Volume 7, Issue 12, December 2019 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Impact of trade union on Work place performance in organization: Comparison between having trade union on not []

Abstract PURPOSE The purpose of present study empirically investigates the relationship between unionization & non unionization and work place performance and also about the organization’s financial performance in vehari district and Multan region. This paper describes a theoretical model for union bargaining is associated with poorer workplace performance but the effect disappears in unionization. DESIGN/ METHODOLOGY SPSS 20.0 Version was used in the analysis of collected data. Multiple regression was used to take a look at the study hypotheses. With few time, we will concern the finding that the union effect does not rise with union density. FINDINGS Trade union has positive relationship with employee workplace performance and employment relations surveyed from (PIA, and textile industry at Multan). The study indicated that union effects on workplace financial performance vary with the institutional arrangements employment relation. We also explored the heterogeneity of unions in two organizations. Because, it is being influenced by the emotions. Emotions can be raised by using different techniques. Limitations: The limitations related with research are acknowledged. There should be further study on this topic to understand the relationship between these factors and their effect on each other. This research was on small scale. Due to limited time small size of sample was taken. Practical implications: This study will be helpful for the organizations because through this they can do their analysis for having the trade union or not. They can make better decision about making a trade union for employees that will support and secure the rights of employees but also motivate them for work. Originality value: Originality value of this study is the specific area from where the data has been collected for research purpose. The Vehari district and Multan region at the moment are still in the experimental stage in unionization of work place performance.


Abstract Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder with elevated levels of blood sugar due to insufficient insulin secretion, insulin action or both. Factors associated with the prevalence of diabetes are people's age, fat and high fat diets and unhealthy lifestyles that eventually lead to obesity. Objective: Objective of the study was to explore the level of knowledge and awareness regarding Type II diabetes in obese patients. Study design: Cross sectional study. Setting: Community Ali Raza Abad, Lahore, Pakistan. Duration: 4 months from September 2019 to December 2019. Methodology: the study was done among 138 obese people of community Ali Raza Abad, Lahore, Pakistan using convenient sampling techniques. Knowledge regarding diabetes was evaluated through diabetes knowledge questionnaire. Results: Finding of the study revealed that mean knowledge about diabetes of the participants is 1.83 and overall mean score±0.131. Conclusion: This study finds out that majority of participants have poor knowledge on various aspect of diabetes including etiology, management and prevention. Community based educational program were needed to enhance knowledge and understanding of diabetes.


Natural fiber composites we mean a composite material that is reinforced with fibers, particles or platelets from natural or renewable resources. False banana (Ensete) is important by-product of Ethiopian country farmers used for food purpose and its fiber for rope; furnish material, roof with polymer composite. False banana fiber reinforced by epoxy is increase mechanical properties, surface finish and less water absorption than polymer composite.30% Fiber/70%Epoxy has greater tensile strength 42Mpa and impact strength 3.2J than other Fiber/Epoxy matrix.20%.The mechanical properties will be change with change in composition of fibers. False banana fiber is known for its remarkable smoothness its mixture with epoxy resin lead towards better surface finish with desired strength. From all the results and comparisons we can conclude that the fabricated false banana epoxy composite which has light weight and has good mechanical properties.


ABSTRACT Cowpea faces several biotic and abiotic stresses for which conventional breeding alone may not provide ultimate solution.Hence, the present investigation was carried out to standardize in vitrogermination and tissue culture protocol. The germination of the cowpea (vigna unguiculata l. walp) Borno Brown, seeds were carried out on a water agar medium without any growth regulator, which germinated in 3-4 days. Mercuric chloride (0.1%) treatment for 1 min which immerse quickly in distilled water, followed by quick immersion in 70% ethyl alcohol for 1 min was found. Out of 200 hundred test tube 96.33% cotyledon were developed. Irrespective of growth regulators, maximum callus induction response was observed in stem explants (62.08%) followed by embryo axes and embryo axes with single cotyledon, with minimum callus induction in leaf disc. The explants shown highest callus induction response in MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l IAA + 0.5 mg/l BAP. Maximum callus induction response in embryo axes explants (76.44%) on (MS + 1.0 mg/l IAA + 0.5 mg/l BAP). Number of days required for callus induction ranged from 12 to 14 days in cowpea and produced maximum weight of callus (64.74 mg) and it was greenish yellow and friable. Between the explants, mature embryo axes with single cotyledon (EAWSC) were found to be superior over embryo axes explants with shoot induction response (74.1%). Days to shooting ranged between 6 to 7 days. MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l NAA + 0.5 mg/l kinetin gives maximum root induction response. The maximum per cent root response (63.44%) and rooted plants were acclimatized to potting mixture of soil, sand and vermiculite

Mother’s knowledge and attitude towards childhood immunization in a rural community []

Abstract: Background: Vaccination is a highly effective method of preventing certain infectious diseases. Vaccines are generally very safe and adverse reactions are uncommon. Routine immunization programs protect most of the world's children from a number of infectious. The purpose of this study to observe mothers knowledge and attitude towards childhood immunization. Method: Questionnaire adopted from (Yousif, Albarraq, Abdallah, & Elbur) is used to collect data from people of Ali Raza Abad Questionnaires consist of 3 section containing 20items, (Section A) Demographic data (Section B) composed on Knowledge and attitude of mothers towards mothers. The participants answered the items using4-point Likert scale with (1 = Strongly agree; 2 =yes ; 3 = no 4=don’t know).After moving Questionnaire among the participants the data was analyzed through SPSS version 21 for Descriptive statistics and finding mean, frequencies, percentage and standard deviations. Consent was taken from all the participants and free hand were given to the participants to take part in the study or refused to participate. In case of illiteracy, the research assistant’s translate the questions in (Urdu).Results: There were a total of 236 mothers included in my study. The majority (53.0.4%) of the Mother’s either yes that child immunization is important. Most (91.5%) of them considered immunization is more beneficial than harmful and (42.3%) strongly agreed or yes that vaccines are safe. Out of mothers (45.3%) and (30.1%) mother’s aspects are yes or agreed that child immunization is not prohibited in religion. 41.5% mothers are answered yes,18.2% agreed the administration of vaccines is associated with side effects respectively. Nearly forty percent of mothers were not sure if the child becomes infected after immunization with the disease/s against which he/she was vaccinated or not. Conclusion: The purpose of the study was to determine the knowledge and attitude of mothers towards childhood immunization in rural community Ali Raza Abad, Lahore. Proper guidance is necessary to improve childhood immunization. Every effort should be beneficial for people who are less aware from childhood immunization. Health worker should improve this information by holding workshops and other different strategies to change people wrong perception towards childhood immunization. Keywords: Mother’s, knowledge, attitude, childhood immunization

Knowledge Attitude and Practice of mothers toward Children Oral Health []

Background: Oral health is termed as a state of being free from any kind of pain, inflammation in mouth and face. Oral health is prominent important part of every individual personality. It is an integral part of overall health and plays a critical role in the child’s life. It play important role in preventing different diseases because mouth works as window for remaining body. Parent is a main character to develop each aspect of their children life. Children oral health maintenance are enhanced by mother positive knowledge and attitude along with practice of oral health. Aim of the study: The aim of this study is to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of mothers toward children oral health. Methodology: A Cross sectional descriptive study was conducted among the community total (n= 124) in Lahore, Pakistan from September 2019 to December 2019. Result: Data were collected through questionnaire translated into Urdu from English. Convenient sampling technique was used. Study included 124 mothers of the community in which 25.0% (n=31) participants belong to 25 years age, 29.8% (n=37) belong to 30 years age, 33.9% (n=42) participants belong to 35 years age, and 11.3% (n=14) participants belong to 40 years age. The mean knowledge of study participants was 2.44, attitude 1.51 and mean practice of participants was 1.94. Conclusion: This study found comparatively average level of knowledge, attitude and practice of mothers to children oral health due to which there were presence of oral diseases in children. Keywords: Attitude, Knowledge, Oral Health, Practice.

A study of the Environmental Risk Perception and Awareness among high school students. []

Background: Environment is the complex of physical chemical and biotic factors (climate, soil and living condition) that affect an organism. Physical at school environment is an essential component affecting health promotion and prevention at school. It is important to create an environment which improve children health by reducing exposure to environmental hazards. Human activities and environmental changes are directly related to many human activities are affected by changes in environment. All these changes lead to negative effects on health of humans especially children. Hazard is an agent which had the ability to create a specific type of harmful effect on health of humans. Aim of the study: The aim of this study is to assess the environmental risk perceptions and awareness among high school student. Methodology: A Cross sectional descriptive study was conducted among the high school student, total (n= 138) in Lahore, Pakistan from September 2019 to December 2019. Result: Data were collected through questionnaire translated into Urdu from English. Convenient sampling technique was used. Study included 138 high school student in which 21.0% (n=29) participants belong to 12 age group, 23.2% (n=32) participants belong to 13 age group, 26.8% (n=37) belong to 14 age group, 29.0% (n=40) participants belong to 15 age group. The mean of participants environmental risk perception was 2.29 and the mean of environmental awareness level was 2.43. Conclusion: This research study concluded that high school students had enough level of perception and awareness regarding environmental education. Keywords: Environmental risk perception, environmental awareness, High School.

Degraded Documents Data Preservation Using Digital Image Processing []

Documents can be a valuable source of information but often they suffer degradation problems, especially in the case of historical documents, such as strains, background of big variations and uneven illumination, ink seepage, etc. Binarization techniques should be applied to remove the noise and improve the quality of the documents. Collections of historical and old document images care commonly provided to public through digital libraries. Specialized processing is required to these document images for removing background noise in order to become more legible. A hybrid binarization approach is proposed in this paper for improving the quality for the old documents. Combination of global and local thresholding techniques are used for the same .Initially, a technique named global thresholding is applied to the whole image. The image area that still has background noise are detected and the technique is again re-applied to each area separately. Therefore, a better adaptability is achieved for the algorithm where various kinds of noise re exist in different areas of same image. Advantage of applying global thresholding, is that it avoids the computational and time cost of applying a local thresholding in the entire image. Hence it is indicated that this technique is pretty effective in removing background noise and improving the quality of degraded images.

Knowledge And Perceved Stigma Towards Tuberculosis In A Rural Community Lahore, Pakistan []

Background: Tuberculosis is infectious disease that spread from person to person by coughing, sneezing and droplet infection. TB affected individual often face societal stigma. TB victim often suffers from discrimination, stigma, rejection and social isolation. Awareness of community people regarding tuberculosis is very significance to minimize the prevalence of tuberculosis in future Objective: The purpose to assess the knowledge and perceived stigma towards tuberculosis in a rural community. Setting: The study setting was in community Ali Raza Abad, district Lahore Pakistan. Study Design: A quantitative cross sectional study Methodology: The target population of the study was residents of community Ali Raza Abad, Lahore. All male and female age 18-57 years .Sample size was 150 of community Ali Raza Abad, Lahore. Data was collected through questionnaire to collect relevant information about knowledge and perceived stigma towards tuberculosis. Results: As study shows, stigma towards tuberculosis in rural community mean score is 16.54 and overall mean score is 0.101. Knowledge means score is 2.327 and over all means score of knowledge is 0.1068. Conclusion: There is need for more studies on this topic about knowledge and stigma towards tuberculosis in educational environment. At the same time, other research on stigma measurement should be conducted to evaluate the health education. People should motivate to adopt healthy life by maintain good hygiene.

Disaster Resiliency Intervention Program for Children and Youth []

Disaster resiliency programs remain the bottleneck with children and youth in a very high flood susceptibility areas of Panabo City, Davao del Norte Province. This research aims to determine the concepts of disaster resiliency, and designing an intervention program for the mentioned vulnerable groups. Employing descriptive qualitative case study methodology as such focus group discussion and key informant interviews were performed, narrative analysis used grounded theory matrix and discussions were supported with the review of related literature. The informants revealed that disaster resiliency concept is strengthening participative governance through capacity development of knowledge, skills and attitude towards a disaster resilient community. Consequently, framework were drawn and intervention design as well using the modified logical framework approach detailing the comprehensive program for children and youth disaster resiliency with recommendations.


This study aims to analyze the factors that affect the demand for processed vaname shrimp products (Litopenaeus vannamei) and how much the elasticity of demand for processed vaname shrimp products (Litopenaeus vannamei) in Bandar Djakarta Ancol. This research was conducted in August 2019 to September 2019. The method of this research is a quantitative descriptive method using multiple linear regression analysis models. The sampling technique used in this study uses primary data with accidental sampling technique. The results showed that the factors that influenced the demand for vaname shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) were vaname shrimp prices, lobster prices, crab prices, squid prices, per capita income. All results of price elasticity, cross elasticity, and income elasticity of demand for vaname shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) are elastic.


The fisheries sector is an important sector for the people of Indonesia and can be used as a prime mover of the national economy. Minapadi cultivation is a fisheries sector with a system of rice and fish cultivation which is cultivated together in a paddy field. West Java Province as one of the biggest producing regions of Minapadi fisheries in Indonesia, and is considered as a potential area for Minapadi cultivation. The potential of human resources affects the efforts of business entities in achieving maximum mineral production. Minapadi aquaculture competitiveness can be used as a benchmark for regional development, regional mapping, and regional development planning. This study has the objective to analysis of human resources competitiveness of Minapadi aquaculture in West Java Province. The method used in this study is the litelature survey method to determine the competitiveness of minapadi cultivation in 18 regencys and nine cities in West Java Province. After all data has been processed, the data will be analyzed descriptively. The technique used to retrieve primary data in this study in the from of expert judgment. Whereas secondary data was obtained from statistical data of the Office of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries of West Java Province. The results of this study indicate that the regencys with very high competitiveness are Tasikmalaya Regency, Cianjur Regency, and Bandung Regency. While the regencys with low competitiveness are regencys / cities in the central region.

Analysis of Consumer Preferences of Fisheries Products in Bandung City (Case Study in Sederhana Market and X Supermarket). []

This research was conducted at the Simplified Market and "X" Supermarkets in Bandung, West Java. The purpose of this research is to ana-lyze consumer preferences for Simple Market and Bandung "X" Supermarkets in Bandung and analyze the factors that influence consumer preferences between fresh and processed fish, consumer preferences between fresh sea fish and freshwater fish, and selection of pro-cessed fish species. The method used is a case study with quantitative and qualitative data analysis. The sampling technique uses acci-dental sampling method with a total of 50 respondents each. Based on binary logistic regression analysis, at the "X" Supermarket and Simplified Market that the Wald test shows an educational variable, and age influences the preference between fresh fish and processed fish. Wald's test results for the preference between fresh sea fish and freshwater fish only influenced education in the "X" Supermarket. At the Simple Market that the results of the Wald test the age variable influences the preference between fresh sea fish and freshwater fish. Based on multinomial logistic regression analysis, the factors that influence the selection of processed fish compared with jelly fish in the "X" Supermarket are income, sex, and age.


ABSTRACT Climate change represents a serious threat to global food security, not because of its effects on soil, but also for its effect on crop production. Changes in temperature and rainfall patterns can have a great impact on the organic matter and processes that take place in our soils, as well as the plants and crops that grow from them. In order to meet the related challenges of global food security and climate change, agriculture and land management practices must undergo fundamental transformations. Improved agriculture and soil management practices that increase soil organic carbon, such as cover crop rotation, integrated soil fertility management, organic farming, conservation agriculture and agroforestry, bring multiple benefits. They produce fertile soils that are rich in organic matter (carbon), keep soil surfaces vegetated, require fewer chemical inputs, and promote crop rotations and biodiversity. These soils are also less susceptible to erosion and desertification, and will maintain vital ecosystem services such as the hydrological and nutrient cycles, which are essential to maintaining and increasing food production. Soil fertility is declining as a result of climate change, which brings more extreme weather events such as flooding, drought and more unpredictable weather conditions. Some common farming practices such as burning crop residues, use of fertilizer, improper crop rotation, land clearing and deforestation are part of the problem. But there are many traditional and modern agricultural practices which can help boost soil fertility and assist farmers in making their farms more resilient to the changing climate. These include organic farming, using rather than burning crop residues, and other organic materials, planting nitrogen-fixing crops and trees, use of compost and other manures, and using practices which conserve soil and water.

Knowledge, Attitude and practice of family planning in married women []

Back ground: Health and being healthy is not only a state it is a way of good life. Health is essential for every individual however for a mother it is crucial. Family planning process provide health care services for mother and child. The primary goal of family planning is to safe the maternal and infant death. Use of family planning services is based on its awareness in population. Aim of study: To assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of family planning among married women of community Ali Raza Abad Pakistan. Methodology: A quantitative descriptive cross-sectional study design used to explore the knowledge attitude and practice of family planning in married female of community Ali Raza Abad. The convenient sampling technique use to collect the data. Data was collected through Questionnaire, distributed in 245 participants. Results: The mean score of knowledge is 2.01 and overall mean score was 2.01 ± 0.91. The mean score of attitude was 2.46 and overall mean score was 2.46 ± 0.89. The mean score of practice was 2.60 and the overall mean score 2.60 ± 0.73. Conclusion: The overall knowledge of the women about family planning is poor. Majority of population had lack of basic information about contraceptive. The overall attitude about family planning was positive. The practices of the family planning was poor most of the participants did not practicing any contraceptive method.


SS 400 steel is structural steel structural with low carbon content. This material can only be hardened through surface hardening such as pack carburizing. In this study pack carburizing process were used for structural steel SS 400. The research has been done by using various carburizing agent composition of Dendrocalamus asper bamboo charcoal ( (BC) and cow bone crossbreed simental powder (CBP) as the source of carbon and Calsium element as an energizer or a catalyst. Alternative carburized media applications are still rarely performed on research. The composition of the CBP is used: 15, 20 and 25 (% weight). The experiment was carried out using a muffle furnace at temperature 900 0C with soaking time for 2, 4 and 6 hours. Hardness tests were taken using vickers micro hardness tester, observation with SEM (scanning electron microscopes), to determine the number of hardness and microstructure specimen. The work showed that cowbone limosine can beused as energizer in pack carburizating of structural steel SS 400. The hardness profile plot of the 75 wt% BC and 25% CBP in the carburizing agent was also higher than the other compositions. It can be concluded that, CBP can replace the function of BaCO3 and NaCO3 as energizer on pack carburizing surface treatment.


Language is a complex and symbolic system that is used in various modes for thought and communication. India has many cultural setups with different languages in each area. In some regions more than one language co-exists together. Bilingualism and multilingualism are thus a major phenomenon in India. Bilingualism has been defined predominantly in linguistic dimensions despite the fact that the bilingualism is correlated with the number of nonlinguistic social parameters. Bloomfield (1935) defines bilinguals as the native like control of two languages. The aim of the recent study is to identify: Their language development in L1 (Coorgi) and L2 (English) from background populations in grade 4-16 years. It was conducted to examine the relationship between bilingualism and cognitive development. .Identify the verbal processing based on their language experience and their age. Method done in action naming was: total 40 pictures were presented to 60 participants from the age range 4-16 years and they were divided into four groups containing n=15 participants in each group. The words were taken based on daily basis with 80% agreement in both Coorgi-English and the others were eliminated. They were presented based on few conditions that are: blocked Coorgi (n=10), blocked English (n=10), Coorgi to English (n=10), and English to Coorgi (n=10). Result on the whole, was consistent with the theory, in that an overall bilingual superiority was found only for those children who had attained a high degree of bilingualism. An overall bilingual superiority was not found for those children who had attained lower degrees of bilingualism. Conclusion of the study is to find how action naming occurs in both low competition (single language) task and high competition (mixed language) and how language development plays a role in verb processing and cognitive processing in bilinguals. Action naming is better in blocked English to Coorgi than in mixed condition in younger age group and also in older age groups.


Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication. Language is complex and multifaceted. The child who learns a language achieves the ability to comprehend and express a set of sounds and learns how these sounds can and cannot be combined into possible words. Language acquisition is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language, as well as to produce and use words and sentences to communicate. A vocabulary is a set of familiar words within a person’s language. Vocabulary usually developed with age, serves as a useful and fundamental tool for communication and acquiring knowledge. Aim of the study is to develop a receptive and expressive vocabulary list in Malayalam for 4-6-year children using parental reports. Method done in a word list containing 310 words was formulated by taking words from Malayalam textbooks of children within the same age range and from the Malayalam scholars. Validation of wordlist was done by checking the same in 15 native Malayalam speakers. The words are arranged according to place of articulation of initial syllables and categorized as nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs and pronouns. Mothers within the age range of 22 to 38 years were taken as the participants in the study and all they were native Malayalam speakers. Parents were given a copy of wordlist for 1 week and asked to select those words which their child can understand and produce. Results on the whole, the words comprehended and expressed for the age groups (4-5 years & 5-6 years) were found in percentage. Based on the frequency of the particular word, the final word list was formulated. The receptive and expressive vocabulary selected for the final list had a frequency of 45% in the receptive age group. Percentage for comprehension obtained for verbs was at maximum. Comprehension of nouns and other categories were obtained later and of pronouns were obtained after the adjectives and adverbs. Conclusion of the whole study is based on the parental report, the receptive and expressive wordlist were formulated based on the frequency of each word reported by the parents. Vocabulary distribution across the corresponding age group was found. This vocabulary list can be used as a clinical tool to identify Malayalam speaking children who are at risk.


INTRODUCTION Language acquisition is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive, produce and use words to understand and communicate. This capacity involves the picking up of diverse capacities including syntax, phonetics, and an extensive vocabulary. Vocabulary are the sum of words used by, understood by, or at the command of a particular person or group. The capacity to acquire and use language is a key aspect that distinguishes humans from other organisms. While many forms of animal communication exist, they have a limited range of no syntactically structured vocabulary tokens that lack cross cultural variation between groups. It is very natural that parents are the child’s first vocabulary teacher. Early linguistic interaction with parents /caregivers is almost certainly important in establishing and consolidating early abilities, long before the child is giving any indication of language abilities. As the language usage grows , the child goes on accumulating vocabulary items as he gets exposed to the vocabulary Mallikarjun, (2002) suggested that parents are sensitive and accurate observers . They provide rich source of information about their children’s developments. Vishnu (2009) has demonstrated that the parents of Malayalam speaking children effectively provided most frequently using vocabulary in their house hold. Using a prepared list the frequency of usage of the words was selected from parents. Such vocabulary list provides valuable assistance in early language assessment and intervention. Dilna. P (2009) has demonstrated that the parents of Tulu speaking children. NEED FOR THE STUDY Studies on communication inventories or vocabulary norms for Indian context are very minimal. In such a scenario, developing a vocabulary list method using a parental report provides a rich normative data which may serve as a clinical tool. AIM OF THE STUDY The aim of the present study is to construct a receptive and expressive vocabulary list for 1 to 3 year Malayalam speaking children using parental reports. METHODOLGY Formulation of word list A set of familiar words in Malayalam language was formulated by taking words from Malayalam vocabulary test. Malayalam text books of children in the same age range, also from the parents of children who are in the same age range. After a collection of 300 words , the validation of the word list was done by 10 native Malayalam speakers for checking the recognition of these words in Malayalam language. The words are arranged according to the place of articulation of initial syllables and categorized as nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs and pronouns. Participants All the subject participated in the study was mothers. All the participants were with in the age range of 24 to 36 yrs and native speakers of Malayalam language. All the children were screened for any speech language, hearing, otological, neurological, psychological or ophthalmic problem. . All families were Malayalam bilinguals Procedure Each parent was given a copy of words and was instructed to select the words from the list which their children understand and produce. Parents were given a week’s time to do this work and were asked to return the list for number and percentage analysis. RESULT Percentage of words comprehended and expressed for both the groups (1 -2 years & 2-3years) were found. The formulation of the final word list was done based on the frequency of the particular word. The receptive and expressive vocabulary selected for the final list had a frequency of 40 % in the receptive age group. Maximum percentage for comprehension was obtained for verbs. Comprehension of nouns and other categories were obtained later. Comprehensions of pronouns were obtained after the adjectives and adverbs. According to the place of articulation, words with initial vowels sounds acquired first and bilabial sounds followed. The orders of acquisition of words according to the place of articulation of the initial sounds are vowels, bilabials, palatals, and velar sounds. DISCUSIION Results obtained show a general trend in word learning that is there is a vocabulary spurt in production and comprehension develops in a more linear fashion. Children show acceleration in rate of growth of expressive vocabulary during the second year. Receptive vocabulary exhibits a more linear trend in development during first year with limited increase in rate of growth towards the middle of the second year. Similarly, verbs are dominated in children’s receptive and expressive vocabulary. By the end of 2nd year pronouns were comprehended more rapidly along with adjectives and adverb modifiers. Action words, noun modifiers, and verb modifiers significantly develops in child’s expressive vocabulary by 3 year of age . The development of verbs in early vocabulary was study by Choi.S (1990). He shows that verbs constitute a significant proportion of the early lexicon in and form a distinct morphological class verbs are also productive in multi word combinations from the beginning and occupy a consistent position in utterance. CONCLUSION A word list in Malayalam language was validated and it consisted of 300 words. The word list consisted of receptive and expressive category for both 1-2 and 2-3 year old children in 7 major categories such as Nouns, Verbs, Pronouns, Prepositions, Adjectives, Adverbs, other words. The receptive and expressive word list was formulated based on the frequency of each word reported by the parents. Vocabulary distribution across the age group was found. This vocabulary list can be used to find out the growth of vocabulary development for 1-3 year old Malayalam speaking children. This list is a useful clinical tool to identify children who are at risk.

Existence of solutions for nonlinear Caputo-Hadamard fractional differential equations with nonlocal Condition []

In this paper we study the existence of solutions for initial value problem for a class of nonlinear Caputo-Hadamard fractional di erential equations with nonlocal Condition. Our results are based on Schauder's fi xed point theorem and the Banach contraction principle fi xed point theorem.


This thesis paper describes the design and simulation of a wind turbine blade and possibilities of wind power generation in coastal region of Bangladesh. The main design of the blade of a wind turbine was developed in Q Blade simulation software. By considering the wind speed we have simulated the designed blade and we get optimal power from the blade.The wind speeds of the coastal regions of Bangladesh have been considered in this paper. The data and calculation for 650 MW of power indicates the prospective source of wind energy is available in coastal regions of Bangladesh. Proper types of wind turbines may be use for the purpose of extracting wind energy from the coastal regions of Bangladesh.

Observed and Perceived Climate Change Analysis in the Terai Region, Nepal []

“Climate change will modify temperature and precipitation patterns, which could challenges the farmers for crop production in the coming days. While scientific studies regarding climate change patterns are essential to find out the impacts in regards to how the threats are perceived by local people. This paper intends to determine the extent to which climate change has caused spatial-temporal changes in temperature and precipitation that occurs on annual time scales in the Kailali, Chitwan, and Rautahat districts of Nepal. Three focus indigenous groups (Chepang, Tharu, and Musahar) and a total number of 180 households were interviewed during the field visit. While secondary data were collected from the Department of hydrology and meteorology (DHM), Nepal. Mann-Kendall and Sen’s estimator of slope test was used to detect possible temperature and precipitation trends and their magnitude respectively. The findings of the study showed that the trend of minimum and maximum mean temperatures indicate significantly increased at 5 stations of three districts. Similarly, the precipitation of the post-monsoon seasons is increasing at 6 stations of three districts. How- ever, pre-monsoon, monsoon, and winter precipitation have a significant decrease at three district stations. These findings results were verified with the people’s perception. This study could be used for the formulation of an effective adaptation plan and policy of climate change in this region as well as applicable to other related areas”.


Botswana has shortage of manpower especially in the science and technical fields, therefore more emphasis should be geared towards this. It is therefore necessary that as Botswana moves from a resourced knowledge based economy it is there advisable the curriculum should promote more of the sciences and researchers for statistical in conducting research, Hierarchical regression was conducted with Mathematics anxiety being a predictor over and computer incompetence and friends’ influence on the anxiety of statistics anxiety. It is therefore very important to know and understand the pre-requisites for students not to have anxiety in Statistics. Students must be allowed to acquire skills and be assertive in statistics by not be helpless. A survey questionnaire was administered and completed by (N=2571) students on their perceptions on their association and learning of different discipline, and this was used to predict their perceptions of different and how to learn about them. Four factors were extracted and then hierarchical regression conducted on extracted factors and found that mathematics anxiety is a predictor of Statistics anxiety.