of Papua Province). The assessment of social perception was based on static and dynamic analysis, using existing knowledge and field surveys/questionnaires. The results of the beach users field survey will be presented and discussed in this paper. .

Effects of weeding intensity on cyanide content of cassava root tubers []

Abstract Cassava is a shrub reaching 1–4m in height. Belonging to the dicotyledonous family Euphorbiaceae, the Manihot genus is reported to have about 100 species, among which the only commercially cultivated one is Manihot esculenta Crantz. There are two distinct plant types: erect, with or without branching at the top, or spreading types. The morphological characteristics of cassava are highly variable, which indicate a high degree of interspecific hybridization. Roots are the main storage organs in cassava. In plants raised from stem cuttings, the roots are adventitious and arise from basal cut surface. Where plants are raised from true seeds, roots are typically primary tap roots. Anatomically, the cassava root is not a tuberous root, but a true root, which cannot be used for vegetative propagation. Cassava is one of the world most important food crops. The crop is the third largest source of food carbohydrates in the tropics after rice and maize. The design used in the study was Complete Randomized Block Design (CRBD) with four replications where the cassava varieties were randomized in plots. In this experiment, four cassava varieties: Kibandameno, Nzalauka, Tajirika and Karembo were grown in plots measuring 3m by 4m each. Cassava cuttings were planted at a spacing of 1m by 1m. The four cassava varieties were subjected to two major levels of weed treatments. In the first weeding treatment, the cassava plants were left to grow in weedy plots indefinitely, there was no weeding at all for the entire duration of the experiment. In the second weed treatment the cassava plants were grown in weed free plots.. Samples of cassava root tissues from the different weed treatment plots were collected six months after planting for laboratory analysis to determine cyanide content in the cassava root tubers at harvesting against weeding treatment. The results of the study revealed that weeding intensity was significant on cyanide content (p < 0.05). Weed x variety interaction was highly significant(p < 0.05). As a recommendation, campaign mobilization work should be carried out to educate farmers on the correct agronomic practices, weeding included, to minimize bitterness in cassava root tubers. Data analysis involved Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software and Genstat software to generate analysis of variance (ANOVA). Key wards: Cassava; Weeds; Cyanide; Bitterness; Quality


The purpose of this study was to evaluate IFAS and EFAS hatchery activities in BBI Regency of Bandung. This research was conducted at BBI Bandung Regency, Mei-August 2019. Field / institutional survey activities, to see firsthand the conditions of the location of study locations and cultivation activities as well as evaluation materials for primary data collection and secondary data using IFAS (Internal Factor Strategic Analysis) and EFAS (External Factor Strategic Analysis. The result of this research was Three main commodities that can be developed at UPTD BBI Kab. Bandung is tilapia, catfish and Cyrinus carprio. In an effort to optimize the performance and productivity of BBT UPTD Kab. Bandung, it is necessary to improve facilities and infrastructure, increase seed production, implement main production, improve internet access for e-commerce development and add main products in the form of parent products The development strategy is carried out with an investment strategy that is by producing breeders from the three commodities developed

Propose Knowledge Creation Confirmatory Factor Analysis Model for Ethiopian Local Tanners []

Abstract This study examined knowledge creation in Ethiopian local (traditional) tanners. It furthermore addressed the multifaceted challenges and barriers for knowledge creation (socialization, Externalization, combination and internalization) across the traditional knowledge of Ethiopian local tanners. Ethiopia has a large livestock of hide and skin in Africa but there is weak knowledge creation in local tanners to create new products .The researcher used both primary and secondary data and analyzed using SPSS software.Furthermore,this study used SPSS software for checking the reliability of collected data for each evaluation factors of socialization, externalization, combination and internalization factors. The SPSS file used as input confirmative factor analysis using LISREL international software. The LISREL software shows all observed variables have good conformation with latent variables based on goodness of fit statistics. The major findings were the selected latent factors , socialization, externalization, combination and internalization are confirmed with their observable variables to propose knowledge creation confirmatory factor analysis model which recommend for RAYAN local Tanners. Finally, it can also use for other traditional tanners with same adjustment.

Analysis of the Factors Underlying the Delivery of International Migrant Remittances in Indonesia []

This study aims to analyze the influence of education, employment status, gender and marital status on the amount of remittances sent to Indonesia. The data analysis technique used to discuss the problem in this study is the Ergonomic Linear Regression analysis . The results of its m enunjukkan that education, employment status, and marital status have direct impact on the amount of remittance delivery in Indonesia . While gender does not affect the amount of remittances that enter Indonesia.


This study aimed to determine the relationship between oral communication proficiency and learning engagement in English of Grade 11 students in English in Sta. Cruz National High School, Division of Davao del Sur. Descriptive correlational design was used. Using stratified random sampling, this study identified 181 Grade 11 students as respondents. Frequency distribution, mean, t-test, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Pearson r were utilized to analyze the data gathered. Results revealed that majority of the students were female composed 61.9% while male comprised the 38.1%. Over half (52.5%) of the students’ family monthly income were in the income range of P5,000 and below followed by P5,001 to P15,000 (32.6%), P15,001 to P25,000 (6.1%), above P35,000 (5.5%), and P25,001 to P35,000 (3.3%). Majority (55.2%) were enrolled in Technical-Vocational and Livelihood Track and 44.8% were enrolled in Academic Track. Furthermore, results yielded a very good level on the oral communication proficiency of students in English in terms of verbal skills and non-verbal skills. On the other hand, students’ learning engagement in English in terms of affective, behavioral, and cognitive was high. There was a significant difference on the oral communication proficiency of Grade 11 students when analyzed according to gender, family’s monthly income, and track. It was also found out that oral communication proficiency significantly influenced the learning engagement of students in learning English.


Varietal turnover is very low in the study Counties of Narok and Nakuru. To increase wheat varietal turnover rate, factors that influence wheat farmers’ decision process must be understood. This study determined factors that influenced improved wheat varietal turnover in Narok and Nakuru Counties of Kenya. The study was conducted based on a sample size of 344 wheat farmers from the two Counties. Multi-stage sampling technique was employed to select the sample farmers and the data was collected using a structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics was used for analyzing quantitative data, while binary logit model was used to determine factors that influence wheat varietal turnover. The model results indicated that seed price, field day visits, access to new variety, farm size and disease resistance were significant determinants of wheat varietal turnover. Therefore, any effort geared towards increasing wheat varietal turnover rate should consider at most the varietal attributes/traits and institutional characteristics.

Prelimenary Phytochemical And Antimicrobial Studies of Ethanol Extract Of Mitracarpus scaber zucc []

Medicinal plants are plants which have a recognized medical use. They range from the plants that are used in the production of mainstream pharmaceutical products to plant used in herbal medicine preparation.To formulate the crude extract of mitracarpus scaber Zucc as syrup. The antimicrobial activity of the formulation was assessed using agar-plates and the concentrations of the extract varying from 100mg/hole, 50mg/hole, 25mg/hole and 12mg/hole to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration against bacterial and fungal organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus spp, Shigella spp, Corynebacterium spp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella spp, and Candida albinans. Candida albicans was resistance to the extract at the concentration of 12mg/hole and the growth of others organisms was inhibited by the formulations at all concentration. Conclusively, these findings should be suitable for inclusion in the proposed pharmacopoeia of Nigerian medical plants.