Volume 7, Issue 9, September 2019 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Comparative Effect of Organic Manure And Inorganic Fertilizer on the Growth And Yield of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus ) L. Moench []

AbstractThe study evaluated the comparative effect of organic manure and inorganic fertilizer on the growth and yield of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) L. Moench. The research was carried out at the experimental plot of Federal College of Forestry, Ibadan. Seeds of Abelmoschus esculentus were sown directly on the field at a spacing of 50cm by 40cm.The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD)with seven treatments replicated three times which comprises of poultry manure and Gliricidia sepium at two different levels (10tons/ha,20tons/ha) and NPK 15:15:15 at two levels (150kg/ha,200kg/ha) and control. The following parameters were assessed two weeks after planting; plant height (cm), number of leaves, stem diameter (mm), number of pods and pod weight. Data collected was subjected to Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and separated using Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at 5% level of probability. The result obtained from this experiment showed that T4 (20tons/ha of poultry manure) performed best in terms of plant height with value of 45.67, while T2 (Gliricida sepium at 10tons/ha) recorded least having 29.53. T4 (20tons/ha of poultry manure) also performed best in stem diameter with the value of 2.92 while T2(10tons/ha of Gliricida sepium) performed least with 1.83. In addition,T4 (20tons/ha of poultry manure) performed best in the number of leaves recording 7.67 while T2( Gliricidia sepium at 10tons/ha) had the least. Moreover, poultry manure at 20tons/ha performed best in the number of pods and pod weight. From the result obtained, it was therefore concluded that the application of poultry manure at 20tons/ha should be adopted by farmers for maximum growth and yield of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) having performed well in terms of plant height, stem girth, number of leaves and number of pods.Keywords: Okra, poultry manure, Gliricidia sepium, N:P:K 15:15:15, growth, yield

Assessment of some Quality Parameters of Harvested Rainwater-Case study at Donaso, a farming community in Ejisu Municipal, Ashanti, Ghana []

Rainwater harvesting for domestic use is becoming increasingly popular as the availability of good quality water is declining. Harvested rainwater has been considered an effective alternative water source for drinking and various non-potable uses in a number of countries throughout the world, the most significant issue in relation to using untreated harvested rainwater for drinking or other potable uses, however, is the potential public health risks associated with microbial pathogens. The study was conducted to ascertain the physicochemical quality and heavy metal concentrations of harvested rainwater from different households at Donaso Township, small community in Ejisu Municipal. Samples were taken from ten households after harvested from roof tops and analyzed for the following parameters; pH, Total dissolved solids (TDS), Conductivity, Temperature, Turbidity, Alkalinity, Total hardness, lead (Pb2+) and Zinc (Zn2+). The pH meter, turbid meter, conductivity meter, TDS meter, titration method for physicochemical parameters. Atomic Absorption spectroscopy was used for the metals analysis. The mean levels of the parameters in samples well as follows: pH 4.948, temperature 24.14 ºC, conductivity 8.468 µs/cm, TDS 2.711 mg/L, total hardness 2.764 mg/L, alkalinity 15.757 mg/L, turbidity 1.927NTU, Zn 0.0958 mg/L, Fe 0.0233 mg/L and Pb 0.0017 mg/L. The range were to be; pH 4.53-5.48, temperature (23.8-24.4) ⁰C, conductivity (EC) 7.78- 9.21µs/cm, turbidity 1.26-2.79 NTU, TDS 2.24-3.21 mg/L, alkalinity 14.2-16.9 mg/L, total hardness 2.42-3.30 mg/L, Zn 0.0256-0.2505 mg/L, lead 0.00086-0.00251mg/L. The standard deviation were reported as follows; conductivity 0.5341, TDS 0.302, alkalinity 0.9975, total hardness 0.2988, pH 0.2895, temperature 0.3400, turbidity 0.5361, Zn 0.3407, Fe 0.00082 and Pb 0.000066. The mean concentrations of all the parameters as wall as as heavy metal levels were all within the permissible limits recommended by World Health Organization for good drinking water with exception of pH which values fell outside the WHO recommended range.


Hybrid arc welding machine is designed to serve with an input current ranging from 40-50Amps from AC power supply mains and 100AH 24VDC battery. The primary side through which voltage is supplied to the machine has 220 turns which is made of 2.38mm with equivalent standard wire gauge of 13 copper coils. The secondary side is connected to a rectifier with 24 turn made of 3.09mm with equivalent standard wire gauge of 8 copper coil. Both turns are wound on a limb of the laminated core. The voltage from primary turns flow to the secondary turns by induction. The welding current is adjusted when the variable resistor knob is rotated clockwise; the magnetic flux leakage and the inductive impedance are brought down causing the welding current to rise. Also at DC batteries power supply, an inverter circuit was designed. The inverter is connected with an oscillator to provide a frequency of 50Hz for the machine used in welding. The materials and equipments use include copper wire, bending machine, pliers, filling machine, screwdriver, soldering iron, lead sucker, tester and multi-meter. The locally constructed hybrid arc welding machine is capable of producing 20Amps arcing current during welding both on AC and DC source with 220V and 24VDC 200AH batteries respectively. At the end of this construction, there were no challenges observed in the power quality problems and the leakage of the welding transformer. This is because this paper focuses on the design and construction of a dual source arc welding machine putting into consideration quality laminating sheets as well as its thickness. This constant current supply desired to solve the power quality problems. At the end of this construction, it shows that the higher the turns, the more efficient the transformer and more the arcing produced. These attributes shows huge success.


This research aims to analyze the comparison of marketing mix, financial, and efficiency level of marketing channel comparison of shrimp cracker traders through online and offline marketing in Indramayu Regency. The research was conducted from February to August 2019. This research was only conducted at the marketing level. The method used is descriptive qualitative and quantitative, using primary and secondary data with the snowball sampling method. The analysis used in the form of financial analysis, marketing mix analysis and mar-keting channel analysis. The result of comparative marketing mix research from online and offline shrimp cracker traders, shows that online is superior in terms of place, promotion and personnel, while offline is superior in terms of product and price. The average sales are 130 units online and 2100 units offline per month, while the price is online traders Rp 13.000/250gr or Rp 52.000/kg and offline traders Rp 12.000/250gr or Rp 48.000/kg. Financial comparisons can be seen that, offline is superior to all aspects of online. The com-parative efficiency level of marketing channels can be seen that, this shrimp cracker marketing agency has 3 marketing channels, offline channels I, offline II, and online with each channel has been efficient because the farmer's share is still greater than the marketing margin. The best level of efficiency of marketing channels is in the offline channel II with 100% farmer's share.


Geotechnical investigation covers the determination of bearing capacity of soil, maximum dry density, soil starta, soil gradation, moisture content and atterberg’s limits. In present study soil characterization was done for construction of 6 story building located in Mardan, KPK. The soil samples were characterized to calculate the design values for foundations. Design of foundation based on the results was later on implemented successfully indicating the adequacy of design and investigation method. The bearing capacity of soil was determined by using to methods first by using standard penetration test second by using Terzagi equation. Liquid limit and plastic limits were determined using 8mm threats and casagrande’s apparatus respectively. In-situ moisture content was calculated by using oven dried method. Compressive strength of soil was determined using unconfined compressive test. Particle size gradation was done with sieve analysis and hydrometer analysis. Classification of the soil was done as per USCS and based upon the parameters and properties. Specific gravity of the soil was found using the Water Submersion Method. After finding all properties recommendations based on results, practices and data available were given for safe design of footing.

Parenting Style and Its Correlate to Academic Performance of Adolescent Students in Southern Ethiopia: A Case of Wolaita Sodo Town Otona High School []

The purpose of this study was to investigate parenting style and its correlate to academic performance of adolescent students at Wolaita Sodo Town Otona High School.


Performance appraisal is a component of performance management which is intended to increase efficiency and productivity of an employee and provides an opportunity to continuously review agreed-upon objectives in the organization. The main purpose of this research project was to find out the performance appraisal on the employee performance in public universities in Coast, with the case study of technical university of Mombasa. Specifically, the study determined how rater accuracy, interpersonal factors and information factors affects employee performance at the technical university of Mombasa. Theoretically, the study was guided by Procedural Justice Theory, the Expectancy Theory and Goal Setting Theory. Descriptive research design was adopted for the study. The main instrument for data collection was questionnaire which had structured questions in the Likert-scale format for easy understanding by the respondent. By use of Krejie and Morgan formula, the sample size was 63 members selected randomly from the total target population of 72 members of the selected departments at the Technical University of Mombasa. Data analysis was done statistically by use of regression and correlation analysis by use of SPSS Version 20 to show the relationship between the variables. The information gotten after the analysis, was presented through tables and graphs. The data analysis showed that all the selected appraisal systems had a positive significance at 0.008 in the 95% confidence level on employee performance. The study recommended that rater accuracy, informational and interpersonal factors should be emphasized at TUM or any other public universities in the Kenyan coast and Kenya as a whole. A further study was also proposed on other similar organizations to check whether the findings could yield a similar result.


This study ought to determine the effects of cognitive behavioural therapy on stealing tendency among secondary school students in Nnewi North Local Government Area of Anambra State. Three research questions and three null hypotheses guided the study. The design for this study was a quasi-experimental pre test post test control design. The population of students identified with stealing tendency was 590. A sample of 85 students with stealing tendency was selected for the study and purposive sampling technique was used in choosing two schools in the area of study. The instrument that was used for data collection was developed by the researcher filled Stealing Tendency Questionnaires (STQ). The instrument was validated by two experts. Reliability of the instrument were correlated using the Pearson Product Moment Correlation which was found to be r= 0.85. Mean scores were used in answering the three research questions and ANCOVA was used in testing the three null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study show that cognitive behavioural therapy is effective on stealing tendency and also there is significant difference in the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy secondary school students’ stealing tendency when compared with those in the control group who received conventional counselling. Recommendations were made that, the Anambra State Post Primary schools Service Commission should provide on-the-job training to practicing school guidance counsellors on the use of cognitive behavioural therapy in treating stealing tendency through seminar, symposia and conferences should be regularly organized in the field and the teachers in various tertiary institutions in the country on the use of cognitive behavioural therapy in the control of stealing tendency in school children.


Cigarette smoking is fast becoming an addictive behaviour among senior secondary school students which is responsible for their unprecedented rise into maturity on the wrong path. This study investigated the effect of aversion therapy on students’ attitude towards cigarette smoking in Anambra state. one research questions guided the study and one null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The design for the study was pure experimental. The study has a population of 1800 SS 2 students in secondary school in Awka South Local Government Area of Anambra State. A sample of 62 SS2 students with positive attitude towards cigarette smoking was selected through purposive sampling technique. Instrument for data collection was the Cigarette Smoking Questionnaire (CSQ) developed by the researcher. Data collected were analyzed using mean and analysis of co-variance (ANCOVA). Findings of the study indicated that aversion therapy is ineffective in modifying cigarette smoking attitude. Based on the findings, it was recommended among others that aversion should not be adopted by counsellors as treatment for modifying cigarette smoking attitude of secondary school students in Anambra state.


Livestock fattening means procuring feeder animal, putting the animal on concentrate feeds for a few months and disposing for slaughter after which it might have added weight (Moses, 2017) Profit efficiency refers to the extent at which a firm makes not only profit but its ability to maximize profit.The study examined the Profit efficiency and its determinants among sheep fattening enterprises in Kebbi state, Nigeria. Data were collected from a sample of 160 fatteners using the multistage sampling technique. A translog stochastic frontier profit function model was employed for the analysis in which profit efficiency effects are specified to be a function of socioeconomic variables estimated using the maximum likelihood method. The results of the analysis revealed that labour, fattening animals, depreciation, and water are the dominant variables that influenced profit efficiency in sheep fattening with coefficient values of (8.849, -0.629, -0.003, and 3.132), respectively. Analyzed results revealed a wide variation in the estimated profit efficiencies, ranging between 0.10 and 0.66 with a mean of 0.23 suggesting that the best profit maximizing fattener operated barely above average frontier. The result also showed that increase in age reduces profit efficiency among sheep fatteners at 1% while increase in fattening experience, herd size, credit access and membership of cooperative influenced the level of profit efficiency at 1% levels. For sheep fatteners to increase profit efficiency, it is recommended that they should increase herd size, have access to credit and they should form cooperatives in order to attract financial support.


The amount of information students are expected to master is too large and this leads to limited learning strategies available for students in mastering the huge volumes of information required to succeed. Due to the large volumes of information, most students resort to passive learning, a phenomenon that has been shown to increase the risk of academic difficulty (Dolan et al…2002). Integration of concept maps into group discussion is one of the instructional strategies. It helps pupils to have a practical application of the topic taught, help pupils understand clearly certain phenomenon, help learners become creative and innovative and also helps in knowledge retention. The objectives of the study were to investigate the effect of concept mapping into group discussion as an instructional strategy on the academic achievement of learners in genetics and If achievement in genetics varies with gender. The study made use of a pre-test post-test quasi-experimental design. Two (2) senior Secondary grade twelve classes were purposively selected. The two classes were assigned to the experimental and control groups. A genetics achievement test was used for data collection. The two hypotheses; “There is a significant difference in the mean academic achievement of students taught genetics using the integration of concept mapping into group discussion as an instructional strategy and those taught using discussion method” and “Academic achievement in genetics varies with gender” were tested at 0.05 alpha level of significance using an independent samples t test analysis of SPSS. The results of the independent samples t test showed that; the average achievement of pupils’ taught using the integration of concept mapping into group discussion was significantly higher than those taught using group discussion method. Therefore the null hypothesis is rejected, which means that the pupils in the experimental and controlled groups significantly differ in their Achievement in the genetics test i.e. experimental group (Mean =63.04) are significantly better in achievement in the genetics test taught with concept mapping than the controlled group (Mean = 37.93) taught with group discussion only. Considering gender, gender has no effect on achievement. The mean achievement with gender was 67.17 for females and 60.30 for males which displayed no statistical significant diference in performance by gender. Examining bodies such as the examinations council of Zambia does not assess learners on the use of concept maps in the summative examinations; I therefore recommend the inclusion of examination questions that involve the use of concept maps. Teacher training colleges and universities need to incorporate concept maps in their curriculum as a way of facilitating and encouraging the teachers to be, have a philosophical background on the usage of concept maps for an improved academic achievement of learners.

Bond-slip Mechanisms of Corroded and Exudates / Resins Coated Members in Reinforced Concrete Structures []

The mechanical interlock between the ribs of steel, concrete and friction especially between the steel bar surface and concrete are weakened by corrosion activities in structures with the influenced of chloride attack. This study evaluated the influenced of non-coated and grewia exudate/resin coated on the bond strength parameters of reinforced concrete structures subjected to harsh corrosive environment. Concrete cubes of 150mm x 150mm x150mm were cast and reinforcement of non-coated and coated with paste thickness of 150µm, 300µm, 450µm, embedded into concrete, exposed to harsh and saline environments (NaCl solution). Results of corroded averaged failure bond load are 16.8333kN, 16.8666kN and 16.80667kN, summed to 16.835kN, represented -41.613% against 71.271% and 69.660% percentile difference of control and coated exudates/resin member. Corroded averaged bond strength load are 6.08333MPa, 6.26333MPa, 6.086667MPa summed to 6.144MPa, represented percentile value of -35.185% against 54.285% and 81.446% percentile difference of control and coated. Corroded averaged maximum slip values are 0.0819mm, 0.08923mm, 0.085567mm, summed to 0.216mm, represented -25.966% against 35.073% and 153.019% percentile difference of control and coated. Relatively, corroded specimens showed lower failure load and bond strength properties to exudates coated and controlled specimens. Higher values of pullout bond tests of failure load, bond strength and maximum slips of exudates/resins coated specimens were recorded over corroded specimens. Grewia exudates/resin proved to be inhibitory to corrosion effect on reinforcement embedded in concrete structures and a protective coating against corrosion attack.

The Influence of The Fairness of Taxation System And The Complexity of Tax Regulations on Taxpayer Compliance (The Morality of Taxpayer as Moderating Variable) []

This research aimed to examine the effect of the fairness of the taxation system and the complexity of tax regulations on taxpayer compliance with the the morality of taxpayer as moderating variable. This research used a quantitative approach, with a convenience sampling method. This study used instruments in the form of questionnaires. The number of samples processed was 91 samples from a total of 41567 populations registered at the South Makassar Pratama Tax Office. Data were analyzed using path analysis with the SmartPLS 3 program. The results showed that the fairness of the taxation system had a significant positive effect on taxpayer compliance. The complexity of tax regulations has a negative effect on taxpayer compliance. The moral of taxpayers can moderate the relationship between the fairness of the taxation system with taxpayer compliance. The moral of taxpayers cannot moderate the relationship between the complexity of tax regulations with taxpayer compliance.

Assessing the Contributions of Socio-cultural Festivals to Community Development in Nigeria: A Study of the Ezumezu Igbere Festival []

Festivals and events, if well-packaged for tourism, can be a veritable instrument for community development especially in developing countries in dire need of catalysts for the take-off or sustenance of sustainable development of the society. Triennially, the people of Igbere – a community in Bende Local Government Area of Abia State, South-eastern Nigeria – gather to celebrate the Ezumezu Igbere festival with pomp and pageantry. Huge sums of money are often raised through donations and other commitments for community development by illustrious and well-to-do sons and daughters of the community and their friends and associates. Despite these gigantic sums of money realized, the community still lacks basic socio-economic amenities such as clean portable water in the public domain, efficient and affordable primary healthcare facilities, among others. The objective of this study therefore, is the assessment of the contributions of Ezumezu Igbere festival to community development and to the sustainability of the livelihoods of households in the Community. The survey method was used to gather, through the use of a questionnaire, the primary data analyzed; and, the 2-Way ANOVA and Chi-Square statistical techniques were used to test the hypotheses formulated to guide the study. The findings include the confirmation that the Ezumezu Igbere festival, through the direct utilization of proceeds of the festival, has failed to contribute significantly to the development of infrastructural projects in the Community. However, the festival has contributed significantly to community development in Igbere through the provision of a firm platform for the age grades to implement their community development projects. Also, the festival has contributed significantly to increased income generation by farmers and artisans, among others, during and immediately after the festival.

An Empirical Investigation into the Role of Public Debts on Stock Market of Pakistan []

The aim of the study was to analyze the impacts of public debt on the stock market performance of Pakistan. Data on public debt and the stock market for the period from 01/07/1995 to 30/06/2017 was analyzed. The long-run association between the debt and PSX-100 index was analyzed using the Johnson co-integration test and the error correction model. The results of the autoregressive model presented that the lag values of the debt in Pakistan has significant impacts over the stock market performance in Pakistan. The co-integration results presented that there exists one co-integration vector and hence suggests long-run equilibrium between the variables. The ECM further clarifies this fact and signifies the presence of long-run equilibrium. Granger causality analysis was used to check the causal relationship between the two and from the results of the test, it is evident that debt granger causes the PSX-100 index; however, the PSX-100 does not explain the debt in the economy.


Research on the typology of fishers who capture hammerhead sharks is carried out in TPI Karangsong. This research aims to find out the social and technical typology of fishers who catch hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna lewini) in Indramayu. Traditional fishers in Indramayu who catch hammerhead sharks are commercial fishers who work full time as their main occupation, with the majority of respondents hav-ing basic education as much as 53%, the age of respondents dominated by the age group 46 - 51 years as much as 27%, while the level of work experience is dominated by groups of 31-36 years experienced fishers. were 30%. Technical typology analysis of hammerhead shark catchers in Indramayu using 5 GT Vessels with inboard motor. Shows all traditional fishers do one day trip or one day trip with late after-noon departures and early morning landings. With fishing areas around the dua island, the biawak island and balongan islands are 3-6 miles long. With the main catch are mackerel and baby tuna. Sharks caught by fishers are by-catch (caught accidentally entangled by nets).

Macroalgae Association with Invertebrate Biota in Madasari Coast West Java, Indonesia []

This research aims is to determine the diversity, macroalgae canopies, invertebrate abundance, distribution of the types of macroalgae and invertebrate biota and also analyze their linkages in intertidal zone of Madasari Coast. This research was conducted in August 2018 until November 2018. The results showed water quality (DO 3,3-9,8 mg/L, pH 6,62-8,37, temperature 26,34,3 oC, salinity 29-39 o/oo, nitrate concentration 0,0572-1,012 mg/L, phosphate 0,03-0,27 mg/L), substrate, sea current and rainfall affect diversity, canopies, abundance and distribution of types of macroalgae and invertebrate biota. The macroalgae diversity index is classified as high at all stations, 4,271 at station 1, 4,007 at station 2 and 4,508 at station 3. The invertebrate diversity index is classified as high at all stations, 3,82 at station 1, 4,19 at station 2 and 4,23 at station 3. The macroalgae evenness index is classified as very stable at station 1 (0.753) and station 3 (0.795), while at station 2 it is classified as a stable category (0.706). Invertebrate evenness index is classified as stable at all stations, 0,67 at station 1, 0,73 at station 2 and 0,72 at station 3. Canopies of macroalgae Ulva lactuca, Gracilaria coronopifolia, Valoniopsis pachynema and Polysiphonia strictiss have a mutually beneficial with abundance of invertebrate Anthozoa while canopies of macroalgae Ulva flexuosa have a mutually beneficial with abundance of invertebrate Gastropoda and Echinoidea at each observation stasion in the intertidal zone of Madasari Coast.


The limit equilibrium (LE) methods were used in this study to analyse the stability of existing cut slopes of the Abuja Rail Mass Transit project at the Central Business District, Abuja, Nigeria. This paper considered slopes at Lot 3 between kilometre 2 and kilometre 4. Representative soil samples were taken at each of kilometres 2, 3 and 4 for geotechnical investigation. The soils were classified and the shear parameters c and ɸ were obtained from direct shear box tests. The Stability Number method was employed manually to perform the stability analysis for both cohesive and frictional soils. Results of the quantitative analyses were verified using a spread sheet solution that applies Fellenius and the Simplified Bishop Methods of slices. Results from all the methods adopted validate stability of the slopes in this study. The factors of safety obtained using the Stability Number Method were 2.20 for kilometre 2, 1.82 for kilometre 3 and 2.07 for kilometre 4. However, the spreadsheet results of factors of safety were 2.187, 1.821 and2.001 for the Fellenius Method and 2.250, 1.882 and 2.060 using the Simplified Bishop Method. This paper therefore presents the details of the geotechnical investigations and stability analyses carried out. General recommendations both preventive and remedial were made in order to prevent slope failures. These include the provision of adequate surface and subsurface drains, periodic inspection and maintenance to reduce rainwater infiltration and thereby prevent erosion of the slope forming materials.

Integrated approach to predict the depositional architecture of slope channels; A case study of Sienna channel, Offshore West Nile Delta []

Slope channels are considered the main clastic reservoirs in many regions especially the continental slopes all across the world. In some cases, these channels are stacked together and laterally amalgamated. This paper is about channel geomorphology imaging using different geophysical and geological tools to better define its architecture and fairway delineation. The Nile deposits are assumed to be a type locality for this kind of channels as huge channelized features are imaged in the continental slope of the African plate. Many channels are targeted for hydrocarbon exploration in this area like Sienna channel which lies offshore west Nile Delta and used as a case study in this paper. The Nile Delta gas reservoirs are dominated by Plio-Pleistocene and Miocene channel deposits, which became nowadays the key player for gas production in Egypt. These channelized features are spectacularly imaged on high-quality seismic data. Workflow started by using seismic attributes like Root Mean Square (RMS) amplitude extraction and Spectral decomposition analysis. These attributes highlighted the channel geometry and its evolutional history through geological times. Pre-stack seismic inversion products; Vp/Vs ratio and Acoustic impedance, discriminated gas sand, water sand from shale background and this helps to highlight facies association. Depositional cycles are differentiated using gamma-ray log. By integrating all the data, channels were clearly identified and mapped. Consequently, the location of new wells could be optimized for further reservoir development as seen in this case study of “Sienna channel’’.


Background: Patient satisfaction is a patient’s subjective assessment of their cognitive and their emotional reaction as a result of interaction between their expectation regarding nursing care and their perception of actual nursing care. Patients’ scores of their satisfaction and experiences on a given services are a frequently used indicator of health service quality. Objectives: To assess patient satisfaction with nursing care and associated factors in Goba hospital, Bale zone, southeast Ethiopia. Methodology: An institutional based cross sectional study was conducted in Goba referral hospital from April 1 2017 to May 1 2017 by using consecutive sampling method. The study population was adult patients admitted in to the three wards for at least two nights. The data was collected using structured and pretested questionnaire. The data was analyzed using SPSS 20.0 software. Variables with (p-value<0.05) was significantly associated with patient satisfaction by nursing care. Result: A total of 250 adult patients from medical, surgical and gynecological wards were interviewed. The overall rate of satisfaction was 54%. Cost of the services (31.4%), lack of continuity of care (29.7%) and noncompliance to treatment (18.9%) were identified as the three leading causes of patient dissatisfaction. Variables such as sex, waiting time and history of previous admission were significantly associated with the outcome variable. Conclusion and recommendation: In this study the rate of patient satisfaction was low. Sex, history of previous admission and having other disease were predictor variables. Sex, waiting time and history of previous admission were predictors. Health care providers especially nurse should give patient centered service.


Electoral warfare has been a major problem in the electoral process in Nigeria. This warfare usually emanate from the political campaigns, personality clash and ideology of the political parties or candidates. It is sometimes characterized by aggression, war of words, rebellious silence, hate speeches, propaganda and all the rest. All these tend to have negative impact on the Nigeria democracy and can destroy the reputation of an individual thereby destroying the peace of the society at large. To curb this, an individual needs to be integrated into the society through the teaching of one’s’ cultural literacy whereby he/she learn to interact with people of divers culture which can assist in building a virile country. Therefore, in order to create value for our electoral process there is need to intensify on the global cultural literacy education curricular so as to salvage the Nigeria Democracy. This paper however re-emphasised the importance of cultural literacy, election orientation in educational curriculum and individual value for cultural integration as a way of overcoming the various existing electoral warfare in Nigeria’s political processes. The paper made use of both primary and secondary data.

Investigating the Difficulties Pupils in Mukobeko Maximum Facility Face in Construction and Loci. []

The Zambia correctional service is one an institution that has incorporated Primary, Secondary and Tertiary education in the process of reforming inmates so that they can be reintegrated into the society as reformed individuals. The inmates who have opted to undertake secondary education are also taught mathematics where they learn topics such as construction and loci. However, the inmates’ performance in the mathematical topic of construction and loci has been poor. The study sought to investigate the ‘Challenges pupils in Mukobeko Maximum Facility face in construction and loci’. It was hoped that the solutions to the challenges that the inmates face in construction and Loci will be identified in order to provide the quality education to inmates. The theoretical frame work guiding the research was based on van Hiele’s levels of geometric thought. The theory represents some stages of geometrical thoughts which a student goes through to have a solid foundation and later on concrete by understanding geometrical related mathematics areas encouraging higher order thinking than mere memorizing. A purposive random sampling was used in identifying a school that had all types of inmates ranging from death row to remands. The study was carried out in Mukobeko Maximum Correctional facility in Kabwe in a classroom setting. The population sample was 25 inmates’ students, 5 education supervisors and 5 teachers of mathematics. The instruments were pilot tested to estimate their reliability. SPSS version 20.0 and Microsoft excel was used to analyze data that was collected. The findings of the research were that students had difficulties in practicing construction and loci exercises at their spare time due to strict use of mathematical sets, Poor methodology used in mathematics, few qualified teachers of mathematics, teaching and learning materials were also a challenge. Motivation and erratic examination fees’ payment were equally challenges that were identified. The challenges faced by learners were to be tackled by training of teachers in mathematics either in methodology or tertiary, upgrading the School and library building, increasing class periods, Motivating teachers and learners, counselling to teachers and learners. The findings are expected to be useful to students, teachers, policy makers and the Zambia Correctional Service as the research will assist in identifying a teaching/learning technique which may improve the quality of education in Correctional facilities and the country at large.

Maternal Conditions and Infections During Pregnancy In Autism Spectrum Disorders []

Abstract— BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disability characterized by social and communication impairments as well as a limited interests and repetitive behaviors, about 1 in 59 children has been diagnosed with ASD. OBJECTIVE: To study maternal infection and other characteristics during pregnancy and its link to autism spectrum disorders in Khartoum locality, Sudan. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study, were parents and guardians of children with ASD were enrolled, the data was collected via an interview by the researcher with a semi-structured questionnaire that was based on previous studies then was modified to meet the objectives of this study. RESULTS: The study included 123 child diagnosed with ASD, 31.7% were males and 68.3% were females, Of all the participants` mothers 64.9% had a significant maternal condition such as diabetes 43.0% and 13.0% had Placenta praevia. 73.2% of the participants’ mothers were not hospitalized during pregnancy, and 65.9% did not use antibitotics during pregnancy. Infections during pregnancy were rare, where 82.9% did not suffer a bacterial nor Viral 95.1%. 41.4% delivered by a Caesarean section and 18.6%, emergency CS. CONCLUSION: Our results suggests that DM and CS are risk factors for ASD, also it suggests that bacterial infections, viral infections, or use of antibiotics during pregnancy are strong risk factors for ASD. The few positive findings are possible concidence findings.

Study of the forage sector in the Bamako district (Mali) []

The woody fodder sector in Bamako is based on two categories actors: samplers sellers and simple sellers who collect aerial parts (leafy twigs) of woody plants in natural formations for the feeding of small ruminants, which generates impacts. The study seeks to understand these impacts, the exploitation and sale of the forage species used, the difficulties encountered by the actors. Stratified sampling was used to conduct the surveys. The results showed that six species are collected as woody fodder, of which the first three are most used are: Pterocarpus eurinaceus, Pterocarpus lucens, Pterocarpus santalinoides, Ficus gnafalocarpa, Khaya senegalensis, Afzelia africana sold fresh in bunch or soldered. The sector, although promising, is poorly organized and occupies more people who derive significant income with an annual average FCFA of 677597 ± 498563 and 1 468387 ± 898457 respectively for single sellers and sellers. The annual net average income for the group is 1 270778 ± 846541 FCFA.The high demand for woody fodder crops leads to overexploitation of the most demanded. The consequence is the scarcity of these species in the harvesting areas and in the market, causing the price of these crops to rise frequently. In the face of threats to highly exploited species, there is a need to improve the management of forest resources. Keywords: Sector, Woody fodder, animal feed, Bamako, Mali.

Micronutrient Deficiencies: Adopting Biofortification for Staple Crops. Is it Sustainable? []

Biofortification is the genetical improvement of the bioavailable mineral content of food crops, done in three dependent methods of developing Biofortified crops: agronomic Biofortification, conventional plant breeding, and bio-engineering. Over 2 billion people suffer iron deficiency globally with over 250,000 children becoming blind due to vitamin A deficiency. Multiple strategies have been implemented in attempting to help address the issue but still, micronutrient deficiencies are high. This paper examined samples of the existing relevant literature on the progress of Biofortification programs of staple crops concerning its sustainability and cost-effectiveness in developing countries of Asia and African. The reviewed countries included India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Rwanda, Congo, Kenya, Uganda, Nigeria, and Zambia representing regions where micronutrient deficiencies are still high. A desktop literature review was conducted on the Biofortification of staple crops. The results showed Biofortification as generally successful in alleviating micronutrient deficiencies in Asia and Africa since it is a one-time, cost-effective, long-term and sustainable strategy based on the multiple efficacy studies. The consumption of Biofortified crops increased the micronutrient levels in people thus significantly alleviating deficiencies. However, some evaluation studies are ongoing in some countries. It can thus be concluded that the Biofortification of micronutrients has been implemented with much success. Efficacy studies across the countries have reported high success rates both in addressing the existing nutritional deficiencies and receiving high rates of acceptance among farmers and consumers. There’s a need for the establishment of policies to support the national implementation of Biofortification at all levels to ensure it is much more cost-effective and impact-oriented in improving micronutrient content of new varieties of crops at research centers. The Biofortification strategy should also be integrated into main international frameworks that substantially affect national governments.


Transaction based marketing has dominated the marketing world for more than four decades. With the globalization of business today, there has been a change in trend from the marketing paradigm of using marketing mix to Relationship Marketing. The focus of Relationship Marketing is to maintain a mutually beneficial relationship between sellers and buyers. The purpose of this review is to look at the relationship between Relationship Marketing Orientation (MRO) and Brand Equity. Based on the literature review, there are 3 keys to driving Relationship Marketing, namely: Brand equity, Value and Relationship Equity where brand equity has a more important role than the others because it creates competitiveness. The Relationship Marketing Orientation component has a positive effect on Brand Equity. Based on this and systematic research on industrial markets or business-to-business (B2B) markets that mostly use the concept of relationship marketing orientation. Models and hypotheses are made that the component of Relationship Marketing are trust, bonding, communication, shared values and empathy on B2B markets have a positive effect on brand equity.


This study aims to examine the community structure and distribution pattern of sea cucumber with substrate preference on coastal waters in Tunda Island, Banten. This study was conducted in August 2019 which is located on South, East, North, and West coastal waters in Tunda Island using the survey method. Data collection was examined consisted of community structure and distribution pattern, water quality parameter, granulometry, and total organic matters. Data was analyzed using descriptive quantitative approach. Observations found 50 (fifty) individuals consisted of 5 (five) species. Synapta maculata was classified in order Apodida and Actynopiga miliaris, Bohadshcia similis, Holothuria nobilis, and Holothuria atra were classified in order Aspidochirotida. The highest density of S. maculata was reported on the muddy-sandy, rubble substrate in Station 1. Station 2 The highest density S. maculata was reported on the muddy, rubble substrate in Station 2. The highest density of A. miliaris was reported on the sandy-muddy, rubble substrate in Station 3. The highest density of H. atra was reported on the sandy-muddy, rubble substrate in Station 4. Based on the result, the community structure of sea cucumber was relatable with the observation of substrate preference on each station which was supported by the water quality parameter.

Errors Patterns in the English OF Technical University Students: The Case of Kumasi Technical University []

Abstract In the last four decades, researchers have shown considerable interest in investigating specific errors made by second language learners of English. This paper sought to investigate systematic errors in the written English of students of Kumasi Technical University in Ghana. The data for the study were made up of 1208 essays from students’ examination scripts from three academic departments. In all, 946 errors were identified and categorized into six major types including spelling, tense, concord, apostrophe and capitalization, wrong construction and wrong word. Of these, spelling recorded the highest frequency of errors (42.2%) with wrong word constituting the least (5.6%). The findings indicate that students of Kumasi Technical University still grapple with problems of usage. Accordingly, it is recommended that irrespective of the core mandate of Technical Universities to give hands-on training to their students, the teaching of Communication Skills should be intensified to sharpen students’ oral and written language. Keywords: Errors, error analysis, mother-tongue, language interference


The association acute pancreatitis and pregnancy is rare, its diagnosis is difficult given the context of pregnancy. His maternal and fetal prognosis is still dark. Our work is a retrospective study based on the study of the files of patients admitted for acute pancreatitis in pregnancy in the General Surgery and Maternal Resuscitation Department of Mohammed VI Medical Center of Marrakech as well as an electronic bibliographic research. It aims to clarify the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic features of acute pancreatitis and pregnancy as well as the risks to the mother and the fetus. Our series includes 37 cases of acute pancreatitis and pregnancy collected over a 7-year period from January 2010 to January 2016. In terms of epidemiology the average age was 29 years with an incidence of 1/2450. Acute pancreatitis occurred more frequently in multiparous multiparous women (68%) in the third trimester (59.5%). The clinical picture was dominated by abdominal pain (100%) and vomiting (100%). The occurrence of organ failure was rare. The positive diagnosis is based on lipaseemia which was on average 20 times normal. The severity assessment was based on clinico-biological scores (Ranson score and SRIS score). Biliary origin was the main etiology in our study (54%). Management is based on hospitalization and symptomatic treatment including pain management, stopping feeding, gastric protection, rehydration and management of organ failure. Maternal complications were dominated by superinfection of necrosis (10.75%). Maternal mortality was 2.7%. Fetal complications included abortion, premature labor, and acute fetal distress. The gravid state would be responsible for the increased risk of occurrence of acute pancreatitis and its complications. Early diagnosis and adequate multidisciplinary management considerably improve the maternal and fetal prognosis.


ABSTRACT The development of internet technology that has been very sophisticated has changed various aspects of life including consumer behavior, especially towards online shopping behavior. It also emerges the need for consumers to make decisions in a fast way without being bound by time and space. Changes in lifestyle with the rise of e-commerce can increase new marketing opportunities that can be utilized and flexibility for consumer choices to make purchases. This research was conducted to examine the influence of Trust, Attitude, Subjective Norms, Perceived Risk and Perceived Behavior Control that can influence consumer online buying behavior. This study applies Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). This research uses validity and reliability test, classic assumption test such as normality test, multicollinearity test, heteroscedasticity test, Autocorrelation test and multiple linear regression tests such as t test, f test and multiple correlation correlation test. Testing is done using SPSS 20.0 for windows. In this study found that consumer online shopping behavior in Indonesia is significantly influenced by variables of trust, attitude, perceived risk and perceived behavior control. This study also found that Subjective norms partially had a positive effect and did not have a significant effect on consumers' online shopping behavior. Keywords : Trust, online shopping behaviour, E-commerce, Theory of planned behaviour.

Level of Powder Flavors Raw Materials Liquid Waste Maltodextrin With Filler []

ABSTRACT This research aims to determine the amount of filler maltodextrin right to produce powdered flavorings made from liquid waste of caramelized milk being most preferred. This research was conducted in December 2018 - February 2019 in the Laboratory of Fishery Products Processing Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, the Central Laboratory of the University of Padjadjaran, SMEs Pindang Sari in Banjar, West Java. Chemical analysis at the Laboratory of Food Technology Faculty of Engineering, University of Pasundan Bandung. The method used is an experimental, with 20 semi-trained panelists as replicates with 4 levels maltodextrin additional treatment was 0%, 12.5%, 15% and 17.5% (w / v). Parameters observed that the organoleptic characteristics (hedonic test) include color, aroma, texture, and flavor. Having obtained the hedonic test results, performed physical characteristics (yield and solubility), and the chemical characteristics (ash content, water, protein, fat and carbohydrate) to the powder flavor being most preferred. Data were analyzed using Friedman Test. The results of this research concluded that the powdered flavorings made from liquid waste of the most preferred boiled milk that is equal to 15% with a median value that is equal to 7 (color), 7 (aroma), 7 (texture), and 9 (taste). The addition amount of filler 15% (w / v) are most preferred by the panelists. The results of this research concluded that the powdered flavorings made from liquid waste of the most preferred boiled milk that is equal to 15% with a median value that is equal to 7 (color), 7 (aroma), 7 (texture), and 9 (taste). The addition amount of filler 15% (w / v) are most preferred by the panelists. The results of this research concluded that the powdered flavorings made from liquid waste of the most preferred boiled milk that is equal to 15% with a median value that is equal to 7 (color), 7 (aroma), 7 (texture), and 9 (taste). The addition amount of filler 15% (w / v) are most preferred by the panelists. Keywords: condiment flavor of caramelized milk, liquid waste, maltodextrin, preference level

Adverse events and their relationship with the demographic characteristics of patients at Wa, the Upper West Regional Hospital of Ghana []

Background: Being discharged from the hospital is sometimes associated with complications which may be dangerous to the patient. Adverse events are unintended injuries or complications which may result in death, disability and prolonged hospital stay after discharge or related to the hospital visit. This paper aims at giving an insight into the relationship between patient demographic factors and the incidence, types and severity of adverse events after hospitalization in a secondary hospital in Northern Ghana. Method: A prospective cohort study into the relationship between adverse events and patient demographic factors. This was carried out with patients admitted and discharged from Wa Hospital. A total of 206 patients were recruited from the medical, surgical and emergency wards of the hospital. Findings: Adverse events were found to increase with age. The adverse events at age of less than 20 years was 2.4%, between 31 to 40 was 3.3% , 41 to 50 was 3.8%, 51 to 60 was 7.2% and 61 and above was 7.2%. However, 21 to 30 years age group had 9.2% of adverse events. There were no differences in occurrence of adverse events among sexes and other demographic characteristics of the patient with exception of age groups (p<0.050) which had influence on the type of adverse events. The level of literacy and education did not also influence the occurrences of adverse events. Conclusion: Demographic characteristics of patients might not contribute to the development of adverse events after they are discharged from the hospital. However, the age of patients may influence adverse events development probably because of their weaknesses in old age. Improvement in patients social life will help to reduce the occurrence of adverse events after patients had been discharged from the hospital.

Fish Diversity in Cipeles River at Rengrang Weir in Sumedang Regency, West Java, Indonesia []

This study aimed to find out the diversity of fish in Cipeles river at Rengrang weir. This study was conducted from November 2018 until January 2019. This study was conducted with a purposive sampling method in three research stations with two samples as replications. The sampling period was carried out once a month. The research was conducted by in situ and ex situ method. The parameters observed include water quality, diversity index, dominance index, and equitability index. The data obtained were analyzed using a comparative descriptive method. The result of the research shows that there are 5 families of fish identified, consisting of 13 species. The fish diversity index at station I and station II indicate a moderate diversity with the value of 1.079 ≤ H' ≤ 1,447 and low dominance with a value of 0.306 ≤ C’ ≤ 0.4446. Station III indicate low diversity with a value of H’ ≤ 0.545 and high dominance with a value of C’ ≥ 0.768, while station I, II and III indicate low equitability with value of 0,403 ≤ E ≤ 0,108. Based on those three index values, it can be concluded that the fish community at station I is categorized as unstable and the fish community at stations II and III are categorized as depressed.