Volume 7, Issue 12, December 2019 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

[1]  [2]  [3]  [4]

The Role of International Law in Contemporary Diplomacy []

The history of diplomacy starts with the history of mankind itself. The mankind to achieve its motives without being engaged in a battle has always used negotiations skills as a tool. Although the diplomats all around the world are still using the tool of diplomacy, however, the concept of contemporary diplomacy is far afield from the one of early diplomacy. With the advent of globalization, the idea of diplomatic practices has been formalized and its scope has widened. Not only are the diplomatic tactics being used to cope up with the political issues among the states, but also the issues concerning economic and social problems of the states. This increased usage of diplomatic practices has paved path for the international laws to govern the diplomatic practices in the prevailing era. This paper tries to examine the role of International Law in the contemporary diplomacy. Emphasis is laid upon answering the question that whether the international laws, as framed by the United Nations, are helpful in flourishing peaceful diplomatic ties among states or not. It has been concluded that the contemporary diplomatic practices among states is beholden to International laws.

Dielectric Characterization of CoXZn1-XFe2O4 Nano-Ferrites Synthesized by Chemical Co-Precipitation method []

In this research work Cobalt substituted Zinc ferrite (CoXZn1-XFe2O4) for x= 0, 0.1, 0.4, 0.7, 0.9, 1 nano-particles were prepared by chemical co-precipitation method due to its low cost and short reaction time. X-ray Diffraction was carried out to confirm the phase characterization and dielectric properties were investigated under frequency range of 1 kHz to 2MHz while voltage across plates of capacitors was kept constant. The change in dielectric constant, tan loss and ac conductivity of prepared nano-particles were observed with doping concentration.

A Qualitative Study of Risk Mitigation in Enterprise Resource Planning Implementations []

Due to a large number of failed Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) implementations in recent years, these projects are considered a risky endeavor for organizations of all sizes.  Given the fact that the majority of research regarding these Critical Failure Factors has been conducted based on large enterprises, small and medium enterprises (SMEs) may be unable to implement the mitigation strategies suggested in these studies. To examine this topic, a qualitative study was conducted with seven SMEs and one large enterprise in various phases of an ERP implementation.  In analyzing the data, the results revealed that communication, collaboration, and visibility among all stakeholders within an ERP implementation led to the mitigation of the risks identified in previous projects. Because SMEs make up 99.7% of the employer firms in the United States, it was important to gain understanding on this population, given their constraints and limited research compared to larger enterprises.


The concerns for effective Real Estate finance have been in existence from time immemorial, whereas the passion for Housing finance should be higher, as Housing is very essential for human wellbeing and productivity. A high level of commitment that is essential for effective Housing finance delivery towards Homeownership has become a great issue of concern across countries due to several factors. Hence, the medium and low-income groups are often faced with a plethora of problems when trying to source fund towards their Homeownership, especially from the angle of external or public finance sources. It is pertinent to know that, responsibility towards the provision of Housing finance cuts across differs areas with the Government role leading. The Recognition of Government Housing finance schemes towards Homeownership in Nigeria is the focus of this research. Through an extensive review of literature, a copious number of factors were identified to be associated with effective Housing finance schemes vis-à-vis factors that affect the operation of the Nigerian Housing finance scheme. However, there has been a dearth of research that group such contributing factors. The identification of such factors in this study and its understanding will go a long way in mitigating and correcting the problem of housing finance alongside serving as a proven measure to be considered in positively addressing them.

Anthropometric and physical characteristics in league 1 soccer players on the ranking of teams in Cameroon []

The present work aims at comparing anthropometric and physical characteristics in elite 1 Cameroonian soccer players according to the ranking of their team during the 2017-2018 season. Ninety one soccer players of three elite 1 teams of Cameroon football championship, including 30 of the top of the ranking [Coton Sport of Garoua (T1)], 30 of the middle of the ranking [APEJES of Mfou (T2)], and 31 of the bottom of the ranking [Aigle Royal of Menoua (T3)] participated in the study. Anthropometric characteristics [height, sitting height, weight, cormic index (CI), body mass index (BMI)] and physical performance [short-distance sprinting time, flexibilities, lower limb strength, maximum aerobic speed (MAS), maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max)] were determined. No difference was found in height, sitting height, weight, and BMI between the three teams. According to the CI, the number of brachicorms is significantly high in T1 (p<0.05). Performances in sprint, vertical jump and the predicted VO2max were significantly higher in T1 compared to T2 and T3 (p<0.05). In contrast, T3 players were more flexible compared to T2 and T1 players (p<0.05). The top ranking team (T1) of elite 1 football championship of the 2017-2018 season had older, bigger, heavier, faster, enduring and more powerful players than those of the middle (T2) and the bottom ranking teams (T3). Therefore, we suggested these parameters to partially justify the differences in teams of different ranks in the elite football championship.


The research paper high spots the role of Competition Commission of India in E-Commerce which is the exchange of information across electronic networks at any supply chain. The top leading E-commerce sites in India are Amazon, Flipkart, Snapdeal, IndiaMart. The findings of the paper have been based on a primary data to analyse the difference of mean of competition in economy before demonetization and after demonetization period and also to analyse the change in the payment of consumers pattern in Digital payment markets. It has been found that E-commerce is at the nascent stage which is growing at the increasing rate as these competition issues come in future India and it may become the platform for the anti-competitive agreements between the companies. It is observed that people are willing to use online payments over cash because it is more convenient, it provides various benefits such as cashback, discount on specific debit and credit cards, E-wallets.


Background: Community-based Health Planning and Services (CHPS) is a national Strategy to deliver essential community-based health services involving planning and service delivery within the communities in Ghana. Ghana has an organized official policy and guidelines in implementing contextualized and country-specific primary health care at the lower level. Health managers have traditionally been unaware of programme financial needs, funding sources, funding gaps, and the resources needed to sustain programme trajectory. This lack of economic and financial data has thwarted resource mobilization efforts and contributed to inefficient spending and unsustainable programme financing. To sustain the improvement in health service delivery under the Community Health Planning & Services system, the Government of Ghana (GoG) has prioritized development of a business plan that enables a clear roadmap for the mobilization, allocation, and management of financial resources. The objectives of this article however, is to discuss the overview of CHPS and how it has influenced health outcomes in rural Ghana. The article also brings out some best practices documented over a decade scale up of CHPS implementation and the business case developed for future investment in CHPS. Methods: Secondary data was used. Programmatic and cost data originated from CHPS zones, donors, and private sector partners that was used by Douche and Delloite to estimate the investment case for CHPS. Regular regional, district, sub-districts and CHPS zones monitoring reports were also accessed and analysed. Results: Analysis reveals that CHPS services are underfunded, jeopardizing progress made to date and unlikely sustainability. Secured funding for CHPS services varies greatly across regions analyzed. Underfunding of CHPS services results in financial instability and significant programme vulnerabilities, and even the most securely-funded programme is not fiscally independent. Similarly, the findings show that, the value of CHPS is enormous with positive health outcomes. Recommendations: The business plan should be considered as a necessary framework for short-medium- and long-term planning, augmenting capacity development in strategic social partnership and advocacy. Widespread analysis and use can increase domestic resources and opportunities for benchmarking, reduce donor dependence, and contribute to attaining Universal Health Coverage (UHC) and bridging the access inequity gap by 2030.


This investigation is done to determine water quality of three ponds in the Chittagong University campus using eleven physicochemical factors (temperature, Secchi depth, conductivity, pH, DO, BOD, free CO2, calcium, TDS, total hardness and alkalinity), to find out the Water Quality Index (WQI) for human uses. WQI was determined using “Weighted Arithmetic Water Quality Index method which was found to be 130.08 for Pond 1, hence unsuitable for drinking, where as for Pond 2 and pond 3 WQI were 98.07 and 102.18 respectively, hence very poor but suitable for drinking after treatment. Pond 2 was less used by the local residence and was less polluted. Pond 1 was extensively used for bathing and house hold washing, while Pond 3 was moderately used, hence found to be moderate to highly pollute respectively. To keep the pond water in good condition mass domestic use should be controlled, draining of surrounding organic matter should be stopped in pond 1 and pond 2 and also digging is necessary to remove the bottom deposits which should be continued at five years interval.

EFL students and the art of effective writing: Problems and Solutions []

This paper focuses on the ways and methods of writing and problems that are being faced by the students in EFL classrooms. This study also sought to investigate to what depth learners are exposed to appropriate academic text varieties. Writing is the most difficult and challenging skill or task. Clear thinking and clear writing go together. Writing involves words, sentences, and paragraphs. Words are the fundamental units of human communication. It is common for feedback on student writing to focus on the need to engage more critically with the source material. Writers attain pleasing diction not by memorizing dictionaries but by wide reading, careful attention to words and love and respect for words. Choosing the right word is more crucial in writing than in speech. The right word in the right place is the rule. The right word is the appropriate word in a given context. The differences in the beliefs that teachers held about the issues in teaching writing, did reflect differences in their practices and approaches and the depth to which learners are exposed to appropriate writing text varieties, that students are not fully exposed to varieties of writing texts. Appropriateness could be grammatical, geographic, temporal and stylistic. In the present scenario people are not properly concentrating on the ways of developing writing skills. One’s success is absolutely relying on one’s professional writing. It is common for feedback on student writing to focus on the need to engage more critically with the source material. Typical comments from tutors are: ‘too descriptive’, or ‘not enough critical analysis’. This study guide gives ideas for how to improve the level of critical analysis you demonstrate in your writing.


This research evaluates the entrepreneurship tendencies and entrepreneurship levels of business and tourism students in North Macedonia, who represent the young generation of entrepreneurship candidates. Taking into consideration the fact that the traditional career opportunities in North Macedonia are less applicable, the researchers are examining the main factors that contribute to young entrepreneurship. The population that has been the subject of the investigation is representatives of the Z-generation born from 1995 to the 2005 year. Based on the fact that the Z-generation is spending most of their lives on the technology and is learning and communicating through the technology which offers unlimited opportunities, most representatives of this generation do not want to be defined and limited with the job that does not offer developmental opportunities. It is expected that most of them will choose to be freelancers (contract work) or will open their own businesses. The main purpose of the research is to examine the entrepreneurship tendencies and levels of the business and tourism students by analyzing the scores received on the entrepreneurship scale developed by Yılmaz and Sünbül (2008) and revised by Tiftik and Zincirkiran (2014). This research study is very important because it has a multiethnic approach and elaborate specific questions about the youth entrepreneurship candidates that should develop businesses and tourism in North Macedonia in the future. Taking into consideration the fact that tourism is the main aspect of sustainable economic development, this paper provides recommendations for future activities for the development of the young entrepreneurship that can prevent the migration of the young population and can contribute to the local and rural development. Additionally, this research is a relevant reference for the further improvement of the educational system that should provide university students with the knowledge and competencies for entrepreneurship. Developing the entrepreneurial and enterprise potential of generation Z students is a crucial factor for building an innovative society.


This research suggests looking at the community structure in the gut that has different feeding habits using the Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) method. Carp, tilapia, and catfish are fish that live in freshwater with dif-ferent feeding habits. Samples of carp and tilapia came from the Cirata Reservoir, Purwakarta, West Java and catfish came from the Ciparanje FPIK Unpad Wet Laboratory. This research was conducted in March-August 2019 at the FPIK Unpad Microbiology and Biotechnology Laboratory and subsequently sequenced by the HiSeq NGS in Novogene, Singapore. The results of the study obtained the principal values of coordinates 1 (PC1) and 2 (PC2) obtained were 60.36% and 39.64%. The grouping results made by the bacterial community of carp, tilap-ia, and catfish form a different group. Highest Abundance of Cetobacterium, Clostridium sensu stricto 1, Bac-teroides, Enterovibrio, Plesiomonas, Lactococcus, Romboutsia, Stenotrophomonas, Turicibacter, Edwardsiella, and others.

Drivers Affecting the Adoption of Building Information Modelling in Construction Consultancy Firms in Abuja, Nigeria []

ABSTRACT Abstract: Construction consultants are specialist, skilled and expertise with various roles and categorizations of responsibilities to handle and satisfy the construction performance and quality to attain a construction project goal. It is also part of their role to ensure that they administered the contract as described in the contract document. Therefore, their approaches to modern tools need to be improving significantly for collaborative activity to enhance the construction process. The aim of this study is to assess the driving factors affecting the adoption of Building Information Modelling (BIM) by construction consultants with a view to sensitizing the consultants in Abuja, Nigeria. Sixty six (66) structured questionnaires were administered to construction consultants through Quantitative research method. The research revealed that incorporating BIM in tertiary education curriculum RII = 0.90, increasing the awareness level of the benefit of using BIM in construction projects RII = 0.89, and the establishment of national BIM road map RII = 0.87, are the most significant drivers required to accelerate the adoption of BIM, but they (consultant) declined to consider “mandate BIM for Public sector RII = 0.54, and registration with international bodies” RII = 0.51 as the significant initiatives to drive the adoption. Thus, the study recommends that the government should provide ways of incorporating BIM in the curriculum of tertiary institutions offering relevant courses there by, establishing a clear standards and guide on the use of BIM and to provide more tailored training to future students and practitioners.

Psychological Wellbeing among Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder []

Parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) reported more negative impact and poor psychological wellbeing. They appear to be at great risk for depression, stress, anxiety and distress; and many parents have managed to overcome the constant challenge by using their patience and take the consequences to adapt well in the face of adversity. The researcher highlights the family role to find themselves dealing with additional challenges to cope and accept modification, and minimizing the impact of ASD on parents by helping them to adjust their expectation to their children. A descriptive cross-sectional study was to determine the burden of ASD on the parents and to identify the level of psychological wellbeing in dealing with the impact of raising a child with ASD. The present study aimed to identify the level of severity of ASD for children, and also, to assess psychological wellbeing among parents of children with ASD, and to find out the relationship between psychological wellbeing with severity of autistic children and with parents and child characteristics. A non-probability purposive sample of (152) children with ASD and (152) parents at AL-Najaf province. The results of the study revealed that parents of children with ASD experienced moderate level of psychological wellbeing; there were significant differences between the level of psychological wellbeing among parents and childhood autism rating scale, whereas there is a significant difference between psychological wellbeing and some of socio-demographic characteristics of Child's parents (gender and monthly income and General Health Questionnaire GHQ). The current study recommends providing family support for families with autistic children, especially a psychological one, and educational about clinical behaviors of ASD for early detection and Family to Family Education Programs to the existing services in community mental health programs. Keywords: Psychological Wellbeing, Parents of Children, Autism Spectrum Disorder


Volatile components generally affect the aroma characteristics acceptance of a product including fisheries commodities such as narrow-barred Spanish mackerel. This research aims to identify the volatile component of flavor powder which prepared from narrow-barred Spanish mackerel broth. The Spanish mackerel were collected from the local fish landing site in Karangsong, Indramayu, West Java, Indonesia. The method used in this research was to identify the sample’s volatile compounds using Gas Chromatography /Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) and using Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) (800C; 30 minutes) as its extraction method. To support the main volatile data analysis, the samples were also analyzed for their proximate composition. The volatile compound analysis has succesfully detected as much as 87 volatile compounds from the broth sample. Volatile compounds detected were mostly derived from aldehydes, alcohols, hydrocarbons, ketones, organic acid, ester, and other groups of compounds. The highest proportion of volatile compounds detected in the sample was pyrazine, trimethyl- (14,04%). The proximate analysis results showed that Spanish mackerel flavor powder had a moisture content of 4,72%, ash content of 2,31%, lipid content of 0,24% and protein content of 8,07%.


This study starts from the problem of the type of leadership that is run about BMT Barrah Bandung in implementing the work program and operations, as well as the work plan that was made so survive and continue to thrive to this day. There are allegations that the setback caused by factors Barrah BMT leadership. Based on the background of the problem is studied on the characteristics of the applied Managerial Grid by BMT Barrah. The results concluded that the dominant leadership style applied in the management of BMT is democratic and participative leadership. All the leaders and employees were given the opportunity to pull out the bottom staff views and opinions on matters related to the effort and develop strategies BMT. All leaders to advance BMT participated Barrah, so BMT Barrah awarded as out-standing. Leadership that highlight one's leadership effectiveness is highly dependent on the shape, type, and level of participation of subordinates in carrying out the organization.


This study aims to determine the coconut testa in the most effective formulation of feed for the growth of red tilapia to providing a high survival rate. The study was conducted in Mei and Juni 2019 at the Aquaculture Laboratory. Building 4 Fisheries and Agricultural Engineering. Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Padjadjaran University. The method used was the experimental method using a completely randomized design (CRD) with five treatments and three replications. The treatment used was feed containing coconut testa A (0%), B (5%), C (10%), D (15%) and E (20%). The parameters observed were, feed response, survival rate, and water quality. Absolute weight growth and fish survival rates were analyzed by F-ANOVA with a 5% error rate, while water quality will be analyzed descriptively comparatively. The results showed that the use of 5% coconut testa in feed was effective for growth rate of red tilapia because response to feed relatively faster, and the highest survival rate 92%, and growth rate 6,19 g. Feed is able to fulfill the energy needs and help the growth of red tilapia, because the range of nutrient content of pellets is in accordance with the fish needs.

development and performance evaluation of briquette from agricultural by-products. []

The current wave of energy consciousness has triggered intense efforts in the search for the alternative sources for cooking fuels, including the use of agricultural by-products like cassava peels, sawdust and shea butter cake to form briquettes which is substitutes of fuel needed for domestic cooking. The experiments were conducted using 23 full factorial design. Three factors, cassava peels (X1), sawdust (X2) and shea butter cake (X3) at two level (coded as – and +) were investigated under different variable factors. The briquettes were tested and evaluated for quality in terms of crushing strength, calorific value and burning efficiency. The model developed showed that cassava peel have higher significance difference in briquettes than interaction of these factor at 5% levels of significance. Cassava peel showed a higher significance effect than shea butter cake. Crushing strength, calorific value and burning efficiency were affected by interaction of the three main factors. The fitted model for predicting the crushing strength, calorific value and burning efficiency gave the best compromise for optimally as it produced briquettes of higher calorific value 885J/kg and considerable crushing strength of 883N respectively.

Impact of Brewery Effluent and correlation between Physico-Chemical Parameters and Heavy Metals in Omi-Asoro Stream, Ilesa, Osun State, Nigeria. []

It has been uploaded with the file.

Phenotypic Characterization and Technological Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated From Fermenting Maize []

Twenty-five strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from fermenting maize. The phenotypic and technological properties were investigated with the aim of selecting potential starter cultures for controlled fermentation. Changes in LAB counts, pH, titratable acidity were observed at 24 hourly interval for 72 h during the natural fermentation of maize. Technological properties such as amylase production, acidification and exopolysaccharide production by the isolates were also investigated. Results revealed that LAB count increased from 6.90±0.05 to 7.61±0.01 log cfu/ml from 0 h -72 h fermentation time. The isolates were identified as Lactobacillus fermentum (8%), L. plantarum (64%), L. brevis (20%), L. delbrueckii (4%) and Streptococcus lactis (4%). pH decreased from 6.56±0.06 to 5.90±0.44 while the titratable acidity increased from 0.11±0.03 to 0.16±0.05 mg lactic acid/g in the fermenting maize grains from zero to the 72nd hour of natural fermentation respectively. The technological studies on the LAB strains showed that none of them exhibited amylase activity, eleven isolates established rapid acidifying activity while only one showed slow acidifying activity. Twelve isolates were good producers of exopolysaccharides while five of the isolates produced EPS poorly. This work however demonstrated that lactic acid bacteria involved in the natural fermentation of maize can be used as starter culture for fermentation of maize-based products.

Hole Transporting Material Effect on Sandwiched Perovskite Based Solar Cells Using SCAPS-1D []

In this research, the simulation of Sandwiched Perovskite Based Solar Cells (PSCs) was investigated using computer based software known as solar cell capacitance simulator (SCAPS-1D).The effect of Hole Transporting Material (HTM) on the sandwiched perovskite was determined by the electrical. The solar cell structures used are n-FTO/ZnO/p-CZTS/p-PSC/p-CZTS/HTM and n-FTO/ZnO/p-CZTS/p-PSC/p-CZTS. The simulations were performed under ambient temperature (300K) and AM 1.5 Sun of the Solar spectrum parameters (Voc, Jsc, FF) and efficiency generated by the SCAPS-1D. From the results obtained, the model band gap for the two devices and graphs were plotted and the efficiencies recorded. It was observed that with the increase of perovskite thickness from 50 to 500 nm, the efficiencies of the sandwiched perovskite increases. It was also observed that the device with HTM had a greater efficiency than the device without the HTM. The efficiencies of 20.56 % and 15.53 % were recorded for the sandwiched perovskite with HTM and the sandwiched Perovskite without HTM. The continuous increase in the efficiencies of the device with HTM shows that it has a positive effect on the perovskite.


The main objective of this study was to examine the influencing factors of potential entrepreneurs’ intention towards sustainable entrepreneurship. To investigate the research, Wolkite University graduate students were taken as a population of the study. A total of 180 samples have been taken from the study area using a simple random sampling technique. A survey instrument was used to collect the data from the sample. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS version 22 software. Both descriptive and inferential statistical analysis was carried out to achieve the research objectives of the study. From the inferential analysis result, Pearson correlation analysis showed that all independent variables (entrepreneurial education, social norm, entrepreneurial attitude, self-efficacy, entrepreneurial motivation and perceived behavioral control) of the study had a positive and statistically significant relationship with the dependent variable. The regression analysis of the study exposed that 62% of sustainable entrepreneurial intention was explained by independent variables and the remaining 38% was explained by other variables that were not included in the model. The study found that from all independent variables only entrepreneurial motivation and social norm had a positive and statistically significant effect on the dependent variable. Other variables had a positive and statistically insignificant effect on the dependent variable at 5% significant level. Based on the findings, the study recommends that Governments, Universities, Colleges, NGOs, Social entrepreneurs and other institutions should promote sustainable entrepreneurship in the mind of graduate students by supporting them through knowledge-based entrepreneurial training motivation, financial incentives and social capital enhancement for social, cultural, environmental and economic wealth creation roles for the nation.

On the Contributions of the Arzela- Ascoli theorem to Analysis []

In this paper, we single out some of the crucial contributions of the Arzela-Ascoli theorem to Analysis. It is demonstrated on how it resonates in the proof of Peano existence theorem, Peter-Weyl theorem and in the establishment of Bolzano- Weistrass theorem. It is also justified that in mathematics, the Arzela-Ascoli theorem of functional analysis gives necessary and sufficient condition of equicontinuity to the family of functions.

The Enhancement of Urbanization in Suburbs to be Ecological Urbanized and as Preferable as City Centers []

As world population has grown rapidly recently in a way individuals migrate to city centers that has become over populated. There is such pollution that threats human life, living organisms, and the plant. Health is really blessed, therefore, there must be some principals taking into considerations while designing to live healthy and to sustain our endurance, as well as usage and protection the natural resources in design that can help to save us. Indeed, it is essential to study principals that lead people to engage with ecological suburbs in order to minimize over crowd population zones. This paper aims to provide suggestions and trend ideas to engage with suburbs more to seek the balance of population between city centers and suburbs, as well as carbon balancing and carbon reduction theories. The achievement of urban balancing development may require learning from the past success and mistakes to develop the current situations for the better now and tomorrow to become liveable. This research is a theoretical qualitative research method which collects valuable data to be analyzed precisely with proposes significant critique methods for planning ecological suburbs.


According to Jaffee (2001), the place of work is characterized by conflict which is analyzed as meta-theoretical framework that identifies the constant and overarching challenges facing organizations. This descriptive study sought to identify and describe the effect of destructive conflict on employees’ productivity in Ghana Highway Authority. Self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain data from staff of the Ghana Highway Authority, Kumasi. The study found that destructive conflicts (caused by lack of resources; criticisms and gossip; accusation; unfair provision of different kinds of benefits; pay cut without consent; individuals consistently failing to admit their weakness; etc.) do not occur very often. Apart from ‘killing’ an individual emotionally, such conflicts hurt group cohesion, promote interpersonal hostilities, divert energies, create bad feelings, lead to high labour turnover and costly litigations. It is recommended that complains and suggestions of the staff should be addressed at staff durbars and union meetings and feedback given to them through their representatives.

Experimental Findings on the Dispersion Effectiveness of Magna 1100 and Magna 1101 Oil Spill Dispersants Using the Modified United Kingdom (UK) Warren Spring Laboratory (WSL) LR448 test and Australia Semi-Quantitative Test (SQT) []

The aim of this experiment is to determine the dispersion effectiveness of Magna 1100 and Magna 1101 dispersants using the modified United Kingdom (UK) Warren Spring Laboratory (WSL) LR448 test (i.e. rolling flask test) [1]. The dispersant-to-oil ratio used in this experiment is 1:20 (i.e. 1 part of dispersant to 20 parts of oil).

Arduino-Enabled Automated Multi-Level Vehicle Parking System []

Vehicles not appropriately parked especially in urban areas often results in traffic congestion and poor space management. This work presents the development of Arduino guided automated vehicle parking system that will offer solutions to the problems of inadequate parking space, traffic congestion and the insecurity of drivers and their vehicles. The automated vehicle parking system consists of a multi-slot park and the storage and retrieval system implementation for better positioning of the vehicle. The cabinet of the multi-slot vehicle park were fabricated using mild steel and assembled with bolts and nuts. The storage and retrieval system are made of threaded rods, ball bearing slides, stepper motors, nuts and sleeves coupled unto the system frame by drilling and welding. The motor driver circuit and infrared proximity sensor operates appropriately. The hardware components identify slot availability intelligently and automatically adjust itself for correct parking.


This study aims to determine how much the elasticity of demand and analyze the factors that affect the elasticity of demand for mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) in the Bandar Lampung City at fish auction market. This research was conducted in July 2019 to September 2019. The method used was a quantitative descriptive method using primary data and secondary data. The sampling technique used in this study was accidental sampling. Accidental sampling technique is by sampling respondents based on coincidence, ie anyone who accidentally meets with a researcher and can be used as a sample if people who happen to be met are suitable as data sources. The results showed that the demand for mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) in the Bandar Lampung Auction Market in Bandar Lampung was elastic and showed that the factors influencing the demand for mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) were the price of mackerel, tuna fish prices, anchovies fish prices, rice prices, income.


The primary objective of this paper is to introduce the class of integer-valued autoregressive (INAR) models for the time series analysis of traffic accidents. Different types of time series count data are considered: aggregated time series data where both the spatial and temporal units of observation are relatively large and disaggregated time series data where both the spatial and temporal units are relatively small (e.g., congestion charging zone and month). The performance of the INAR models is compared with the class of Box and Jenkins real-valued models (such as ARIMA models) and Poisson and Negative Binomial (NB) models. The results suggest that the performance of the ARIMA model and the INAR Poisson model is quite similar in terms of model goodness of fit for the case of aggregated time series traffic accident data. This is because the mean of the counts is high in which case the normal approximations and the ARIMA model may be satisfactory. However, the performance of INAR Poisson model is found to be much better than that of the ARIMA model for the case of the disaggregated time series traffic accident data where the counts is relatively low. The paper ends with a discussion on the limitations of INAR models to deal with the seasonality and unobserved heterogeneity.


A simple, specific, accurate and precise spectrophotometric method was settled for simultaneous determination of paracetamol and orphenadrine citrate in their pure form and in their pharmaceutical formulation. Spectrum subtraction technique has been used in simultaneous determination of both drugs without prior separation. Spectrum subtraction method parameters were validated according to ICH guidelines in which accuracy, precision, repeatability and robustness were found in accepted limits. Advantages and disadvantages of spectrum subtraction technique were discussed and statistical comparison between the proposed method and the reference one was also performed.


This research aims was to analyse and determine the concentration of fish herbs that were optimal for growth and survival rate of bonylip barb juvenile. The research method used was the experimental Complete Random Design (CRD) with 5 treatments and 3 replications. The treatment applied were A (control), B (concentration fish herbs 25 ml Kg-1), C (concentration of fish herbs 50 ml Kg-1), D (concentration of fish herbs 75ml Kg-1), and E (concentration of fish herbs 100 ml Kg-1). Observed parameters were specific growth rate, feed convertion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, survival rate and water quality. The results showed that highest SGR value were on treatment C (0.65%), treatment B (0.36%), treatment D (0.28%), treatment A (0.25%), treatment E (0.14%). The lowest FCR values were at treatment C (0.51), treatment B (0.59), treatment D (0.66) while treatments A and E were (0.75). The highest PER value were on treatment C (1.29), treatment B (0.77), treatment D (0.69), treatment A (0.53) and treatment E (0.29). The optimum con-centration of fish herbs for the growth of bonylip barb is treatment C (50 ml Kg-1).

Assessment of Quality of Rainwater Harvested from Roof Tops in Ikotun Area of Lagos State []

This study was to assess the quality of rainwater in the Ikotun Area of Alimosho Local Government Area of Lagos state and to check the potability of the rainwater within the study area in comparison to World Health Organization (WHO) drinkable water standard. The physicochemical (pH, Dissolved Oxygen, Total Dissolved Solids, Hardness, Lead, Electrical Conductivity) and microbial properties (E. coli, and Faecal coliform); of the harvested rainwater were assessed. The One-Way Analysis of Variance was employed to statistically examine the inherent variation that might exist across the roof type. The Inverse Distant Weight method was used also to carry out a spatial analysis of the data obtained from the laboratory analysis, thus generating a map showing the variation of parameters over the study area. The ANOVA result shows that there is a significant variation (P<0.05), in the level of physiochemical and microbial parameters of the harvested rainwater from the eight categories of roof types with varying characteristics both in appearance and in quality of roof material. The potential of rainwater harvesting from roof catchments in augmenting present water supply status in Nigeria exists. The volume available for harvesting at individual roofs can offset the water supply deficit that has been estimated.


Abstracts The study focused on Predicting Strategic Planning on Job Effectiveness of Academic Heads of Tertiary Institutions in North Central. Two research questions and hypotheses were adopted for the study and the adopted the descriptive survey design. Data were collected from a sample of 372 academic head of departments (HODs) from six tertiary institutions in North Central, Nigeria using a structured researchers’ developed instrument titled “Strategic Planning and Job Effectiveness Questionnaires (SPJEQ). Data collected were analyzed using simple regression analysis. The findings revealed that mission statement and core values can highly predict job performance in the study area. Also most institutions do not see the need for adequately accepting and working toward the attainment of the mission, vision statement and core values of the organization which in-turn promotes excellence in job performance by academic heads. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that factors related to strategic planning should be well articulated to management and staff of the tertiary institution. Also, the vision, mission statement and core value of the organization should be clearly spelt out in the organization.


ABSTRACT The paper focused on assessment of the CBN’S cashless policy implementation as predictor of sustainable administration of higher education in south-south Nigeria: Implication on educational management. Two hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The study adopted the descriptive survey research design. It became expedient to adopt survey design because this method allowed the researchers to obtained data from a representative sample from a wider area of coverage (for an objective analysis and valid inference). The population for the study comprised 16, 238 administrative staff of tertiary institutions in south-south, Nigeria. The stratified and simple random samplings were employed in the study and relevant data for this study was obtained from the sampled respondents. The sample size for study was 627 respondents drawn from among six selected tertiary institutions in south-south, Nigeria. A well structured questionnaire titled “Cashless Policy and Sustainability of Higher Education Questionnaire (CPSHEQ)" which was face validated by three experts two in Educational Management and one in Measurement and Evaluation. The reliability was carried out using split half reliability method and the coefficient of internal consistency obtained ranged from .87 to .91. The data obtained from the research instrument were analyzed using descriptive statistics (simple percentages and bar charts) and inferential statistics (population t-test and multiple regression analysis). The results revealed the level of cashless policy implementation is significantly low. Also, there is a significant prediction of cashless policy in terms of infrastructure, security and awareness on sustainable administration of higher education. The study recommended that with the creation of numerous payment options, the process of cash collection will be made simple and the cost and risk associated with cash transfer and processing reduced. This will have a strong implication of the management of tertiary institutions across the country. Keywords: CBN, Cashless Policy, Predictor, Sustainable, Administration of Higher Education.

Effect of Stress Water Irrigation on Maize Under Drip Irrigation Conditions []

Abstract: Two field experiments were carried out at Tanta farm, El-Gharbia governorate during 2016 and 2017 seasons to study the effect of no.of drip lines/ridge and irrigation water levels on maize yield and its components under surface drip irrigation method. The treatments were arranged in a RCB design with three replicates. The combined analysis over the two growing seasons showed that, the highest values for grain yield/ha. recorded with 100% ETc (8.40 ton.ha-1) and 90% Etc (8.17) which there were no significant differences between them in the combined data. While, the interaction between one drip line/ridge (DL1) and I100, I90 and I80 recorded the highest grain yield (ton.ha-1). Also, the interaction between double drip line/ridge (DL2) and I100 and I90 in the combined data. While, the lowest grain yield values were observed with the interaction between I70 and both DL1 and DL2 in the combined data. So, it could be concluded that we can use one dripline/ridge irrigation with 80% of ETc for obtaining high and good grain yield for maize.


ABSTRACT Distribution Management has become a comprehensive strategy of managing a company’s interactions with customers, clients, and attainment of sales objectives It is a mutually beneficial relationship built upon a foundation of trust and loyalty through marketing, distribution and customer service programs. This study examines the link between distribution management strategies and sales performance of Soft Drinks Distributing Firms. The fierce competition of soft drink distributors in today’s business setting has forced them to seek long-term profitable distribution management strategies. The used a simple regression model to regress on sales performance on variables representing distribution management strategies namely, channel design and channel administration. The main finding of this study is that channel design and channel administration have positive impact on sales performance respectively. Channel administration programs appear to be the main driver for sales performance. This study concludes that Soft drink distributing firms need to master these socially complex potentials effectively and turn them into competitive advantage by associating sales performance with distribution management strategic architecture.


Introduction: World Health Organization (WHO) recommends use of Community Health Volunteers (CHVs) for community health service delivery. Kenya adopted the use of CHVs through Community Health Strategy program in 2006 with free maternal and child health services. Regardless of the efforts made women still die from preventable pregnancy related causes majorly due to unskilled attendance at birth. The context in which the CHVs deliver their health care services has been cited as a pivotal consideration for increasing the skilled attendance at birth. A few studies have been done on how context influences the CHVs performance but little is known on evidence based frameworks to overcome the barriers to CHVs performance improvement. Globally Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) is 216 per 100,000 live birth while Neonatal Mortality Ratio (NMR) is 19 per 1000 live births and all is attributed to unskilled birth attendant which is at 78% worldwide. These figures are higher at rural sub-Sahara Africa (510 MMR and 31 NMR). Kenya, the maternal and neonatal mortalities are at 366 and 22 respectively. Nyando Sub-County, the high (58%) unskilled attendance at birth is highly attributed to the NMR (28/1000) which surpasses that of the country (22/1000). Objective: To the CHVs performance on maternal and neonatal health outcomes using the Community Health Workers Assessment Improvement Matrix (CHW AIM) tool in Nyando, Kenya. Methods: Data was collected by use of the CHW AIM tool and a Focus Group Discussion (FGD) from 361 CHVs records at baseline while a semi structured questionnaire was used to collect data for individual CHVs Variables. Data was analyzed by Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) program version 22. Descriptive statistics, Chi-squire, multivariate regression and standardized coefficients analyses were used to examine relationship between socio demographic and individual characteristics versus CHVs performance. Significance of the results was evaluated at 95% level of confidence. Results: All the three outcome indicators (Focused antenatal care-FANC, Skilled attendance at birth at the health facility and Postnatal Care-PNC) were partially achieved by the CHVs. Conclusion and Recommendation: The partial performance was attributed to workload (large coverage area) and inability to identify the expectant mothers during Household registration. These hindered prompt referral to the health facility for scheduled care services .For the CHVs to be able to improve their performance on maternal and neonatal health outcomes in Nyando, there is need to develop a workable framework to be implemented and evaluated for possible adoption into the ongoing Community Health Strategy policy in future.

Context based factors that influence the Community Health Volunteers Performance in Maternal and neonatal health outcomes in Nyando Sub-county,Kenya. []

Introduction: World Health Organization (WHO) recommends use of Community Health Volunteers (CHVs) for community health service delivery. Kenya adopted the use of CHVs through Community Health Strategy program in 2006 with free maternal and child health services. Regardless of the efforts made women still die from preventable pregnancy related causes majorly due to unskilled attendance at birth. The context in which the CHVs deliver their health care services has been cited as a pivotal consideration for increasing the skilled attendance at birth. A few studies have been done on how context influences the CHVs performance but little is known on evidence based frameworks to overcome the barriers to CHVs performance improvement. Globally Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) is 216 per 100,000 live birth while Neonatal Mortality Ratio (NMR) is 19 per 1000 live births and all is attributed to unskilled birth attendant which is at 78% worldwide. These figures are higher at rural sub-Sahara Africa (510 MMR and 31 NMR). Kenya, the maternal and neonatal mortalities are at 366 and 22 respectively. Nyando Sub-County, the high (58%) unskilled attendance at birth is highly attributed to the NMR (28/1000) which surpasses that of the country (22/1000). Objective: To establish CHVs contextual influences affecting the performance of CHVs on maternal and neonatal health outcomes in Nyando, Kenya. Methods: Performance data was collected by use of Community Health Workers Assessment Improvement Matrix (CHW AIM) tool from 361 CHVs records at both baseline (retrospective) and end line (prospective) while a semi structured questionnaire and Focus Group Discussions (FGD) were used to collect data for individual CHVs Variables. Quantitative data was analyzed by Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) program version 22. Descriptive statistics, Chi-squire, multivariate regression and standardized coefficients analyses were used to examine relationship between socio demographic and individual characteristics versus CHVs performance. Significance of the results was evaluated at 95% level of confidence. For qualitative data, codes and themes were created and analyzed logically. Results: Completed primary level education and above and belief on facility delivery benefits had a significant positive influence on performance level of CHVs (P-value<0.05) .Lack of means of identification of expectant women at households and large area of work emerged as a major barrier for their performance. Conclusion and Recommendation: From the participatory planning session held by all stakeholders, it was agreed that there is a great need to have a framework on how to identify and track the expectant women within the community units by CHVs to be implemented and if possible be adopted by the policy makers in future .This will ensure that all expectant women would be identified earlier and be referred to health facility for Focused Antenatal Care Visits, Skilled delivery and Post-natal care Visits to achieve maximum performance and improve on maternal and neonatal health care outcome in Nyando and similar settings.

Proximate analysis, Concentration of heavy metals and Thermodynamic of oil extraction from Coco Nucifera []

ABSTRACT: The proximate analysis, concentration of heavy metal and thermodynamic of oil extraction from coco nucifera using ethanol and n-hexane has been studied. The proximate, heavy metals and thermodynamic properties determined were ash, moisture, crude lipid, crude protein, crude fibre, carbohydrate, sodium, magnesium, potassium, calcium, iron, zinc, enthalpy, entropy and gibbs free energy. The nutritional value obtained were 0.76, 8.43, 47.18, 11. 63, 5.94 and 26.06% for ash, moisture content, crude lipid, crude protein, crude fibre and carbohydrate respectively. Sodium and Magnesium demonstrated the least concentration whereas, Potassium showed the highest concentration in the coconut oil. The thermodynamic parameters obtained at 363K for ethanol and n-hexane are Enthalpy (2.206 and 1.44KJ), Entropy (33.538 and 23.209J/K) and Gibbs free energy (-9.967 and -6.984KJ) respectively. The positive value of the system entropy indicates that the system is disordered and the reaction is irreversible. The negative values of the Gibb’s free energy confirm the spontaneity of the reaction, while the positive value of enthalpy implies that the reaction is endothermic. Keywords: Coconut oil, Solvent. Coco nucifera, Proximate Analysis ,Heavy metals Thermodynamics.


In the post-independence period, Africa faced numerous challenges of power and leadership due to numerous reasons. Here we can cite lack of experiences in leadership which entailed low self-governance and corruption, lack of self-resilience and other forms of worse leadership. In this respect, Chinua Achebe's novel, A Man of the People, reflect the lives of Africans in that period. This study therefore set out to find out the post-independence problems of power and leadership in the emergent nation. The study analyzed different issues happened in that period through Achebe’s A Man of the People.In A Man of the People, there are two contrasting groups of people from a political and social aspect based in West Africa. The groups are the old and the new generations of politics and two characters represent them. Odili, the narrator, represents the new intellectual generation, while Chief Nanga, Odili’s former teacher, represents the old style of bush politicians. The conflict between the old and new ways is portrayed through the two characters as they not only disagree and quarrel over political views but also women. The story ends with a military coup that foreshadows the Nigerian Revolution of 1966. "Chinua Achebe proved to be a better prophet than any of the political scientists"(K.W.J. Post, xiii). Achebe captures the inside reality of the lives of the contrasting characters as he demonstrates energy and brightness as well as violence and corruption. Both primary and secondary sources of data were used and a variety of methods including documentary analysis were employed to ensure triangulation and the quality of data collected and analyzed. The study revealed causes of African leaders’ failure, which provoked numerous problems in the aftermath of colonization observed till now. This had been of major interest to both African society and those that are in leadership positions presently or are aspiring to positions of governorship. On the other hand, it helped people especially new leaders to overcome those various problems. This is of much importance since history is one of the keys to understand the future.

Unmasking Acquired hemophilia B disguised in an elderly male on Warfarin treatment – a case report and literature review. []

Acquired hemophilia B is a rare disorder of blood coagulation. It is not uncommon for Acquired Hemophilia B to be disguised under the mask of Warfarin treatment overdose as the manifestations like easy bleeding and bruisibilty are similar. Thus, a delayed diagnosis can be expected resulting in the consequent delay in effective management. Here we want to present a case of a 51-year-old gentleman whose repeated hematomas were assumed to be due to Warfarin overdose, a diagnosis more commonly experienced. Suspicion arose when the patient's international normalized ratio was normal and a persistent abnormal activated partial thromboplastin time was noted. On further coagulation work up, the deficiency of Factor IX was noted which was due to the antagonistic actions of Warfarin on Vitamin K, which lead to the deficiency of Factor IX. Patient was thus diagnosed of Acquired Hemophilia B and management was shifted to the focus of not letting the levels of Factor IX fall below 5-10%, instead of targeting the conventional INR therapeutic range approach for patients on Warfarin. The diagnosis of Hemophilia B could thus be easily masked in patients on Warfarin therapy, resulting in a dangerous delay in correct management approach and repeated bleeding episodes despite a normal INR. The manifestations of Acquired Hemophilia B are easily disguised under Warfarin therapy, as the former being a very rare disorder compared to the more common Warfarin overdose associated bleeding. Awareness of Acquired Hemophilia B is thus empirical for the timely diagnosis and correct management approach for patients under anti coagulation therapies.

Effects of Budgetary Goal Characteristics to Managerial Performance []

This study aims to determine the effect of budgetary participation, budget goal clarity, budgetary evaluation, budgetary feedback, and budget goal difficulty on managerial performance. This research was conducted at government hospitals in Jayapura. The sample in this study was 116 managers selected with non-probability sampling technique, i.e purposive sampling. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis. The result show that (1) budgetary participation has a positive affect on managerial performance, (2) budget goal clarity has a positive affect on managerial performance, (3) budgetary evaluation has a positive affect on managerial performance, (4) budgetary feedback has a positive affect on managerial performance, and (5) budget goal difficulty has not affect on managerial performance. Therefore, managerial parties should consider these aspects in budgeting process to improve managerial performance.

Feeding Ecology of Swayne’s hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus Swayne, Sclater, 1892) in Maze National Park []

Swayne’s Hartebeest is an endemic but threatened species in Ethiopia. However, data were scarce on its feeding ecology and preferred plant species. Therefore, a study was carried out on the feeding habit of Swayne's Hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus swaynei) in the Maze National Park, Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to determine the preferable plant species available in the park and plant parts consumed by the study animal. Data were collected by direct observation in the field and analyzed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square test, SPSS (version 20) and one way ANOVA. A total of 648 observations were made on the feeding habit of Swayne’s hartebeest throughout the study period. Of these, 284 (43.82%) were made in the wet season and 364 (56.18%) were made in the dry season. Sporobolus panicoides was mostly consumed grass in the wet season (24.3%) followed by Andropogon gayanus (19.36%) whereas Andropogon gayanus was the most preferred grass in the dry season (21.97%) followed by Heteropogon contortus (18.4%). The result revealed that Swayne’s Hartebeests fed on nine grass species of Poaceae during the wet season, while they were observed feeding on those grasses and two tree species of Balanitaceae and Fabaceae in the dry season with a varied amount of consumption. The proportion of food items consumed by the animals in wet and dry seasons differed significantly (χ2 = 376.5, df = 10, p < 0.05). Swayne’s Hartebeest preferred mainly young leaves followed by shoot and matured ones. They were frequently observed feeding during the early morning and late afternoon. Based on the findings of this study, it was recommended that giving high emphasis for habitat quality would be highly appreciable to keep commonly preferred plant species as well as the endemic and endangered species of Swayne’s Hartebeest in the Park. Keywords/phrases: Feeding preference, plant species, Maze National Park, Swayne’s hartebeest