Volume 7, Issue 8, August 2019 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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This study investigated the gap between male and female students of 2015/2016 in college of education at the University of Dodoma in the accessing and using of Information Communication Technology (ICT). Digital divide is the gap between those with regular; effective accesses to digital technologies particularly the Internet, and those without. Global digital divide is a term often used to describe the gap between developed and developing countries in accessing and using technology in their daily life. The digital divide can be among one country and another, rural and urban, home and school, teachers against students as well as farmers and entrepreneurs in accessing and using ICT. The Mixed method was used in gathering data with the help of interview, observation and questionnaire. A total of hundreds (100) informants were involved in the study and these were first year students in two courses BEDARTs and BEDADMA students who were male and female students in the University of Dodoma at the College of education. Purposive sampling techniques and later simple random selection was applied to obtain the informants. It was noted that there was wide gap between male and female in accessing and utilizing Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in learning process where 78% of male were highly accessing and using technology comparing to female about 51% found using ICT. KEY WORDS: University of Dodoma (UDOM), digital divide, ICT, male, female.

Fortification of Nilem (Ostheochilus hasselti CV) Fish Flour Against the Favorite Levels of the Dumpling Skin []

This research aims to determine the percentage level of addition of nilem fish flour to the production of the most preferred dumpling skin products organoleptically. The method in this research was experimental with 4 treatments the level of addition of nilem fish flour namely 0.0%, 2.5%, 5.0%, and 7.5%. The parameters observed were the level of preference for the color, aroma, texture, and taste of dumpling skin from all organoleptic treatments. The parameters observed were the level of appearance, aroma, texture, and taste of dumpling skin from all treatments carried out organoleptically and proximate testing (protein content, ash content, fat content, and moisture content) on the control treatment and the most preferred. The results of the study concluded that the addition of nilem fish flour by 5.0% was the most preferred treatment based on organoleptic characteristics with a median value of 7 colors, aroma 7, texture 8 and flavor 7 and an alternative value of 7.29 and having protein content 17.45 %, ash content 3.21%, fat content 23.84% and moisture content 3.22%.


This Paper will focus on troubled projects in construction due to inadequate and insufficient Risk Management. The author has chosen this topic because his vision is one day to work on troubled turnaround projects” sector in a company. The main objective of the present document is not to propose a radically renewed risk management process, but to attempt a composition of already known processes, at such way that it can be applied by the modern enterprises that deal with the undertaking or/and implementation of constructional work. This Paper will try to reveal the main sources for the failure of a construction project due to the lack of risk management in projects, aiming that from now on the risk management matters will be considered more serious and professional. The benefits of risk management are not confined to large or risky projects. The process may be formalized in these circumstances, but it is applicable for all scales of project and procurement activity. It can be applied at all stages in the project cycle, from the earliest assessments of strategy to the supply, operation, maintenance and disposal of individual items, facilities or assets. It has many applications, ranging from the evaluation of alternative activities for budgets and business plans, to the management of cost overruns and delays in projects and programs. Risk management will also provide benefits in better accountability and justification of decisions, by providing a consistent and robust process.


Abstract Records of migration constitute a greater part of human developmental phases. This, however, gives credence to the fact that societies don’t develop in isolation. From time immemorial, various communities have been known to depend on other communities not just for survival but also for social-cultural, economic, political and even infrastructural developments. The interdependence of communities on themselves is usually attributable to various push and pull factors. In the case of Akure, the capital of Ondo state Nigeria, cocoa stands out significantly amidst other agricultural cash crops, as a pull factor for intending migrant settlers. Economic attractions contributed largely to the influx of migrants into African societies and European, right from pre-colonial times. This work is hence, poised to interrogate the socio-economic contributions of migrant settlers to the development of Akure land, especially those who came purposely because agricultural purposes. This research work relied on both primary and secondary data Key words: Communities, Agriculture, Cocoa, Migrants, Development

Teachers’ Perception of Principals’ Human Resource Management Practices As Correlate of Their Job Performance in Anambra State []

The study determined the correlation between teachers’ perception of principals’ human resource management practices and their job performance in secondary schools in Anambra State. Three research questions guided the study. A correlational survey design was adopted for the study. Out of a population of 6,380 teachers in the six education zones in the state, 672 were sampled through stage sampling procedure. Data were collected using two instruments titled, Principals’ Human Resource Management Practices Questionnaire (PHRMPQ) and Teachers’ Job Performance Questionnaire (TJPQ) which were validated by experts. The internal consistency of the instruments were determined using Cronbach alpha method. The reliability indices of 0.80 and 0.77 were obtained for PHRMPQ and TJPQ respectively. Data analysis was done using Pearson Product Moment Correlation. The findings revealed that a substantial positive and significant relationship exists between teachers’ perception of principals’ staff continuous professional development practices, staff relations practices and their job performance. A very high positive significant correlation exists between teachers’ perception of principals’ staff reward practices and their job performance. Based on the findings of the study it was recommended among others that principals’ should promote and encourage management and staff relationship through good communication network, administrative support, team work and social events for better harmonious working environment which would steadily improve teachers’ job performance.


ABSTRACT The methanol and aqueous extracts of the stem bark of Maesobotrya barteri were assessed for their chemical constituents and antimicrobial activity. The phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, terpenes, flavonoids, tannins, saponins and cardiac glycosides. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of the extracts on clinical isolates (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella spp, Pseudomonas aecroginosis, Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella typhi, Microsporum spp, Trichophyton spp, Epidermophyton spp, Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans) showed activity against most of the microorganisms tested. The minimum inhibition concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC)/ minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of the extracts showed that some microorganisms were responsive to the extract at some given concentrations. Methanol extract exhibited the highest activities against bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella typhi and fungi Microsporum canis, Candida albicans. The bioactivity recorded compares favourably with the standard drug and therefore validates the ethnomedicinal uses of the plant. Keywords: antimicrobial activity, minimum bactericidal concentration, phytochemical screening, Bioactivity

Do beta –2 Agonists reduce Admission rate in children with bronchiolitis? []

Abstract Introduction: Bronchiolitis is a very common disease in children less than 2 years of age. RSV virus is the major cause of this illness and its admissions represent 18 % of all pediatric hospitalization in infant less than 1 year of age. Globally, RSV infections in children less than 5 years of age account for 3.4 million hospitalizations and the admission rate has relatively increased during the last 15 years, despite the routine use of Beta-2 agonists in children with bronchiolitis in emergency departments. Methods: The aim is to determine from the medical literature whether the use of Albuterol in children (less than 2 years of age) with bronchiolitis, reduce admission rate or not? PubMed, Scopus, web of science and OneFile gale were searched, 1591 articles identified. Randomized controlled trials that comparing Albuterol group recipients with placebo recipients in children (less than 2 years of age) were only included in this study. Results: 7 (RCT)s representing 670 patients with bronchiolitis published between 1990 to 2011 , Risk of bias generally low and quality of evidence are high, (100%) of included studies have concluded that Beta-2 agonists did not reduce Admission rate in children with bronchiolitis (16.5% in Albuterol group vs 20% in placebo group [ odd ratio 0.74 , P = 0.20 , confidence interval (CI) = (0.47 - 1.16) ]. conclusion: Use of Beta-2 Agonists in children (less than 2 years of age) with bronchiolitis do not reduce the admission rate. Key words: bronchodilator – bronchiolitis - beta 2 Agonist - salbutamol – albuterol


COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PRESSURE DROPS ON A MICRO EXPANSION DEVICE FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A MINI VACCINE CARRIER KIT Elmer B. Dollera1, Godofredo B. Dollera,Jr., Kristian Jon A. Dotdot, Kevin Ivan Dave Liwanag, Rimar Dawn Z. Bagayas, Francis Edgar Joring, Rogelio C. Golez, Jr., Nestor G. Ipanag A B S T R A C T Cooling systems for medical purposes have various designs and sizes in present times. In this study, the researchers contribute to the development of a mini vapor compression system, a mini vaccine storage, by modifying a major part of it. In a refrigeration system, the lowest temperature is a desirable value since it is used in absorbing heat from the contained space. The application of the theory of pressure is directly proportional to the temperature is used in the study. The main part in the refrigeration system that separates the high-pressure side and the low-pressure side is an expansion device, and the one that is used in the study is a capillary tube. Knowing the behavior of a capillary tube at dropping the pressure of the system is an important goal in controlling the pressure of the system, since this also yields to a controlled temperature. The study aims to develop five (5) different sizes of capillary tubes with different inside diameters of 0.2 Ømm, 0.25 Ømm, 0.3 Ømm, 0.35 Ømm, and 0.4 Ømm. In achieving these different diameters, the use of string insertions inside the capillary tubes are applied, specifically guitar strings with various sizes. These capillary tubes have the same lengths of one meter and were divided into three sections at approximately 335 mm length in each section. Pressure gauges were attached to the inlet and outlet and in between each section of the capillary tubes, which have a total of four pressure sensors. One high side pressure sensors (red) positioned before inlet, and three low side (blue) pressure sensors between sections and at the end of the capillary tube, covering the total length of approximately one(1) meter. The 0.2 Ømm capillary tube displayed the lowest pressure drop as compared to the other four(4) capillary tubes being studied. Keywords: (pressure drop, capillary tubes, vapor compression system, vaccine storage) 1Corresponding Author: Engr. Elmer B. Dollera, Professor, Mechanical Engineering Department, Xavier University-Ateneo de Cagayan, Cagayan de Oro City, Philippines Email address: edollera@xu.edu.ph


This research aimsed to determine the ratio of the combination of carrageenan and chitosan as an antimicrobial packaging to extend the shelf life of meatballs mackerel. This research was conducted in January and February 2019 in the Laboratory of Fisheries (PHP) FPIK Padjadjaran University in Indonesia, manufacture edible coating solution, Total Plate Count (TPC) testing, measuring pH and bacterial inhibition zone diameter. Research methods using experimental procedures with 4 treatment is treatment without edible coating, chitosan proportion of 25%: 75% carrageenan, chitosan proportion of 50%: 50% carrageenan and chitosan proportion of 75%: 25% carrageenan. Observations included TPC test to see microbial activity, pH and inhibition zone against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The research results showed that the best edible coating is a treatment D (chitosan proportion of 75%: 25% carrageenan) with TPC value of 1.02 x 105 cfu / g with a shelf life of 11 days with a final pH value of 6.90 and a diameter of inhibition zone against Pseudomonas aeruginosa of 12.86 mm. The addition of antimicrobial edible coating of chitosan on carrageenan can extend the shelf life of meatballs mackerel in cold temperatures.

The impediments to Environmental reporting: A case from automobile industry in Sri Lanka []

Today human are facing critical environmental challenges. The environmental issues and the impact of them on the decision making process have been increasingly given attention to the financial reporting through the world. Many countries have their own policies for the implementation of environmental reporting. This study identifies the significance of environmental reporting and reasons for short, inadequate Environmental Reporting in Automobile Industry in Sri Lanka. The primary data were collected using random sampling method from the top management of twenty Automobile Companies in Sri Lanka. The secondary data were collected from the Annual Reports, Journal Articles and Environmental Reports. This study found that considering the Sri Lankan Automobile Industry, there are some critical impediments to Environmental Reporting according to the correlation analysis, regression analysis and regression equation. These problems are broadly identified as Lack of Political Pressure, Lack of Standards and Professional Guidelines, Organizational Factors, Individual factors and Lack of Accurate Environmental Measurement. It is clear that Environmental Reporting practices in the selected companies are less satisfactory and in order to improve Environmental Reporting in the Automobile Industry of Sri Lanka, there is a need of a systematic procedure put forward by the respondents without any further delay.


The economic analysis is very important to evaluate the feasibility of proposed engineering projects for implementation. Most of the generated electricity in Iraq is produced from fossil fuel. The use of fossil fuels has environmental impacts such as greenhouse effect and emission of carbon dioxide CO2. These sources are expected to be scarce and costly in the coming years. In addition to all these reasons, the problem of the lack of electrical energy supplies in Iraq requires citizens to resort to using solar energy as an alternative and clean source for generating electrical energy. This paper presents an analysis to investigate the economic feasibility between 2 KW photovoltaic solar power system for generating electricity and traditional source of 2 KW gasoline generator to work in the Iraqi climate conditions. The mathematical model of economic analysis is developed based on proposed model developed by previous researches. The life cycle cost (LCC) and payback period (PP) have been used to investigate the economic viability of the photovoltaic solar system for electricity generation.The results of an economic analysis indicated that the 2 KW photovoltaic solar power system is very economical compared with 2 KW gasoline generator where, the payback period for the proposed PV solar system is 12 years with the benefits of 3780 $ (4,518,000 IQD) during the lifetime of the system. The results also showed that the life cycle cost (LCC) of the gasoline generator is very high, which it equals to 12110 $ (14,474,000 IQD) compared with the LCC of the PV solar system for power generation, which it equals 6156 $ (7,357,922 IQD). The results of the economic investigation pointed out that the photovoltaic solar system for electricity generation highly economical to work in Iraq.


Microfinance is the provision of a broad range of financial services such as deposits, loans, payment services. The sector reaches out to 832,794 active borrowers with a loan book amounting to Kshs.28.6 billion and reporting 26.4 % annual growth in Kenya. However, owing to the fact that there is limited literature on the determinants of financial performance, various studies conducted indicate divergent views on the effect of portfolio to assets ratio on financial performance. For this reasons it is not clear whether or not portfolio to assets ratio affect financial performance of microfinance institutions (MFIs) in Kenya.The main objective of the study was to investigate the effect of portfolio to assets ratio on financial performance of MFIs in Kenya. Fixed effect model was the preferred model based on the Hausman specification but the study used random effect model since fixed effect model gave insignificant results. Random effect model results revealed that debt to equity ratio had a negative but insignificant relationship with return on assets ratio. Portfolio to assets ratio had a positive relationship with financial performance but the relationship was not significant. Operating expense ratio had negative and significant relationship with return to assets ratio. The coefficient for lagged return to assets ratio was 0.4733, debt to equity ratio was -0.0026, portfolio to assets ratio was 0.0090 and coefficient for operating expense ratio was -0.1857. P-values for DER was 0.878 , PAR, 0.686 and OER, 0.000.The results for lagged ROA the coefficient was positive and was statistically significant. ARDL model on portfolio to assets ratio preferred model random effect findings revealed that PAR had positive and insignificant relationship with return to assets ratio. Lagged PAR had positive and significant relationship with return to assets ratio.


Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) though are large contributor towards the economy of Nigeria, are faced with epileptic performance resulting into low market share, poor sales growth, and weak profitability. These prevalent challenges have predisposed the SMEs to untimely short down and total eradication in most cases and global inefficiencies. Thus, this study examined the influence of entrepreneurial orientation (EO) on the profitability of SMEs in Lagos State Nigeria. Survey research design was adopted. The target population was 4,535 SMEs in Lagos State. The population comprised SMEs in manufacturing, real estate, agricultural and services sectors in Ikeja, Badagry, Ikorodu, Lagos Island, and Epe of Lagos State. Cochran (1997) sample size formula was used to select sample size of 460 owner-managers. Multistage sampling technique was used in selecting the respondents. A structured questionnaire was adapted and validity established. Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficients for the constructs ranged from 0.79 to 0.95. Four Hundred and Sixty copies of the questionnaire were administered and 99% response rate was recorded. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics The findings of the multiple regression analysis revealed that proactiveness (β = 0.673, t = 11.093, p<0.05) and risk taking (β = 0.751, t = 11.639, p<0.05) have positive significant influence on profitability of SMEs in Lagos State, Nigeria, competitive aggressiveness has a negative significant influence on profitability of SMEs in Lagos State, Nigeria, while autonomy (β = 0.035, t = 0.710, p<0.05) and innovativeness (β = -0.040, t = -0.826, p<0.05) did not have any significant effect on profitability. The study concluded that EO has a significant effect on profitability of SMEs, an index of SMEs performance. Therefore, based on the findings of the study, it is recommended that owners and managers of SMEs should proactively improve on innovating their products, take calculated risk and focus less on their competitors so as to achieve maximal profitability. KEY WORDS: Entrepreneurial Orientation, SMEs, Profitability, Proactiveness, Innovativeness

Comparison of lung capacity change in elderly women []

Background: changes in the thoracic structure, breathing muscle weakness and VC decreases in the elderly, if exercise programs for the elderly can be developed in accordance with age, they will help to prevent VC decreases. Aim of the study: To examine the change of lung capacity of elderly women .Subjects and Methods: The subjects of this study were 55 healthy elderly women over 60 years of age .Subjects were classified in the following age categories: 60s, 70s and 80s. For the pulmonary function test in Damietta chest Hospital a spirometer (Pony FX, COSMED Inc., Italy) was used. The item for measurement of pulmonary function in elderly women was maximum-effort expiratory spirometer (MES). Results: Among items of maximum-effort expiratory spirometer, a significant difference according to age was demonstrated in forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, peak expiratory flow, maximum expiratory flow 75%, maximum expiratory flow 50%, and inspiratory capacity. Conclusion: - as age increases lung capacity decreases remarkably. To prevent decrease in lung capacity as age progresses, Exercise program is essential to beginning at an early age Keywords: Lung capacity, Elderly women.


The objective of this study is to determine the impact of accounting information systems on the effectiveness of automobile companies in Nigeria. The research design of the study is descriptive research method and secondary source was applied in data collection and analysis. The findings of this study indicate that Accounting Information Systems are an important mechanism for organizations’ effective management, decision-making and controlling activities. The results are consistent with empirical reviews which indicated that there exist a relationship between Accounting Information Systems and organizational performance. Accounting Information Systems are an effective decision-making tool for controlling and coordinating the activities of an organization. The study concluded that Accounting Information Systems are critical to the production of quality accounting information on a timely basis and the communication of that information to the decision makers. In other words, empirical findings indicated that accounting information systems have a greater impact on the organizational effectiveness of automobile companies in Nigeria. Keywords: Automobile, Accounting Information Systems, effective Organisation


This paper examines reforms and economic developments in Africa and the opportunities this offers to accounting researchers. The paper provides a contemporary literature review on governance and accountability in Africa, identifying the key developments in public sector reform and the research gaps that still need to be filled. While the paper focuses on Sub-Saharan Africa, the authors draw on examples from Kenya, Nigeria and South Africa – geographically representing east, west, and south of the continent. The paper finds that governance has emerged as a crucial issue that has a significant effect on the economic development of African countries. This has been associated with a myriad of reforms which range from anti-corruption measures to public financial management reforms. The authors find that the implementation and effects of these reforms have not been adequately researched by accounting scholars. Consequently, the authors argued that the recent reform program must be viewed as the initial steps of a much longer journey of economic recovery and sustained growth. Keywords: Governance, Accounting Research, Public Sector Reforms in Africa


Malaria has been a long life-threatening parasitic disease transmitted by female anopheles mosquitoes. Malaria continues to be an economic burden and a great threat globally and almost impossible to eradicate for the past six decades. It is one of the leading causes of illness and death in the tropical part of the world. This study look at the regional trends of malaria cases in Adamawa State. The data were extracted from reported cases of malaria in some selected (12) local government areas of the State between 2008 and 2012. The total number of cases reported was 584980 in the local government areas under study. The study revealed that there was a fluctuating trend occurrence of malaria cases observed in the study areas. Yola North region recorded the highest reported malaria with 202,834 cases, followed by Jada region, Ganye region, Mubi South region, Numan region, Maiha region, Mubi North region, Gombi region, Girei region, Song region, Guyuk region and Toungo region reported the lowest with 3,345 cases. Also, the peak malaria case was observed during 2008 in Yola-North region, while minimum malaria case was observed in Toungo region The study therefore recommends that, there should be malaria control programs which will have a significant impact on the overall control of malaria in the regions and sanitation on malaria cases in some of the selected local government area in the State.


The aim of the research it to determine dose of potassium diformate to be added to feed of Tilapia Nirwana (Orechromis niloticus) that can improve the highest growth and feed efficiency. The research was conducted from 25 April to 20 July 2018 in Aquaculture Laboratorium of The Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science Universitas Padjadjaran. This research used experimental method with a Completely Randomized Design (CRD), which concists of four treatments and four replications. The treatment consist of A (dietary 0% potassium diformate), B (0,3%), C (0,5%) and D (0,7%). Parameters observed in this research are Spesific Growth Rate (SGR), Feed Effeciency (FE), Survival Rate (SR), pH of Intestines and water quality. Data if this research analyzed with F-Test and Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT). The result show significantly that feed added by potassium diformate 0,3% improves the specific growth rate and feed efficiency of Nirwana Tilapia by 3,20% per day and 67,39%, respectively the survival rate of the treatment is 100%.

The Contribution of the Education Sector to Economic Growth: Empirical Analysis from Tunisia []

This article estimates the performance of the educational sector using the test of the university massification for the Tunisian case. By adopting the VAR methodology, and based on data of the higher education for the 1971-2015 period, we try to econometrically analyze the impact of the shocks of the various variables of education on GDP per head. In light of the obtained results, we notice that it is difficult to determine the effective contribution of the educational sector to economic growth. In fact, in a context of higher education massification and the employment crisis, some doubt has arisen about the value of diplomas, and hence about the skills they certify. This uncertainty makes graduates’ employability very difficult. For this reason, we believe it is important to develop various forms of university-industry collaboration in order to reduce this uncertainty and promote an effective transfer of economically useful knowledge to the productive sectors of the economy, which stimulates economic growth.


Background: Epilepsy is one of the major public health problems which provoke a variety of medical, social, psychological and economic burdens especially in developing countries where its incidence and prevalence are thought to be higher. Stigma to epilepsy due to lack of knowledge, attitude and practice among different population groups may influence the nature of treatment and care for Epilepsy. Objective: Is to assess the knowledge, Attitude and practice of epileptic patient toward their illness and its association’s factor who attend to AHMC neurology referral clinic for epilepsy follow up. Methodology: A hospital based prospective cross sectional study was conducted among epilepsy patients on follow-up in AHMC, about 237 PWE who were selected and interviewed. For data collection structured questionnaire with closed ended questions was used as a tool for data collection. Data were entered, cleaned and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Descriptive statistics were done to characterize the study population using different variables. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression models were fitted. Odds ratios were computed to identify factor associated with KAP. Results: A total of 237 epileptic patients, at Neurology referral clinic, were interviewed. Of 237 patients interviewed, 46.8% of the respondents have good knowledge about epilepsy. About 93.8% of the respondents suggested epileptic patient can be employed and work effectively. About 55.4% of the respondents have safe practice toward epilepsy and 97.5% respondent said protect them from danger. Conclusion: In our study it was found that most of the participants have lower knowledge about the cause and its treatment or practice of epilepsy. 46 % had favorable attitude towards epilepsy. Most of them used modern medicine for treatment .Cultural and religious practice push them back to use spiritual treatment, prayers, and holy water. Still lack of knowledge has been considered an important determinant of unfavorable attitudes towards PWE. There is significant association between knowledge and educational status .Therefore this association has positive impact on people to have favorable attitude toward epilepsy. Keywords: Attitude, Epilepsy, Knowledge, Practice, Seizure

Utilizing Reflective Reading towards Developing the Understanding of Grade 6 Students in Philippine History []

This research aims to utilize reflective reading to develop the understanding of the grade 6 students in Philippine History. In order to determine how effective this approach, the research used and gave the fourth quarter test as instrument or source of data. The said test was validated by the subject area coordinator and the principal. In order to treat the data derived from the test, percentage, frequency, mean, standard deviation and ranking were used. A likert scale was also crafted by the researchers in order to describe the scores got by the students. This likert scale has corresponding qualitative description.The Microsoft excel was used to process the data. It was revealed based from the data that the mean scores of the students in all parts of the test from knowledge to transfer were all described as developed. Furthermore, it was revealed that theperformance of the students in the fourth quarter based from the mean scores is developed. This indicates that the reflective reading utilized was effective in developing the understanding of the students in Philippine History. Through this action research, the researchers discovered that reflective reading is an effective approach in developing the understanding of the students in Philippine History based from the number of students who got high scores and were described as developed. The researchers were convinced that this approach must be continuously applied but structured questions must be provided for the students. Structured questions which will serve as guide is very important so that the students know what information they need to remember while doing reflective reading. However, the researchers accept the fact that the result of this study is not conclusive since it only involved small number of students. Hence, it is further recommended that this research must be replicated with the use of experimental method involving two groups to verify the results of this study in the future.


In this research, the microorganisms that contained in prepared EM (effective microorganism) solutions and organic fertilizers were studied. EM solutions were prepared from different conditions such as vegetables waste only, vegetables with soil, vegetables with soil and bat dung, vegetables with bat dung by an aerobic digestion. During the digestion, biogas evolved. The two organic fertilizers were prepared by aerobic and anaerobic methods. The microorganisms were isolated from prepared EM solutions and prepared organic fertilizers according to cultural and microscopic morphology at the Department of Biotechnology, Mandalay Technological University, Myanmar. The microorganisms that contained in prepared EM solutions and prepared organic fertilizers were found to be Bacillaceae, Staphylococcaceae and Leptotrichiaceae and Enterobactriaceae. Moreover, physicochemical properties such as pH, moisture, available nitrogen, available phosphorus, available potassium, organic carbon, carbon-nitrogen ratios of these fertilizers were determined revealing the values of pH 7.07 and 7.16, 7.83% and 9.92% moisture, 1.69% and 1.66% available nitrogen, 1.59% and 1.63% available phosphorus, 1.67% and 1.46% available potassium, 13.03% and 17.48% organic carbon, 7.71 and 10.53 carbon- nitrogen ratio which were based on aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The yield percent of these fertilizers were found to be 50.56% and 46.21%. The elemental contents were examined by using EDXRF Spectrometer. The minerals present in two prepared organic fertilizers were Si 10.71% and 8.70%, Ca 2.12% and 1.76%, Al 2.12% and 1.76%, Fe 1.78% and 1.38%, K 1.51% and 2.05%, P 0.93% and 0.72%, S 0.17% and 0.22% respectively. KEYWORDS: EM solutions, prepared organic fertilizers, microorganisms, aerobic and anaerobic conditions, NPK

Pricing Practices as a Determinant of Performance in Bahir Dar Textile Share Company, Ethiopia []

The study intended to examine pricing practices in case of Bahir Dar Textile Share Company. Marketing strategies are used to apply product into market and attract customers. Their activity needs to match with every single market in different way and managers need to focus on customers’ demands and potential competitors. They have to analyze all factors, which can influence customers’ purchasing power and product choice. Organization’s success is measured by the amount of selling as well as customer satisfaction and behavior which can be influenced by pricing strategy. The main research methodology adopted is descriptive study. The researcher has collected primary data using questionnaire and interview whilst the secondary data were obtained by document analysis. To collect primary data, purposive sampling technique for employees, random sampling for wholesalers, and time location analysis for customers were used. Both qualitative and quantitative analysis techniques mainly descriptive analysis tables, pie charts and percentage were employed. Findings revealed that the top three factors considered when setting the price of the company products are cost of production, competitors’ prices for similar products and desired profit margins. Price sensitivity of customers and selling price of distributors is not taken in to account to set the price. Regarding to discounts and allowances, the company provides cash discount for prompt payment and quantity discount for volume purchase but not trade discounts to distributors for performing distribution functions and promotional allowances for performing some promotional activity. Product is the most important factor and price is second key factor which hampers customer satisfaction and organizational performance. Generally, pricing practices in Bahir Dar Textile Share Company was poor as per the investigation. Keywords: Pricing Practice and Strategies, Discount and Allowance Pricing, Bahir Dar, Textile Share Company, Product

Toxicological studies of new hydrazone derived from isoniazid []

In this study, a new hydrazone was investigated for their adverse effects, such as carcinogenicity, hepatotoxicity, immunotoxicity and cytotoxicity using online software program (ProToxII).


Stimulation Cum Creativity is a fundamental feature of human intelligence, and a challenge for AI. AI techniques can be used to create new ideas in three ways: by producing novel combinations of familiar ideas; by exploring the potential of conceptual spaces; and by making transformations that enable the generation of previously impossible ideas. AI will have less difficulty in modelling the generation of new ideas than in automating their evaluation.


This paper addressed successfully the issue of individual business debt collection negotiation in Brazil. Approxi-mately 62.6 million individuals are registered at the Brazilian Credit Service Protection (Serviço de Proteção ao Crédito – SPC) with overdue accounts in 2018. Therefore, this article shed more light on the subject business debt negotiations and presents a full set of teaching materials with compiled notes, through a two-party role play simu-lation, designed to prevent individual firm’s debt collection from ending in the court of law. This case was chosen because its extensive replicability in business scenarios. There are more debtors in Brazil than inhabitants in Italy. Key findings pointed preparation, value creation, and addressing underlying interests as critical success factors to deal with debt collection negotiation. The case was applied to N=56 participants in a credit recovery executive seminar southern Brazil. Findings are analyzed and discussed here. The role play simulation was conceived essen-tially:(i) to provide negotiators, facilitators, teachers, instructors, practitioners, financial agents, creditors, debt-ors, among others, with tools on how to deal with individual business debt collections; (ii) to prepare negotiators from real life scenarios through mutual gains, and consensus building approaches. Finally, (c) to provoke debates in classroom regarding business negotiations. Future research complete the present work.


Substance consumption and addiction is a disorder characterized by a destructive pattern of excessive and persistent self-administration of a substance by young people, particularly students without regard to the medically or culturally accepted patterns leading to significant problems in universities and by extension, the Nigerian society. Despite the overpowering intervention strategies by many keen stakeholders to curb the problem, the number of university students being suck into the menace seems to be escalating day by day. This study, therefore, examines substance proliferation cum addiction among Nigerian students with a view to rescuing the generation trapped in this uninformed consumption of these hard substances.


The Nigerian society has witnessed tremendous and rapid change through social media, whose large proportion of features is not only anti-Nigerian, but a clog in the preservation of family value system. Online fraud, pornography, nudity, sexual promiscuity, and other obscene materials such as multiple sexual partners which are glorified in social media sites are anti–Nigerian family values. These evils of social media have frustrated the institutionalization of both communal living, sense of decency and proper conduct on one hand, and on the other, creates a disorganized, and grossly fractured family values. To achieve the objectives of the study, three hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Literatures related to the variables were reviewed.

Teachers' Self Efficacy in Relation to Pupils' Academic Performance []

High efficacious teachers affect their pupils' performance in the class. This study determined the significant relationship between teachers' self-efficacy and their pupils' academic performance of the selected districts in the Division of Misamis Occidental during the school year 2017-2018. Seventy-five (75) teachers and 225 pupils responded to the study. The researcher used the Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale to measure teacher efficacy and the first and second grading ratings of the pupils through documentary analysis to determine the pupils' academic performance. Data were analyzed and interpreted using mean, standard deviation, and the Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient. Findings revealed that the level of teachers' self-efficacy was high, and the pupils' academic performance was satisfactory. The teachers' self- efficacy in instructional strategies and student engagement was related to the pupils' performance. Teachers have to conduct an assessment inventory that assesses the pupils' learning styles and intelligence. This may serve as basis in planning instructional strategies for diverse pupils.

An Assessment of the Impact of Selected Demographic Characteristics on Fertility Differentials []

The current fertility rate(FR) reporting in developing and under developed countries of the globe has drawn the attention of national and demographic planners in seeking for solution to reduce the population growth and its attendant global consequences. It is in this light that this study seeks to determine some significant demographic characterization responsible for influencing fertility behavior and differentials. Using a random sample of 570 mothers both from a rural and urban environment, a set of data on demographic characteristics were obtained and analyzed using the binary logistic regression model. Findings revealed a strong evident that the education level of women, location of resident of families and labour participation has significant effect in influencing the fertility of women and perhaps create fertility differentials. In this communication it was observed that women with little or no education, living in rural location and lack of a decent employment is associated with high fertility behavior.


Introduction: WHO estimated that diabetic retinopathy is responsible for 37 million cases of blindness worldwide. Current pregnancy status increases the risk of development and progression of diabetic retinopathy. Hence, in this study we aim to identify the prevalence of retinopathy in pregnant women and the risks associated with it. Materials and methods: A retrospective study of 1054 pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus and known case of diabetes mellitus was conducted. Data obtained from computerized clinical case notes included demographic details, ophthalmology assessment, insulin dosage, HbA1c level, body mass index, mode of delivery and baby’s weight. Results: The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among pregnant woman with gestational diabetes mellitus or chronic diabetes is 0.7%. The risk associated with development of diabetic retinopathy could not be properly assessed as the number of patient with diabetic retinopathy was extremely small (7 patients). Conclusion: Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in pregnant women with diabetes mellitus and gestational diabetes mellitus is low as most patient does not have a longstanding diabetes mellitus which heavily influence the development of diabetic retinopathy.

Spatial and Volumetric Shrinkage of Terminalia catappa (Linn) Wood in Bunu Tai, Rivers State, Nigeria []

The study aimed at spatial and volumetric shrinkage of Terminalia catappa wood in Bunu Tai, Rivers State. The experimental design was Completely Randomized Design at 0.05 probability level, replicated and the data obtained were analysed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Three tree groups of merchantable sizes of T. catapppa were sawn and wood samples of (1-2m) in length at the tree top, middle (4.7m) and at 1.3m height from the ground level (base). The bolts were then processed into 20x20x60mm. The result showed a gradual decrease of the radial shrinkage from base to top along the axial axis: radial shrinkage of individual trees had mean values ranging from 1.09% to 1.82%, while an inconsistent variation in the tangential shrinkage from base to top as it decreased from base to middle and then increased to the top: tangential shrinkage of individual trees had mean values ranging from 3.78% to 4.63%. Longitudinal shrinkage of T. catappa shows also an inconsistent variation as it decreased from base to middle and then increased a little towards the top: 0.48%, 0.41%, and 0.44% respectively. However, the longitudinal shrinkage of individual trees had mean values ranging from 0.37% to 0.49%. Volumetric shrinkage decreased from base to top along the axial axis and volumetric shrinkage of individual trees had mean values ranging from 5.38% to 7.37%. The wood would be suitable for joinery and high pressured services.

A proposed approach for preventing Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) []

In this paper the great threat XSS (Cross-Site Scripting) is introduced, that faced with the web pages. Because of the impacts of such web threats during design and developing web pages, web developers must be aware and have adequate knowledge about varies type of web attacks and how to prevent or mitigate them. Web developers should have knowledge about how attackers attack websites and exploit weak points on websites during filling forms, registering and opening suspicious links or attachments in emails. The important of this subject is to provide great details and information about identifying impacting and protecting from these types of web threats. It aims to provide both web developers and users with enough knowledge while developing and using websites to prevent from such attacks and reduce them impacting and protecting from these types of web threats. It aims to provide both web developers and users with enough knowledge while developing and using websites to prevent from such attacks and reduce them. In this paper use PHP’s functions to evaluate the efficiency of web pages for implementing it and to prevent XSS attack.