Volume 8, Issue 2, February 2020 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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This study sought to establish male partner involvement in preconception care utilization among men in Embakasi East Sub-county, Nairobi City County, Kenya. The study specifically sought to determine the proportion of men involved in preconception care, their knowledge levels, attitude, existence of spousal communication and challenges affecting male partner involvement in preconception care utilization. Most men are the bread winners of their families and sole decision makers; this makes them have a strong influence on women’s health and their access to care. However, it is evident that most men are not involved in preconception care as matters of childbearing are left to women. The study employed descriptive cross-sectional community based study design. The study used both quantitative and qualitative data collection methods. The study targeted a sample size of 422 respondents, who were systematic sampled for study. Quantitative data was collected using semi-structured questionnaires while qualitative data was collected using focused group discussion guides with study respondents and key informant interview schedules with female partners. Quantitative data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 22.0. The results were presented in frequency tables, charts, percentages and graphs. Qualitative data was triangulated with quantitative data as direct quotes or narrations from focused group discussion and key informant interview respondents. Inferential statistics were done using Chi Square tests to determine the association between study variables at 95% confidence interval (p<0.05). The results revealed that only 35% of respondents were involved in utilization of preconception care services. 65% of respondents had low knowledge levels which was significantly associated (p=0.031) with utilization of preconception care. 64% of respondents had negative attitude towards male involvement in preconception care utilization. Spousal communication aspects such as respect for one another’s opinion (p=0.018), commitment to relationship (p=0.001) and talking about preconception care (p=0.013) were associated with male partner involvement in preconception care utilization. The study further revealed that challenges which impeded male involvement in preconception care utilization included lack of access to health facility (p=0.003), time to accompany partners to seek medical care (p=0.002) and institutional practices (p=0.001). The study therefore, revealed low rates of male partner involvement in utilization of preconception care, which was attributed to low knowledge levels and negative attitude towards its utilization. Furthermore, there were low rates (35%) of utilization of male partner involvement in preconception care utilization in Embakasi East sub-county. The study recommends creation of awareness and sensitization programs to the general public through health messages to improve male partner involvement in preconception care utilization.

Board Size; Audit Committee Independence and Returns on equity in Nigeria: A Parallel Study of Both Banking; and Consumer Goods Sectors. []

Good corporate governance practices are regarded as important in reducing risk for investors, attracting investment capital and improving the performance of companies both in the financial and non-financial industries. This study was initiated to empirically carry out a simultaneous investigation of the impact of board size and audit committee independence on firms’ financial performance measures of return on equity in both the banking sector; and consumer goods sector in Nigeria. The aim of the study was to examine board size and audit committee independence influences returns on equity in both banking sector; and consumer goods sector by carrying out concurrent analysis in order to see how the variables- board size and audit committee independence relates to returns on equity in each of the sector. Data for the study were obtained from the audited published annual statement/reports of the listed banks; and consumer goods firms in the Nigerian Stock Exchange representing the period of 2014-2018 financial years. Two null hypotheses were formulated with respect to the two the two sectors to guide the study. The data gathered with respect to the concerned sector were concurrently analyzed using the multiple regressions model via the special package for social sciences (SPSS) version 23. Based on the results from the regression analysis, our findings revealed that board size has no significant relationship with returns on equity in both banking sector; and the consumer goods sector in Nigeria respectively. The study equally revealed the study revealed that ACI has a positive and insignificant relationship with ROE in the Banking sector; while a positive and significant relationship with ROE in the consumer goods sector. On the strength of the above, the study recommended among others, that firms should considered beyond the size the of their board in enhancing financial performance, while adhering strictly to the corporate governance practice of audit committee independence.

The Intrigues of African Politics A Case Study of Uganda []

Abstract In their diverse cultures and ethnic backgrounds, People in the African continent had their way of life that they were accustomed to. There might have been family and ethnic issues but there existed order and harmony. Even without visible boundaries and superior weapons to guard different territories, there were systems and social institutions through which issues were addressed. The relationship between rulers and their subjects was cordial. social responsibility and mutual respect were the fabric that held many communities together. However, between the 1870s and 1960s, Africa was subjected to European imperialism, aggression, military oppression and cultural disruptions. When the European finally left, great damage had been done that the African countries have struggled to restore. A half a century later, the African continent has not achieved economic and political emancipation. The social relation has been ruined by ethnic animosity, leader’s deception, and economic exploitation. Among the 47 least developed countries in the world, 33 of them are from sub-Sahara Africa. Africa’s cumulative progress when compared to human development attained in developing regions of the world is discouraging. . This research paper follows the over one and half a century of the East Africa region's social, economic and political development with a focus on Uganda. It traces the history of British colonialism in the region and the consequences of their rule as reflected in the present situation of Ugandan Politics. The research adopts the content analysis of written sources and descriptive approach of Uganda, before, during and after colonialism. The research aims to answer the question, what are the factors that influence politics in Uganda? The research utilizes literary and historical texts, articles, journals, critical essays, books/book chapters, and newspaper reports to support the hypothesis that the current political instability, social disorder and economic crisis in Uganda stems from ethnicity, religion, political parties, and the colonial legacy. Keywords: Politics.

Strength of Concrete Produced from River Sands Sourced from Abuja Environs []

This research work is aimed at investigating the effect of silt and clay content contained in river bed fine sand on concrete strength. It is also aimed at establishing the percentage at which silt and clay in river bed fine sands are not suitable for concrete production. Five major locations where large deposit of river bed fine sand is being used for concrete works in Abuja and environ were identified. Samples were collected from these locations namely; Bwari as sample 1, Mararaba as sample 2, Kuje as sample 3, Jere as sample 4 and Gwagwalada as sample 5. The percentage of silt and clay in each sample was determined. Thereafter, sixty (60) standard concrete cubes (150 x 150 x 150 mm) using a 1: 2: 4 mix ratio and water - cement ratio of 0.5 were cast for the samples and crushed at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days and the compressive strength determined. In order to maintain constant mixing batch in all the samples, the same coarse aggregates, cement and water mix ratio were used with these fine aggregate samples. Noticeably, the concrete produced from these fine aggregate samples did not have the same compressive strength, as samples 1, 2 and 5 with higher percentage of silt and clay content, compressive strength was below the specified value of 13.5N/mm2 for 7 days and 20N/mm2 for 28 days using mix 1:2:4.

The effects of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial passion: the case of university for development studies students, Ghana []

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of entrepreneurship education on the entrepreneurial spirit of students, with the mediation role of the perceived feasibility and moderate effects on goal orientation. The nature of the study is cross-sectional data using quantitative methods via questionnaire. This study using stratified sampling techniques and data collected from 340 students in Ghana. Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypothesis. The results of this study revealed that entrepreneurship education has a positive and significant impact on the entrepreneurial passion. Perceived feasibility has positive and significant effect on entrepreneurial education and entrepreneurial passion. In addition, the findings indicate that the perceived feasibility of having a partial mediating role between entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurial passion. In addition, research shows the moderating effect of high orientation in order to strengthen the relationship between entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurial passion.

Effect of Dialectical Behavior Therapy on Trait-Emotional Intelligence and Emotional Regulation of Suicidal Patients in Pakistani context []

This study was intended to evaluate the effectiveness of dialectical behavior therapy for the enhancement in trait-emotional intelligence and emotional regulation among suicidal patients in clinical setting of Pakistan. The following hypotheses were formulated on the basis of previous research studies- 1. Dialectical behavior therapy would increase the level of trait-emotional intelligence among suicidal patients. 2. Dialectical behavior therapy would increase the level of emotional regulation among suicidal patients. The sample of this study was N=10, single, males and females, within the age range 20-30 years, with at least 14 years of education. The participants were diagnosed with depressive disorder with at least one suicidal attempt in the previous year. Quantitative research design, single group pre and post treatment was used. Ten sessions were conducted thrice a week for 45 minutes per session with each participant including pretest, therapy and posttest. The participants were selected by using non-probability purposive sampling. The tools of data collection were informed consent, demographic form and the following scales, Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-short form (TEI Que-SF) developed by Petrides (2003) and Emotional Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ) by Gross and John (2003). Paired sample t-test was applied to compare the difference among study variables due to dialectical behavior therapy. The differences were also significant for the increase in the level of trait-emotional intelligence at ***P=<.001 and emotion regulation at **P=<.01 among the suicidal patients. Keywords- Dialectical Behavior Therapy, Trait-Emotional Intelligence, Emotional Regulation, Suicidal, Patients, Young Adults


The administration and alliance of logistic is very important for the efficiency of the supply chain thus the research aims to examine the encouragement of logistics alliance on supply chain presentation. A questionnaire covering the determinants of collaborative practices in the supply chain like managerial assurance, infrastructure, expectation, interdependence, top management engagement and technology was employed to gather the data including 306 employees from supply chain department of cement industries. The variables infrastructure, interdependence, top management engagement, organizational commitment, and technology, were found significantly related to supply chain performance in cement industries. However, variable trust among supply chain partners did not have any influence on supply chain performance. It was found that the organizational Commitment, Interdependence, Technology, Infrastructure, and top managerial involvement for supply chain practices can result in better management practices. However, results are limited to the context of cement industries and are not generalizable. Future research with increased sample size and broader scope is recommended to obtain a clearer concept of the determinants of logistic collaboration and its influence on supply chain practices.


Urbanization has a significant effect on the residents’ life. Thus, this article was designed to analyze the residential status of households in sub urban area of Wolaita Sodo town. In order to achieve the objective, the collected data were analyzed through descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation, standard error and percent) and inferential statistics (t-test and chi-square). Hence, the result revealed that variables like family size, age of household head and farmland size belongs to residents were significantly associated with evicted household residents than non-evicted ones at 5 percent significant level. However, variables like dependency ratio, saving status of households and sex of household heads were insignificantly associated with residential status of households at 5 percent significant level in the study area. Hence, it was possible to conclude that family size, age of household heads and farm land size were significantly affecting residential status of sub-urban households in the study area.

Development, Implementation and Usage of an Automated Body Mass Index (ABMI) System []

Body Mass Index (BMI) is a non-invasive method employed to measure the body fat accumulation using the individual’s weight and height. The obesity is therefore the major public health risk in the world. This is associated with a lot of disease such as hypertension, type-2 diabetes mellitus, kidney disease, respiratory problems, degenerative joint disease, cardiovascular disease etc. The purpose of this work was to design and fabricate a locally made Arduino based automated Body Mass Index (BMI) machine with Liquid Crystal Display (LCD), that works on the principle of Hooke’s law and acoustic ultrasound waves, that is affordable, accurate, rugged, accessible for individuals for regular check of obesity status. The hardware of the project consists of 4-load cells for the weight and an ultrasonic sensor for the height measurement, while the Arduino microcontroller circuitry does the automatic computation of the BMI. The machine was used in the calculation of the BMI of sixty randomly chosen ABUAD students made up of 22 males and 38 females. The heights and weights of the same students were also measured manually as reference. The values obtained from manual and designed automated BMI machines are relatively agreed with standard errors of 0.01, 0.35, 0.12, for height, weight and BMI respectively.


This study was conducted to determine the correlation between behavior and blood pressure and blood glucose level in Tadukan Raga village population, STM Hilir District, Deli Serdang. This is a quantitative study that used a descriptive method and cross-sectional approach with dependent and independent variables. The samples were collected at the same time to determine the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable. This study used a total sample of 100 participants. The location taken for this study was Tadukan Raga Village, STM Hilir District, Deli Serdang, North Sumatera. This study was conducted from November 2019 until the end of the study. Data were collected using a structured interview based on a previously compiled questionnaire guide and measurement of blood glucose and blood pressure. The data were analyzed using chi-square and obtained a p-value of 0.013. The p-value was < 0.05, thus Ho was rejected, and Ha was supported. There was a correlation between behavior and blood glucose level in Tadukan Raga population, STM Hilir District, Deli Serdang. The conclusion of this study was there was a correlation between behavior and blood pressure and blood glucose level in Tadukan Raga population, STM Hilir District, Deli Serdang.


The study examined the environmental and socio-cultural influences of religious tourism on host communities in south-east Nigeria. The study identified religious activities occurring in various religious sites and examined the influences of the religious activities on the socio-cultural and natural environment of host communities of south-eastern Nigeria. 3 objectives of the study was raised and two hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. Survey research design was adopted for the study. The study was carried out in five communities, Umuopara in Umuahia south Local Government Area, Abia State, Uke in Idemili North Local Government Area, Anambra State, Umuchigbo Iji-nike, Emene in Enugu east Local Government Area, Enugu State, Ugwuachara in Nkaliki Achara Unuhu in Ebonyi Local Government Area, Ebonyi State and Arondizogu in Ideto North Local Government Area, Imo State. The population for the study was 139,633 and the sample size comprised 399 residents from the five communities. Three hundred and ninety nine copies of structured questionnaire consisting of two sections were administered to the respondents and focus group discussion was conducted with five groups consisting of different ages of men and women. The data generated for the study were analyzed using mean and ANOVA statistical tools. The decision rule for mean stated that any mean above 3.0 was considered as positive and the decision rule of ANOVA stated that if the F calculated is greater than F tabulated, the null hypothesis is rejected and the alternative hypothesis accepted. The major findings were; major religious activities identified were adoration, traditional festival and other Christian activities, the economic and socio-cultural lives of host communities were improved by religious activities taking place in the various communities, the religious stakeholders and tourist disrespect the culture of host communities, the religious activities had positive influences on the natural environment of host communities but there were slight negative influence, particularly the degradation of natural environment of host communities by visitors and noise and waste pollution. Based on the findings, it was recommended that there is a need for the cultural and natural environments of the communities to be preserved through use of sustainability policies and practices of natural and socio-cultural lives of host communities. Government should ensure that religious stakeholders carry out environmental impact assessment (EIA) processes depending on the magnitude before any development is done. Host communities should ensure supervision of proper drainage and waste disposal system are constructed by religious stakeholders in the communities to curb pollution. Awareness campaign should be conducted to enlighten tourism stakeholders and host communities on the importance of preserving and sustaining the cultural heritage of the people and the natural environment to avoid loss of identity of race and environmental hazards.

Office Layout and Employee Efficiency of Manufacturing Companies in Port Harcourt []

This study examined the relationship between office layout and employee efficiency of manufacturing companies in Port Harcourt. The study adopted the cross-sectional survey design. Primary data was generated through structured questionnaire. The population of the study was 253 employees of seven (7) selected manufacturing companies in Port Harcourt. The sample size of 154 was determined using the Taro Yamane’s formula for sample size determination. The reliability of the instrument was achieved by the use of the Cronbach Alpha coefficient with all the items scoring above 0.70. The hypotheses were tested using the Spearman’s Rank Order Correlation Coefficient. The tests were carried out at a 95% confidence interval and a 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study revealed that there is a significant relationship between office layout and employee efficiency of manufacturing companies in Port Harcourt. The study recommends that manufacturing companies should solve workplace design problems and provide employees with comfortable, attractive workplace that support employee satisfaction and well being.


Abstract Kaduna state urban planning and development authority (KASUPDA) is physical agency saddled with the responsibility of urban and suburbs development and ensuring adherence of development control regulations by developers in Kaduna. This research assesses the role of KASUPDA in the development of Narayi. This research was intended to verify the extent of which KASUPDA has affected the development of Narayi. Field work, questionnaire and documentary materials form the sources of data and information for this work. This reveals the ineffectiveness of development control system, unplanned physical development, haphazard development, violation, and height of wall in many places. A case has been made for the need to evolve and effective system in order to ensure the orderly growth and development of Narayi and other suburbs such as public enlightenment and participation equipment and materials to enhance development control, and need for employment of more professionals personnel should be carried out by KASUPDA in other to control development in Narayi and other suburbs in general.


This study analysed principals’ awareness of total quality management strategies in secondary schools in Rivers State. Three research questions were answered and three null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The descriptive survey design was adopted with a sample of 257 study participants made up of 208 male principals and 49 female principals of public senior secondary schools in the state. A structured questionnaire (QATQMS) was used as data instrument. The instrument was validated by three experts. Internal consistency co-efficient of 0.82 was obtained for the questionnaire using Kudder-Richardson (K-R 21) formula. Data were analyzed using frequencies and percentages for research questions, while chi-square statistics was used for hypotheses. The p-value was used to determine the significance of difference at 0.05 significant level. The result revealed that principals in Rivers State are aware of the three strategies of TQM which are: teacher development, teamwork and community involvement. From the result of the hypotheses, no significant difference was established in the responses of principals on all the variables of the study. The study recommended among others that the Rivers State Senior Secondary School Board in collaboration with the state ministry of education should make provision for intensive training of principals in TQM in order to increase their awareness and interest in the concept.

State responsiveness to communities quality health service delivery demands: The Case of Zimbabwe, Shamva District. []

This study examined whether the state (health officials) responded to communities demands of having quality health service delivery in Shamva district. The study sought to understand how the health officials in Shamva district responded to issues raised by communities. The study was guided by interpretive paradigm and utilised qualitative research methodology. The data generating instruments used by the study were individual interviews with community members who visited the health centres during the presence of the research team, focus group discussions, key informant interviews and participant observation. The key finding was that health officials in Shamva district partially responded to communities complaints of poor-quality service delivery. The study concluded that lack of adequate budgets and full autonomy to Shamva district hindered health officials to respond to communities demands of quality health services. The major recommendation is that government should fully decentralise health services and provide resources for districts to respond to poor health service delivery concerns.


ABSTRACT Raw Samma(Urtica simensis) leaves of four genotypes obtained from four local districts(Chancho, Fitche, Debretsige and debrelibanos) were analyzed for their proximate and chemical composition. The ranges of proximate composition that included moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre, ash and total carbohydrate in raw leaves of the four genotypes (Debrelibanos, Fitche, Debretsige and Chancho) were found to be 84.80-86.40, 18.99-24.50, 2.84-7.01, 7.83-9.43, 19.39-29.48 and 23.33-41.53%, respectively. Ascorbic acid, condensed tannin, pH and Total soluble solid contents of these genotypes ranged 61.82-87.88, 31.80-37.09, 8.31-8.38 and 7.11-8.51,respectively. Similarly, iron, zinc and calcium ranged 36.52-38.40, 6.18-7.13 and 675.711.56 mg/100g, respectively. This study clearly showed that Samma leaves have higher micro and macro nutritional content than other commonly cultivated and consumed vegetables. Therefore, consuming this vegetable makes it inexpensive and high-quality nutrition source especially for the poor segment of the population where malnutrition is prevalent. Keyword: Nutritional composition, Samma, Proximate composition, Urtica simensis.

Awareness of Tetanus Toxoid vaccination by pregnant women attending Antenatal Clinic in Districts: Lahore & Sheikhupura-Pakistan. []

Tetanus could occur during pregnancy or within six weeks after delivery. For this purpose World Health Organization (WHO) introduced Tetanus Toxoid (TT) vaccine as the primary vaccines that only targeting Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus disease. The main purpose of the study was to investigate the level of awareness of Tetanus Toxoid (TT) vaccination during pregnancy among pregnant women attending Antenatal Clinic in Districts: Lahore & Sheikhupura-Pakistan. For this purpose, the author randomly selected 300 pregnant women from two Districts: Lahore & Sheikhupura-Pakistan, who have heard about Tetanus Toxoid vaccination usage. After this, the required data was collected through exploratory/explanatory research methods and here semi-structured questionnaire was used for the collection of required data, which consisted of three phases. The first phase consists on socio-economic demographic, second is awareness of tetanus toxoid vaccine and third one is respondents’ response about tetanus toxoid vaccine. Results reveal that mostly pregnant women are well aware of the Signs & Symptoms of Tetanus Toxoid Vaccine and also its importance in the pregnant women life, which vaccine plays an important role to save her and her baby’ life from the chronic diseases like: Joint Pain, Opisthotonus, Fever and sweating, Changes in blood pressure and a fast heart rate, Vomiting, Diarrhea and Headache etc. and all these qualities of this vaccine attracted to the pregnant women toward themselves. Finally, some suggestions are given at the end of paper through which we enhance the knowledge of pregnant women about Tetanus Toxoid vaccination.


The purpose of this study was to ascertain principals’ application of total quality management strategies for school improvement in secondary schools in Rivers State. Three research questions were answered and three null hypotheses were tested in the study. The descriptive survey design was adopted with a sample of 257 study participants, made up of 208 male principals and 49 female principals of public senior secondary schools in the state. A structured questionnaire (QATQMS) was developed and was used as data instrument. The instrument was validated by two experts in educational management and policy; and one expert in educational measurement and evaluation. Internal consistency co-efficients of 0.87, 0.63 and 0.83 were obtained for the three sections of the questionnaire using Cronbach Alpha method. Data were analyzed using mean for research questions, and t-test analysis for hypotheses. The p-value was used to determine the significance of difference at 0.05 significant level for all hypotheses. The findings revealed that Rivers State principals apply two strategies of TQM which are focus on learning process and decentralized management, but do not apply non-threatening assessment strategies. From the results of the hypotheses, no significant difference was established in the responses of principals on all the variables of the study. It was recommended among others that principals should be willing to open up to ideas, information and experiences concerning TQM. This will help predispose them to embrace and commit to application of the strategies of TQM in schools.

Appraisal of Regimes’ Agricultural Policies Relative to Nigeria’s Economic Growth: A Graphical Exploration []

The paper assesses the contribution of regimes agricultural policies to economic growth in Nigeria via graphical exploration. Yearly data set on agricultural sector output and real gross domestic product (RGDP) used for analysis covered the period of 1981 to 2018. Graphical analysis based on the ratio growth (percentage ratio of agricultural sector output to RGDP) showed that the regime of (1999-2007) President Olusegun Obasanjo has the highest agricultural sector output contribution to real GDP growth with about 26% ratio growth value than any other regime. Hence, the regimes agricultural policy is said to be more proactive than any other for the period under study. However, boosting agricultural sector through practical policy will successfully stimulate economic growth in Nigeria.


This article investigates the effect of microfinance institutions program on small and medium enterprises financing in Ghana. It also examines SME's contributions to Ghana's economy, challenges microfinance institutions faced in issuing a credit to the SMEs and the contribution of microfinance institutions towards SMEs' growth in the country. The analysis indicates that microfinance institutions are the major institution that supports small and medium enterprises with credit in Ghana. Also, SME's role in economic development is overwhelming through Skills and knowledge developing, creation of employment, women empowerment, and support to large companies. Again, the result from the findings shows that: Microfinance institutions have a positive effect on SME's growth & development by providing them with credit, organizing training programs, advice on credit utilization, risk management and how to build a savings and investment culture. However, despite the contribution of microfinance to SMEs development, both the SMEs and MFIs have challenges in the country and the challenges of SMEs are Lack of capital, inadequate managerial skills, lack of formal education, poor marketing skills, and electricity issues. While the challenges of microfinance institutions include: High default rate, lack of information on SMEs loan applicants, regulatory issues, politics, and policies. In conclusion, both MFIs and SMEs are crucial to the development of the economy and the government needs to encourage and support them to be in long term operations. Finally, the researcher recommends that: There should be proper credit monitoring and supervision by microfinance institutions to ensure that SMEs use the loans offered to them judiciously to reduce their default rate for long term sustainability to be ensured.


This examination system is specifically designed for blind people which helps them to attend their examination on their own without seeking the help of any other person. At present blind people take exams through braille or with the help of a writer (scribes) who performs on behalf of them. The proposed system allows visually challenged people to take exams online. The system dictates the questions for the candidate through Speech Synthesis (text to speech conversion) and their response could be recorded with the help of Speech Recognition (speech to text conversion).The recorded response can be stored in a database. This helps to improve the career growth of the visually challenged people.


ABSTRACT This study evaluates the effect of government monetary policies on the performance of selected deposit money banks in Nigeria. The independent variables used in the study are Liquidity ratio, Cash reserve ratio and Interest rate while Return on asset is used as dependent variable. Secondary data were used, which were extracted from Central Bank statistical bulletin and the audited annual reports of the selected deposit money banks for the period 2014 - 2018. The study employed correlation and ex-post facto research designs and multiple regressions were used for data analysis. The study finds that liquidity ratio has positive but insignificant effect on return on asset of sampled deposit money banks in Nigeria. The study also found that cash reserve ratio and interest rate have negative and insignificant effects on return on asset of sampled deposit money banks in Nigeria. In view of the findings from the study, the study therefore, recommended that the management of deposit money banks in Nigeria should look beyond monetary policy instruments and think of investment that will enhance their profits. One important and major implication is that, cash reserve ratio and interest rate do not improve significantly the financial performance of selected deposit money banks in Nigeria.

A Systematic Review of Therapeutic Interventions of Autistic Spectrum Disorders: Findings and Implications []

Introduction: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are an emerging health problem worldwide, particularly in Africa, but little is known about their pathogenesis. In addition, little is known about the burden of ASD in Africa, and there is currently no clear intervention nor policy guidelines to improve the lives of affected individuals. There is evidence in literature to support the on-going hypotheses of GABAergic abnormalities in ASD. Consequently, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) modulators may be a potential treatment for people with ASD. However, this needs to be shown. Objective: Undertake a systematic review of recent studies and clinical trials of GABA modulators in ASD in order to guide research, interventions, and policy in Africa. Results: The findings from the systematic review support the studied drugs, particularly bumetanide, valproate, and acamprosate, as potentially effective and tolerable for individuals with ASD. However, there is limited evidence to support the use of these medicines for the treatment of the core symptoms of ASD. Consequently, additional studies concerning these medicines as a potential treatment are warranted. Conclusion: There appears to be a strong evidence-base that GABA modulators may be effective in the treatment of ASD. However, given current concerns, larger-scale randomized trials are needed in the near future to guide future guidelines and policies.

State Intervention Strategies Dealing with Domestic Violence in Vihiga County, Kenya []

State intervention strategies undertaken to manage domestic violence in Vihiga County of Kenya remain a challenge due to recurring domestic violence offences. The justice system has lapses in enforcing the law on domestic violence in Vihiga County despite the law enforcement by the state. The study revealed gross human rights violations, perpetration and manifestations of physical, sexual, psychological and emotional violence against household individuals in Vihiga County. The overall objective of the study was to examine state intervention strategies in the management of domestic violence in Vihiga County, Kenya. The Specific objectives examined the nature and extent of domestic violence, assessed state intervention strategies in dealing with domestic violence and sought to find out the challenges encountered by the government in combating domestic violence in Vihiga County, Kenya. The research was informed by a conceptual framework, liberal peace and feminist theories that were instrumental in literature review, identification of study gaps and compilation of the findings. The study adopted both qualitative and quantitative research techniques in data collection and analysis. Descriptive research design was employed to examine state intervention strategies in the management of domestic violence in Vihiga County, Kenya. The study sampled 400 respondents using random and purposive sampling. The study sample comprised of 338 Household heads randomly sampled while purposive sampling was applied to get 4 Court Officers, 4 Children Protection Officers, 41 Assistant Chiefs and 13 Police Officers who took part in the study. Closed-ended 5 point Likert Scale questionnaire, interview and FGD guide was employed for data collection. Qualitative data was thematically cleaned, coded and analyzed while quantitative data from questionnaires was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) and Excel then presented in frequency tables, bar graphs and pie charts in accordance to the study variables. Cronbachs alpha was used to validate research instruments on content and reliability valued at 0.79. The study established that domestic violence was commonly perpetrated to male, females and children in families in Vihiga County. The existing law enforcement strategies and institutions have challenges in providing justice to victims and prosecuting perpetrators of domestic violence in Vihiga County. Both constitutional and non-violent conflict management strategies were used in combating domestic violence by the law enforcers and the community. The findings show that domestic violence legislation has challenges due to lack of institutional records, ineffective forensic investigation due to lack of equipment and qualified personnel, corruption, failure of witness to provide information, escape of perpetrators, compromise of law enforcers and community elders during arbitration. Technology, illiteracy, poverty, aggression and patriarchal practices were cited as factors contributing to family violence in the study area. The study recommended Vihiga County Government to effectively enforce domestic violence laws and protocols to prevent domestic violence in Vihiga County. The findings revealed domestic violence had lapses in legislation of family laws by enforcement institutions prompting personnel training needs to enhance integrated proactive human rights based approaches for effective management. The government should restructure the legal framework on domestic violence offences to protect citizens against family violence in Kenya. The findings therefore filled the gap on state intervention strategies in the management of domestic violence in Vihiga County, Kenya. The study recommended for the need effective interventions strategies that encompass individuals, community leaders, government officials and non-governmental organizations in preventing and addressing domestic violence in Kenya.


ABSTRACT This study focused on the Effects of Female Role Model on students’ Academic Achievement in Science Subjects in Delta State Secondary Schools. The stratified random sampling technique was adopted. The instrument used was Female role Model on Science Questionnaire (SAFMSQ) by the researcher after reviewing extensively on the related literature and the records of students Senior School Certificate Examination (SSCE) results from the Post Primary Education Board (PPEB), Asaba Delta State from 2013/2014-2016/2017 academic sessions. The populations for the subjects were 3,400 students in secondary schools. One research question and hypothesis was formulated to guide the study. Data were collected and analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) according to the research objectives of the study. The hypothesis was tested at 0.05 level of significance. Research Hypothesis was analyzed using Linear Regression model. A hypothesis decision was based on the p-values of the model. The homogeneity of the variance is supported by Levene’s test for equality of variance. The result show that there was significant difference observed in the research. Based on the findings, it was therefore recommended that Educational experiences should also serve to build confidence among females with regard to application of science knowledge and skills and Teachers should humanize science by developing the right attitude that students will emulates to enhance female participation and performance in science subjects. Keywords: Female Role Model, Gender, Science, Academic Achievement.


Grab is an O2O (online to offline) platform where O2O attracts customers through online media such as email, internet advertis-ing or social media, then invites these customers to shop offline. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of service quality and marketing mix on customer satisfaction and loyalty in Grab application service users in Makassar. The research design uses qualitative research conducted at Grab companies in 2018 as an online service. Data analysis techniques using path analysis. Hypothesis testing results are that X1 has a positive and significant effect on Y1, X2 has a positive and significant effect on Y1, X1 has an insignificant influence on Y2, X2 has a positive and significant effect on Y2, X1 has a negative and not significant effect on Y2 through Y1 , and X2 has a positive and significant effect on Y2.

A Rare bilateral breast tumor: Primary breast sarcoma and intracystic papillary carcinoma []

Bilateral synchronous breast cancer (BSBC) is not a rare entity. This bilaterality can be diagnosed at the same time or during an interval of six months. The bilaterality as well as the multicentricity of a breast cancer in fact reflects the capacity of the neoplastic transformation to appear in different places of the breast tissue independently, simultaneous or not. Bilateral synchronous tumors are considered independent when they have different histological and immunohistochemical characteristics. We report the observation of a 53-year-old patient with concomitant bilateral invasive breast cancer: this is an intracystic papillary carcinoma of the right side and a primary high-grade sarcoma on the left side.


The study is on benchmarking for institutional effectiveness in public universities in Akwa Ibom State. The study worked with two research questions and two hypotheses, and descriptive survey design was adopted and the population of the study consist all the public universities in Rivers State which consists of all the 121 Heads of Departments in the public universities in Akwa Ibom State. 79 (65%) and 32(35%) HODs were from federal and state university respectively. The sample of the population consists of 92 (HOD’s) determined through a stratified random sampling technique. The study adopted a researcher designed instrument captioned “University Benchmark Scale (UBS)” with a reliability coefficient of 0.84. Mean and standard deviation was used to answer the research question and while z-test was used to analyse the hypotheses. The study revealed that classroom design and conditions, documentation process, admission processes, registration process among others are the areas to be benchmarked and hence concluded that benchmarking is a viable approach to develop businesses and institutions, based on the conclusion, it was recommended among others that The educational administrators, government, policy makers and other stakeholders should look out for the characteristics which may be reflected through the various rankings and those suggested by this study to ensure that institutions are right institutions to be benchmarked.

Impact of Administrative Empowerment on Organizational Belongingness: Evidence from Bahrain []

The aim of this research is to identify the impact of administrative empowerment (teamwork, independence, training & participation) on organizational belongingness of employees at the Ministry of Industry, Trade and Tourism in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Two hundred and twelve employees were surveyed through a comprehensive inventory method. The analysis is based on the outcomes of the questionnaire survey that was given out to the sample of the employees of the Ministry of Industry, Trade and Tourism. The researchers hypothesized that there is a positive significant impact for the administrative empowerment (teamwork, independence, training & participation) on organizational belongingness of employees at the Ministry of Industry, Trade and Tourism in the Kingdom of Bahrain. The findings reveal that there is a positive significant impact for the administrative empowerment (teamwork, independence, training & participation) on organizational belongingness of the employees at the Ministry of Industry, Trade and Tourism in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Moreover, the results indicate that there is no significant differences relating to the impact of administrative empowerment (teamwork, independence, training & participation) on organizational belongingness of employees at the Ministry of Industry, Trade and Tourism in the Kingdom of Bahrain due to the demographics (gender, age, qualification, years of experience and position).


The focus of this study centered on gender and gender equality, equal gender participation, library and information service provision on equal gender participation and challenges faced by librarians and libraries in information service provision on gender participation. The findings show that there are many obstacles that librarians and libraries encounter in meeting this responsibility. It further revealed that the problem of internet connectivity is a big challenge that can hinder partnership between libraries and other agencies advocating for equal gender participation among others. Recommendations were made on what to be done to further improve the quality of our service delivery on the matter of discourse to make the librarians and the libraries to face future challenges. In ensuring gender participation in the country, there is need for information on this subject matter. Sensitization and awareness of the female gender should be put in place; as it is a common saying that a person who does not know his/her worth cannot meet up to the expectations of the society. In the realization of this, librarians are at the core front of providing information services to achieve this vision.


Financial performance is one of the company's internal factors and Foreign Shareholder is the company's external factors that can increase the company's valuation which add to while foreign shareholder in state-owned companies is limited to below 51%. this research to determine the effect of financial performance on company value with foreign shareholders as an intervening variable on state-owned companies listed on the IDX. The sample of this research is state-owned companies that went public since 2013-2017. Research data is quantitative data in the form of financial performance data used as a measure in this study are ROA and DER, and financial reports relating to Foreign Shareholders and calculation of company value from the results of company publications on the IDX website and or the site of each stateowned companies. The data and information are analyzed by Analysis path analysis method or path analysis using Smart PLS 3 software for windows. This method is used to solve problems and prove the truth of research hypotheses. results of this research indicate that ROA has no significant effect on company with a P value of 0.824, but DER has a significant effect value with P value of 0,000. ROA has a positive influence on foreign shareholders with P. value of 0,000 Similarly, DER has a positive effect on foreign shareholders of P value of 0,000. Furthermore, foreign shareholders have no significant effect on the, company value P value of 0.097. The value of the influence of Foreign shareholders as an intervening variable on ROA on the company value is P value 0.099 and on theDER on the company value is P value 0.26. It was concluded that although financial performance has a significant and or not significant effect on company value, but because foreign shareholders do not have a significant effect on company value, foreign shareholders cannot be intervening variables on the effect of financial performance on company value.

Assessment of professional ethics in real estate construction projects . []

ABSTRACT Professional ethics plays a vital role in the construction industry, for a country like Ethiopia clients are the major participants on the implementation of projects. Other stakeholders namely, the consultant involves on bid preparation and the contractor under take the construction work. On the process from the first phase to the last phase failing to implement ethical professional rules and regulations, guidelines and codes of standards will enhance lack of major quality performance problem, cost overrun and delay.  This paper appraises the assessment of professional ethics problems and unethical conduct influence performance in the construction industry, particularly in the housing and real estate projects. The impact on the construction industry at large and cost overrun and delay related disruption in few will be forwarded to use as an offer to assess the problem of professional unethical issues.    The study concepts had developed through literature survey that enables the assessment.  In order to reinforce the research’s specific objectives some, review of related literature has been made. And Questionnaires were prepared based on the past studies and used to assess the ethical factors. The research result shows that organizational commitments, work ethics, job involvement, job satisfaction factors can affect the ethics of the professionals in the construction industry. Finally, based on the analysis of the results, recommendations for contractors and other stake holders had been proposed that enables to reduce the impacts of un ethical behaviors. Key Words: professional, code of conduct, job satisfaction, job involvement organizational commitment