Volume 8, Issue 2, February 2020 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Availability of feed with appropriate amount and nutrient content are important for determining size of population, growth, and reproduction of fish. The nutritional contents needed by fish are protein, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and minerals. However, the rapid development of aquaculture causes increasing demand of quality feed. In addition, another challenge in aquaculture is the high cost of feed ingredients. Therefore, alternative feed ingredients that are cheap and have good nutritional content need to be developed. This review aims to explain the various alternative feeds for aquaculture such as banana peels, palm kernel meal, soybean, and spirulina. These alternative feed ingredi-ents contain adequate nutrition such as protein, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, and minerals. Keyword : Feed, banana, palm meal, soybean, spirulina

Federalism and Ethnic Conflict in Ethiopia: Problems and Prospects []

In 1991, Ethiopia established an ethnic federal system that gave full recognition to ethnic autonomy, while maintaining the unity of the state. Its constitution provides for the secession of ethnic units, as an exception to the general pattern in Africa. Its new constitution created a federal system largely consisting of ethnic-based territorial units as a reaction to some long-standing historic conflicts. But old conflicts became more entrenched and new conflicts are escalating along regional states due to different reasons. Consequently, federalism in Ethiopia experienced one of the conflicting area and inter-displaced populous state in the world. In doing so, this article explores the structure of ethnic federalism, causes and consequences of ethnic federalism and future prospects of the contemporary Ethiopia.

A Review of Construction Company Case Studies of Safety and Healthiness Equipment Involvements []

This paper displays an audit of 153 contextual investigations of hardware mediations to improve security and wellbeing of development organizations in Ohio in 2003–2016. These speak to $6.46 million (2016 USD) in buys boosted through the Ohio Bureau of Workers' Compensation (OHBWC) Safety Intervention Grant (SIG) program. The source information in the survey were extricated from boss award applications and last reports of the contextual investigations. Results were accumulated by kind of development hardware and remembered the decrease for wellbeing and ergonomic perils (hazard factors for business related musculoskeletal issue), and an evaluation of the nature of the contextual investigations as decided through criteria estab-lished by the creators. Hardware related with most prominent decrease in hazard factors and with contextual investigations of greater were electrical link encouraging/pulling frameworks, concrete sawing gear, slip steer connections for solid breaking, and manlifts (blast lifts). This survey delineates difficulties in exhibiting viability of hardware mediations to improve development security/wellbeing—even from contextual investigations inside an organized wellbeing/security program.

Employee dedication and Organizational Health of Construction Companies in Port Harcourt []

This study investigated the relationship between employee dedication and organizational health of construction companies in Port Harcourt. The study adopted the cross-sectional survey in its investigation of the variables. Primary data was generated through self- administered questionnaire. The population of the study was 197 employees of six (6) construction companies in Port Harcourt. The sample size of 132 was determined using the Taro Yamane’s formula for sample size determination. The research instrument was validated through supervisor’s vetting and approval while the reliability of the instrument was achieved by the use of the Cronbach Alpha coefficient with all the items scoring above 0.70. Data generated were analyzed and presented using both descriptive and inferential statistical techniques. The hypotheses were tested using the Spearman’s Rank Order Correlation Statistics. The tests were carried out at a 95% confidence interval and a 0.05 level of significance. Empirical findings revealed that employee dedication significantly correlate with organizational health of construction companies in Port Harcourt. The study recommends that construction companies should promote activities and policies that will enhance employee dedication which will give them a sense of significance from work, feeling enthusiastic and proud about the given job, and feeling inspired and challenged by the job.


The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of current ratio and debt to asset ratio on dividend policy through return on assets. The research design uses quantitative research conducted on the industry in LQ45, especially manufacturing period 2012 - 2017. Data analysis techniques using Partial Least Square. The direct test results of equations 1 and 2 show that the current ratio has a significant positive effect on ROA, significant positive DAR on ROA, negative current ratio is not significant to DPR, negative DAR is not significant to DPR, significant positive ROA to DPR. The results of the indirect effect of the current ratio have a significant positive effect on the DPR through ROA, and DAR has a significant positive effect on the DPR through ROA. That profitability is able to mediate the relationship of the current ratio, debt to asset ratio, on dividend policy.

The Implications of The Use of Accounting Information Systems In Decision Making - An Empirical Study In Iraqi Private Companies []

Abstract The aim of this study is to highlight the role of accounting information (AI) and financial reports for decision making process and for performance evaluation in Iraqi private sector’s companies. In particular , the study is concerned with discussing three main phases ,first; the extent to which decision makers in Iraqi private companies are aware and recognize the significance of information generated by accounting system and financial reports for decision making and for other essential management functions; Second, the extent to which this information is actually, used for decision making and other management functions , particularly for planning and control human resources, marketing and other aspects of work; and Third, the extent to which, from the decision makers’ view point , such information can cover decision making needs and requirements. To achieve these objectives, questionnaire method is used and covered (30) Iraqi companies in the middle and south of Iraq, an average of (4) executives were selected from each company. (120) questionnaire forms were distributed on the executives,(100) forms of them were collected. Statistical methods were used to analyze the information and data gathered. The study concluded that most of the decision makers believe that cost accounting information and financial reports are very significant for decision making. However, the majority of them explained that they have no sufficient skills to use such information practically in decision making. Many of them explained that they have no sufficient skills to analyze and interpret the accounting information to understand the main indicators highlighted by such information. Most of the decision makers believe that accounting information and other accounting information cannot cover all the needs of decision making, and thus they resort to other sources of information to assist in deciding making process. Key Words Accounting Information Systems, Decision Making, Accounting Information

Integration of Information and Communication Technology(ICT) into the training of Basic Education Teachers in Nigeria: Issues, Challenges and Prospects []

In recognition of its globally proven importance, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has been integrated into the Educational system of Nigeria starting from the basic Education level. Basic Education is a strategic subsector of Nigeria’s educational system because it holds the potential for 9 year free, compulsory and uninterrupted education for the Nigerian Child in line with the Education for all (EFA) goals. Hence important basic knowledge and skills in relevant subject areas have been built into the Basic Education Curriculum (BEC). The revised 9-year basic education curriculum has explicit information and technology (IT) components for primary 1-6 pupils and Junior Secondary School (JSS) 1-3 students. However current studies in various parts of Nigeria have shown that the teaching, learning and use of ICT at the Basic education level is still very low. Inadequate training of the Basic Education teacher in ICT skills has been identified among other leading factors, as responsible for the poor teaching, learning and use of ICT in the schools. This paper surveyed the ICT component of the content and method of instruction embedded in the curriculum (i.e. the Nigeria Certificate in Education (NCE) minimum standards) for the training of Basic Education teachers, so as to ascertain the extent to which they had opportunity to acquire the ICT skills required at the level they are prepared to teach. This paper compared the ICT skills specified to be acquired by Basic Education learners and that integrated into the NCE, minimum standards which showed that the later provided enough opportunity for teacher trainees to acquire sufficient ICT skills. Curriculum package usually specify minimum standards for learners undergoing a particular programme of study. Achievement of the objectives of curriculum by the programme participants is weighed against the minimum standards. This paper explored the specific ICT skills which a Basic Education graduate should possess, so as to live effectively in the modern ICT driven society as expected. The national policy (6th edition) emphasised that information technology training shall be incorporated into all teacher training programmes. Teacher educators who train the basic education teachers should be ICT trained also. In this vein, the National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE) has also specified the minimum ICT standards which the teacher educators should possess so as to train the Basic education teachers effectively,. This paper described succinctly the ICT standards for the teacher educators and compared them with the ICT skill to be acquired from the NCE minimum standards, by Basic education teachers. The ICT standards for teacher educators prepared by NCCE is sufficient to enable them train the Basic Education teachers in ICT skill curriculum specifies implementation strategies drawn from policy statements, which includes activities of stakeholders and conditions under which objectives are achieved. This paper entails to discuss the policy provisions for the acquisition of adequate ICT skills by prospective basic education teachers. Finally, the challenges and prospects of translating the curricular provisions into practical reality that will enable the optimal acquisition of ICT skills by Basic Education teacher trainees are outlined in this paper. The paper concluded that the policy and curricular provisions for the integration of ICT into the training of Basic Education teachers are adequate and presented practical tips to make their implementation a reality in the Colleges. (Keywords: Basic Education teachers, Basic Education, Information and Communication Technology).

Cardiovascular disease and its relationship with chronic kidney disease []

Risk of cardiometabolic and severe disease of kidney are the main reasons of disease of cardiovascular which is ultimately be the reason of death. CVD and disease of kidney both are similar diseases and related to each other. Any of the above-mentioned may lead to the other one. Because of CVD, the people who are at the last stage of disease of renal have more chances of mortality. Hyperlipidemia, hypertension and diabetes are the common factors of risks of CVD but these factors are not the reason of death in the patients of CKD. The standard and best clinical efforts to manage the death rate due to CVD is a successful step in many people. There are more chances of rarely occurred factors for example metabolism of vitamin D and malfunction mineral in the patients of CKD. A derived hormone of bones called factor of fibroblast development 23 is used for the regulation of vitamin-D in tubules of renal proximal and reabsorption of phosphate of renal. It is suggested that it can be the link of missing in between CVD and CKD. The chances of CVD increase due to the increase of severe injury of kidney. The diagnosis at the early stage and better treatment can result in the best outcomes in the patient of CVD. Other than this, non-dialysable based on protein uraemic poisons, for example, indoxyl and p-cresyl sulfate, delivered by organisms from amino acids of dietary. They seem to cause the renal brokenness. In this way, helpful methodologies focusing on colonic microbiota for patients of CKD, have prompted new possibilities in early mediation. Diabetes mellitus, blood pressure control, lowering proteinuria, dyslipidemia, anemia correction, management of abnormalities of metabolism of mineral and changings in the life style for example cessation of smoking, minimum use of salt and to gain the normal index of body mass are the steps for the prevention of CVD in the patients of CKD. Blockers, statins, blockers of renin-angiotensin, diuretic and aspirin are used at the initial level of CKD for the betterment. Pathological, clinical and biological connection in between CKD and CVD is discussed in this paper. This paper also includes management of therapeutic for CVD and CDK.

Increased frequency of anti-Ma2 encephalitis associated with immune checkpoint inhibitors []

Introduction: Therapy with monoclonal antibodies (Abs) targeting immune checkpoints, including cytotoxic T lymphocyte–associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4), the programmed death-1 receptor (PD-1), and its ligand PD-L1, has led to a paradigm shift in the treatment of numerous types of cancer. Aims and objective: The basic aim of the study is to analyse the increased frequency of anti-Ma2 encephalitis associated with immune checkpoint inhibitors. Material and methods: This descriptive study was conducted in Baqai Medical University, Karachi During March 2019 till November 2019. Data was collected from those patients who observed with anti-Ma2-PNS after treatment with ICIs. All patients underwent a comprehensive laboratory examination for suspected PNS. Demographic and clinical features of patients with Ma2-PNS triggered by ICIs were compared with those of the overall cohort of patients with Ma2-PNS unrelated to ICI treatment diagnosed in hospital. Results: Most of the patients were male (83%), with a median age of 63 years (range: 47–79 years). All were Caucasians. Four of them had an associated non–small-cell lung cancer, 1 a pleural mesothelioma, and the last one a renal clear cell carcinoma. At the time of ICI introduction, a median of 6.5 months (range: 0.5–25) after cancer diagnosis, all the patients except 1 (patient 2) had a metastatic disease, which included brain involvement in 2 cases. Conclusion: It is concluded that motor neuron involvement could complicate Ma2-Ab-associated PNS in almost 10% of patients and must be carefully studied to adapt treatment.

Study of Depression in Adults Patients with Bronchial Asthma in Tertiary Care []

One of the typical illness of psychiatric is Major depressive disorder (MDD). In medical settings the symptoms and disorder of depression are very common. Arthritis, diabetes and hypertension are pay very impactful role in MDD. Due to depression other diseases are associated to relate and this directly decreases the quality of life. Poor medical outcomes resulted when depression happens during coronary artery and diabetes mellitus. Another most common disease now a days is asthma.

Analysis of migraine polygenic risk score associates with efficacy of migraine-specific drugs []

Introduction: Migraine is a prevalent and disabling disease with an incompletely understood etiopathology. Aims and objectives: The basic aim of the study is to analyse the migraine polygenic risk score associates with efficacy of migraine-specific drugs. Material and methods: This descriptive study was conducted in Baqai Medical University, Karachi during August 2019 till December 2019. The data was collected with the permission of ethical committee of hospital. The data was collected through a qualitative method. All patients with migraine were interviewed face to face or by telephone by a trained physician or trained senior medical student using a semi-structured interview. The semistructured interview included questions covering the necessary clinical data for migraine diagnoses and information on the effect of migraine treatment. Results: The data consisting of 200 patients. The male:female ratio in patients with migraine was 1:4.7; this was slightly lower in MO (1:5.8) than in MA (1:3.8) (p = 2.7 × 10−4). The patients with migraine were on average 44.2 years old with an SD of 12.8. There was no significant difference in age (SD) between MO and MA (44.0 [12.1] years and 44.4 [13.6] years, respectively). A higher response rate was found for MO than MA in acute and prophylactic treatment response. Conclusion: It is concluded that PRS may be useful in the investigation of shared genetic risk with comorbidities, in studying the relation between primary headache disorders and their sub-forms, and to personalize migraine treatment.

Service Management strategies and Bank Efficiency in Nigeria: The Moderating Role of Banks Regulation []

This study examined service management strategies and bank efficiency in Nigeria with the moderating role of banks regulation. Banks around the world are experiencing challenges of competitive pressure as the world financial structure has changed rapidly due to the deregulation of financial services and increasing use of information technology resources. Despite some of the efforts to regulate the sector, majority of banks especially in the developing countries have recorded persisted high costs of banking returns, poor service delivery and poor customer experience militating against efficient banking sectors’ financial intermediation role. The Expectation/Disconfirmation theory (EDT) was the underpinning theory for the study. The theory explained service efficiency by comparison of prior expectations with observed performance. A conceptual model was developed to depict the interaction between service management strategies and bank efficiency through banks regulation as the moderator. Majority of past literature showed that service management strategies and banks regulation enhance efficiency. This paper recommended that organizational managers should employ service management conceptual measures with regulation in their business thinking, activities, processes and direction to achieve overall bank efficiency.

Variability and Characteristics of Indonesian Throughflow in Arafura and Timor Seas []

The characteristics and variability of Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) in Arafura and Timor seas are affected by monsoons and El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. The aim of this study is to identify the types of water masses of ITF in Arafura and Timor seas, to analyze the horizontal distribution profile of ITF in Arafura and Timor seas and to analyze the variability of ITF. The data used are time series data for five years (January 2013 – Desember 2017) of u and v current, salinity and temperature dataset from HYCOM circulation model output. The datasets processed using MATLAB software. Water mass characteristics in the 4 study areas were dominated by water masses from the North Pacific (Northen Pacific Subtropical Lower Water). The seasonal circulation in the Arafura and Timor Sea dominant from the north to the southwest which is a representation of the characterisctic of the ITF. The temperature and salinity values have the highest value during northwest monsoon and the lowest during the southeast monsoon. Flow variability and salinity in the ITF pathway in the surface layer and mixed layer are dominated by seasonal (monsoonal) variability influenced by monsoons. Temperature variability in the surface layer is influenced by seasonal (monsoonal) variability while in the mixed layer is influenced by interannual variability which influenced by monsoons and global phenomena of ENSO. In the inter-annual period, the sea temperature during second transition season of 2015 and the northwest monsoon of 2016 are lower than the average due to the El Nino phenomenon.

Digitzation of logistics in FMCG sector of Pakistan []

As the world is moving towards digitization which is the result of fourth industrial revolution, also known as Industry 4.0, many companies have already automated their processes while other are striving hard for undergoing the digitization process for their functions and practices. Logistics being one of the most crucial elements of the supply chains of corporations is facing major transformations and implications of digitization. In Pakistan, the concept of digitization of logistics is evolving with time. Hence, this study aims towards highlighting the importance of digitization along with the factors which play an important role in transformation process of logistics. This study has been conducted in the FMCG sector of Pakistan and it is based on quantitative method of research done with the assistance of research questionnaire.

Entrepreneurial Celebrity Endorsement and Brand Personality Congruity: A Review on Concepts and Practical Perspectives []

Celebrity endorsement is a widely used marketing communication and brand building option found in different markets and product scopes. Most of empirical studies are found examining the effectiveness of celebrity endorsement with brand evaluations and brand relationship behaviours. The source credibility of the celebrity endorsement is one of the main bases discussed in this scope. The concept of entrepreneurial celebrity endorsement or celebrity entrepreneurship is a pivotal research priority in line with the practises found in today’s business world. Celebrities involve with business and try to build the brand and performance with own endorsements. But the effectiveness of such endorsements on brand related evaluations and behaviours should be investigated to unveil the rationality. Accordingly, this paper attempts to review the concept of celebrity endorsement whilst special attention is made on celebrity entrepreneurship as the niche of investigation. Authors evaluate the empirical insights whilst cases are appreciated to discuss how such endorsements connect with the brand personality congruity. The main research instrument was literature review and journal articles, while business publications and cases were used to build the discussions. Paper makes an attempt to disclose the hands-on cases to provide learning avenues to further investigate how entrepreneurial celebrities engage with endorsements towards own businesses and social activities. Paper makes some openings to investigate the overall effectiveness of celebrity endorsements made by celebrities as entrepreneurs. Keywords: Brand Personality; Celebrity Endorsement; Entrepreneurial Celebrity Endorsement; Source Credibility; Marketing Communication.


Voice is the sound production with the coordination of respiratory, phonatory, resonatory and articulatory system. It contributes to the individual’s complete well-being. Any change in voice affects the communication and quality of life. Kidney disease can affect almost every part of your body. It is due to the build-up of waste products and excess fluid in the body. Possible complications that are commonly seen are; Fluid retention, which could lead to weakness, shortness of breath, lethargy, swelling in your arms and legs, high blood pressure, or fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema) and can be fatal (Hirano M., 1981). Dialysis is a medical procedure or a treatment that artificially does some of the things which are normally done by the healthy kidneys. In hemodialysis, an artificial kidney (hemodialyzer) is used to remove waste products, extra chemicals and extra fluid from the blood and to correct electrolyte imbalances (Hirano M., 1981). Hemodialysis is used to treat both acute (temporary) and chronic (permanent) kidney failures. But it is an essential treatment process for end-stage renal failure (McGrawHill., 2011). Some patients complaint hypotension, cardiovascular complications, Nausea/vomiting, headache, chest pain, etc., are also reported, and these problems are usually triggered by several basic mechanisms (Bregman H, Daugirdas J.T, Ing TS, 2003).The hemodialysis treatment affects laryngeal volume and muscle function. Few patients who are treated with hemodialysis (HD) frequently complain about hoarseness of voice (Ori y, Sabo R, et al., 2014). With the advanced voice analysis techniques, it is easier to determine the consequences of dialysis on voice parameters and estimate the significant changes in voice, subjectively and also to justify the variability of the complaints in different patients undergoing hemodialysis (Nu´n˜ez Batalla F, et al., 2014). Thus this study has made an effort to weigh up the influence of hemodialysis (HD) on vocal mechanism by acoustical analyzing the voice using vocal acoustic parameters like: Fundamental frequency (fo) Hz, Jitter (%), Shimmer (dB), Noise-to-Harmonic Ratio (HNR) and estimated the voice change (VC). The results of the study will help professionals to carry out discussions with the patient about his or her voice related consequences and to facilitate counseling, treatment plans, and patient follow ups. OBJECTIVES OF THIS STUDY: • To study the vocal characteristics of individuals with chronic renal failure pre- and post-hemodialysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study consisted of 40 Subjects, who were under the specific study criteria. Males and females within the age range of 20 - 40 years were taken as participants for the study. The participants were of 2 groups, patients with pre-hemodialysis and patients with post-hemodialysis. The informal case history along with medical history was enquired, as the participants had to fall under the research criteria and the voice sample was taken using Praat. The acoustic parameters taken from Praat were used in analysis. RESULT: The results revealed differences in fo values in general category and differences in fo and HNR values in Male and Female categories which indicate that mass of vocal folds was affected and thus presence of abnormal voice. Whereas Jitter, Shimmer in both general and experimental categories showed no significant change when compared. But the HNR values also gave no much differences in general categories. Thus indicating that stability of vocal folds is affected and thus there will be presence of abnormal voice. CONCLUSION: Based on the results obtained, we can conclude that voice characteristics of individuals with Chronic Renal Failure shows limited changes. Hemodialysis causes minor changes in the acoustic voice parameters of patients with Chronic Renal Failure, thus no significant difference in voice quality and hence no impact on communication and quality of life.

Bibliometric Analysis of Computer Science Literature of Pakistan []

Bibliometric analysis is the study of analysing the published works and to find trends in order to identify any weaknesses or different areas that are left unattended, and unexplored. It is also used to recognize and appreciate the importance of seminal works in various fields of sciences and humanities, and to identify future research directions in a field of study. In this work, we analyse the computer science literature published in Pakistan in the 21st century (2000 – 2017). We identify the top cited publications in the considered time span, and rank the publications based on cumulative citation count as well as normalized citation count. We analyse the distribution of citation count and compare it with other works. In addition, the top institutions in terms of publication counts are identified. Finally, we compared the computer science research output of Pakistan to that of Bangladesh, India, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia and Turkey. Our work is beneficial both to the research community as well as to the higher education authorities to assess the work of the computer science researchers, and its impact.

Review on Online Impulse Buying Behavior in South Asian Context []

This paper discusses impulse buying behavior, focusing on internet-based unintentional purchasing patterns. It talks about emergence in technology, penetration of internet, presence of e-commerce and its role Paper looks at empirical studies and theories within the domain of unintentional purchasing, internet-based unintentional purchasing, technology and factors driving internet-based unintentional purchasing. Authors follow literature review as the main research strategy and reviews the application of literature through discussions within the South Asian context focusing on Supermarkets industry of Sri Lanka, India, Nepal and Pakistan. Supermarkets industry was selected because the industry nature demands higher interaction with the end-consumer, hence it is ideal to judge the mass acceptance of the concept Paper concludes highlighting the significance of online impulse buying behavior using theories, empirical studies and practices. It further recommends future areas of research which can add significantly towards creating new knowledge and encourages to undertake such future researches.

Development of a Low Cost Motorized Oil Palm Fruit Bunch Stripper []

Oil palm is an economic plant with great importance because of its revenue generation capacity. The major bottleneck in the oil palm fruit processing in Nigeria especially in the small scale oil palm processing industries is the stripping of oil palm fruits from their bunches and most of palm fruit processors are low income earners who might not be able to afford the existing palm fruit bunch stripper due to their high cost. A low cost motorized stripper was developed in order to overcome this challenge. The components of the stripper which consist of a power source, the stripping unit housing, the speed gear and shaft, the stripping unit, fruit and bunch outlets and the supporting frame were fabricated using locally sourced materials. The stripper was tested to evaluate its performance efficiency. Freshly harvested palm fruit bunches at different fermentation time of 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 hours was used. High fruit stripping efficiency of 98.8% was recorded at fermentation time of 72 hours and lowest of 72.84% at fermentation time of 24 hours. It has clean fruit recovery efficiency of 98.57% at 60 hours fermentation and lowest average value of 93.83% at 24 hours fermentation. The highest average value of output capacity 358.77 kg/h at 72 hours and lowest of 202.29 kg/h at 24 hours fermentation time. These results showed that the stripper will be able to handle up to two tons of oil palm fruit bunches in a day at 72 hours fermentation; thus, making it affordable for the small and medium scale oil palm fruit processing industries in Nigeria at a low cost of purchase and maintenance.

Production of Organic fertilizer from poultry waste and Neem seed []

Abstract Organic fertilizer obtained as a by-product from plants and animals requires less investment needs but are known to have huge benefits such as low risk of environmental damage and reduced risk of diseases in humans. This paper highlight the result of a research conducted at National Center for Agricultural Mechanization (NCAM) Ilorin Nigeria. The research employed the collection of sample materials of poultry waste from NCAM, Integrated Farm and Animal Product (NIFAP) and neem seed around NCAM compound. The samples were subjected to laboratory experimental test to determine the level of fertility of the macro-element and micro-nutrient, before and after production. The samples were dried to a considerably moisture content of 3.33% which allowed for smooth milling. The already dried fermented poultry waste of same moisture content were mixed together in a proportion of 1:1.5 neem seed to poultry waste, and were milled by an NCAM fabricated Hammer Miller. The resulting fine powder was pelleted using an NCAM fabricated pelletizing machine. The pelleted products were dried to acceptable moisture content 3.33% for both storage and easy dissolution during application on crops. The performance evaluation of the organic fertilizer produced revealed that it is a better replacement for inorganic fertilizer. Keywords; Organic fertilizer, Hammer miller, pelletizer, neem seed, poultry waste.


Twenty (20) Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES) were carried out using the Schlumberger electrode configuration with a maximum electrode spread of 700m in order to map and assess near surface hydro-geologic units for sustainable groundwater development in Orlu area of Imo State. The OHMEGA-500 resistivity meter was used to acquire field data which were interpreted using the Advance Geosciences Incorporation (AGI) 1D software and the Schlumberger automatic analysis version. The results show that the study area is underlain by multi-geoelectric layers with resistivity varying both vertically and laterally. The aquifer was delineated with depth to water table ranging from 53.68m at Amaifeke 2 to about 130m observed at Amaifeke 1 while the aquifer resistivity varied from 1.30Ωm obtained at Ihitte to 1208.50Ωm observed at Ihioma. The aquifer materials were interpreted to be sand, sandstone and sand intercalated with shale in some areas. Results obtained from analysis of pumping test and VES data reveal variation in aquifer parameters of transverse resistance, longitudinal conductance as well as transmissivity. Transmissivity values are moderate and fairly uniform indicating similar geologic setting in most parts and good groundwater potential for the area. The groundwater flow pattern of the study area reveals that the central and southern parts of the study area form the convergent zones which are more promising for siting standard water wells for sustainable groundwater development. Key words: Flow pattern, Geoelectric, Groundwater, Resistivity, Transmissivity.

Development of Varied Macramé Patterns Based on Successive Approximation Model to Facilitate Teaching and Learning []

The study sought to explore varied knotting techniques to develop different macramé patterns for fashionable accessory with the objective to facilitate teaching and learning within the higher education Fashion Design and Textiles programme in Kumasi Technical University. Based on the Successive Approximation Model (SAM), it examined and meticulously adopted a teaching and learning approach on some selected fashionable macramé accessory products. The methodology employed both the qualitative and quantitative research methods to gather and analyse extensive primary data, using the exploratory project based and quasi experimental methods. Both the convenience and purposive sampling techniques were employed to engage 124 male and female Fashion Design and Textiles students in this project-based research. Interviews, questionnaire and observation methods were the instruments used to gather data. The findings identified two knots (square and clove hitch knots) from the existing macramé knots as those that can be used for pattern development, and can serve as a guide when creating and developing patterns to be used to produce accessories. The clove hitch knot, manipulated was the basis of creating versatile, effective and reliable strong and secure patterns. The conclusions made were that the square knot was found suitable for starting, ending or closing patterns, which helped in developing the accessories.


The aim of this study was to determine the effect oleic acid addition on characterization of edible film and obtain the optimum concentra-tion to improving the properties of edible film. Completely Randomized Design Method was used for this study consisting of five treat-ments and five replications. The edible biocomposite films prepared by addition of oleic acid (OA) with different concentration: 0%, OA 5%, OA 10%, OA 15%, and OA 20% based on cassava starch-gelatin total weight (w/w). Characteristic of biocomposite films were assessed by thickness measurement and analyzing water barrier properties. The results observed improving concentration of OA more than 5% (w/w) possessed weaker mechanical properties. The addition OA 5% showed ability films tendency to water absorption about 1,86 g/m Pa s x 10-10 and water transmission rate about 46,80 g/h.m2. However because the major content of biocomposite film have hydrophilic nature, the effect of addition of oleic acid through the film were still wettable.

Implementing industry 4.0 in global perspective: A challenge for managing inter-country supply chain. []

The concept of mass customization are rapidly taking place of mass production system we call it the third industrial revolution. After the birth of industrial revolution 4.0 the smart factory concept where machines and robots works in highly collaborative environment by the support of Cyber Physical System, Internet of Things, Big data, Integrated Networks and other coming information technologies. The pupose of this paper is to highlight the other challenging factors that may create hassle for organization supply chain management in inter-country perspective. For this instance and to check the significance of the study regression and coorelation analysis was applied. For data collection a survey based questionnaire was shared with industry professionals of Pakistan. The outcome of the study indicates that all independent variables has a significant relationship with dependent variable industry 4.0. Keywords: Cyber physical System, Internet of Things, Integrated Networks, Pakistan.

Optimal Design and Dynamic Modelling of a Hybrid Distributed Generation System Containing Solar PV, Diesel and Wind Turbine with Storage []

Abstract— Due to ever-increasing energy consumption, raising public awareness of environmental protection, renewable distributed generation (DG) systems have attracted increased interest. But the intermittent nature of renewable, DGs leads to think about the combination of sources called Hybrid Systems. Hybrid systems are characterized by containing two or more technologies of electrical generation, in order to optimize the global efficiency of the processes. Wind and photovoltaic (PV) power generation are two of the most promising renewable energy technologies as the duo are complementary to each other and hence able to provide a good and constant supply to meet the rise in demand. The vision of this paper is to show the system controlling and the cost-effective analysis if a transition from conventional to hybrid wind/solar power supply of public and commercial buildings. Case studies of Faji High School electricity demand were carried out.


The Collective Labor Agreement is one means of industrial relations that functions to regulate work relations, rights and obligations of workers and employers and also as a means of control as well as a measure of the implementation of industrial relations in companies. In principle, the material provisions contained in the Collective Labor Agreement may not conflict with the provisions of the prevailing laws and regulations and it is even expected that the quality and quantity of the material provisions therein regulate better than the normative provisions of the legislation. This study aims to analyze the process of making a Collective Labor Agreement (PKB) of PT. Adaro Indonesia, Tbk in the period 2018-2019 whether in its journey there are obstacles as well as what efforts are made in overcoming these obstacles. In addition, this study also aims to analyze the material provisions contained in the Collective Labor Agreement and conduct a comparative study between the material provisions of Collective Labor Agreement with normative provisions of the Regulations and as an additional hypothesis, a comparison is also made with the provisions of Company Regulatory provisions owned by one sample of companies incorporated into the Adaro Group Company. The purpose of this comparative study and analysis is to identify whether the quality and quantity of the material provisions contained in the Collective Labor Agreement are better than the normative provisions of the Laws and also better than the material provisions of the Company Regulations.


The problem at the Directorate of Transmigration Business Development is that there are still many employees who are still lacking in discipline and actually realize that they have broken the rules. This lead to the creation of this conceptual paper to examine the effect of work motivation, and organizational commitment towards work discipline and its impact on the performance of the Directorate of Transmigration Business Development’s employees. A conceptual model is proposed. A quantitative approach research methodology is suggested through hypotheses testing. Practicing this paper instantly will find out the relationships between variables in the conceptual model.


ABSTRACT The study was designed to investigate the factors influencing late marriage among men in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Emphasis was laid on establishing the relationship between age at marriage and socio-economic factors among men. Questionnaire was used to collect data from 300 married men in Rural and Urban areas in Ekiti State. Chi-Square test was used to establish the relationship between age at marriage and educational level, religious activities, peer group influence, poor economic status, family responsibilities, family age specification, Inter-culture discouragement among men in Ekiti State. These form the basis of the analysis, conclusion and recommendations. The results revealed that peer group influence, religious activities, family responsibilities, inter-cure discouragement do not affect the age at which men get married. But, educational level and poor economic status affect the age at which men get married in Ekiti State.