Volume 7, Issue 9, September 2019 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Paper on Tuber Formation in potato (Solanum tuberosum) []

Plant Growth Regulators played an essential role in root and shoot growth in potato plants. They are considered as a key element for vegetative propagation. In the present study, the experiment was evaluated for recording the effect of two type of growth hormones such as Gibberellin acid (GA4/7) and Abscisic acid (ABA) using in vitro cultured single-node cuttings. The four treatments were used in this experiments such as 0.1:0.1(GA4/7:ABA), 0.3:0.3 (GA4/7:ABA), 1:1 (GA4/7:ABA) and 0:0 (GA4/7:ABA). The medium consist of 0.1:0.1(GA4/7:ABA), 0.3:0.3 (GA4/7:ABA), 1:1 (GA4/7:ABA) and 0:0 (GA4/7:ABA). Significant difference was found in among all treatments in case of root and shoot growth. The highest number root was found in Opperdoezer ronde in 0:0 (GA4/7:ABA) followed by 1:1 (GA4/7:ABA) (Agria), whereas the lowest number was observed in 0.3:0.3 (GA4/7:ABA) (Agria). Agria and opperdoezer ronde showed mostly larger roots in 1:1 (GA4/7:ABA). It was indicated that higher concentration of giberellin acid as well as abscisic acid has great effect on root development of potato. On the other hand, the lowest root number in both genotypes was observed in 0.1:0.1 (GA4/7:ABA). It showed that low concentration of giberellins acid and abscisic acid hamper the root growth. The root number of genotype opperdoezer has increased gradually in all treatments. Particularly, shoot was only found in 0:0 (GA4/7:ABA) (Agria). So, the average performance of Opperdoeze ronde was better than Agria. Our results indicated that higher concentration of giberellins and abscisic acid has great roles in root developmet rather than shoot in both genotypes. Keywords: Potato, Gibberellin acid (GA4/7) and Abscisic acid (ABA)

Study on the association of different fungal microflora in cassava []

The experiments were conducted in field and in the Seed Pathology Centre (SPC), Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU), Mymensingh, Bangladesh to find out the different diseases of cassava. Here, plant infection, leaf infection and leaf area diseased were found in 75.23%, 18.27% and 26.64%, respectively but low in Crop Botany Field Laboratory, BAU, Mymensingh that was 58.61%, 16.95% and 24.07%, respectively. On the other hand, in rotten tubers the identified organisms were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium spp. and Penicillium spp. which were identified by blotter and PDA method. Both in blotter and PDA method, the incidence was 100.00 % but severity was 48.84% and 55.23%, respectively. In blotter laboratory method, only the Fusarium spp. was identified that was 48.84%. In addition, in the PDA method, the severity of the organisms was highest frequency in A. niger (66.67%) than medium high frequency was A. flavus (10.00%), medium frequency of organism was Fusarium spp (16.67%) and small frequency of organism was Penicillium spp (6.67%) were recorded under storage condition.

Survey on Cassava diseases in some selected areas of Bangladesh []

The preliminary survey of cassava diseases was made in March to October, 2005 in three thanas namely Muktagacha and Mymensingh Sadar of Mymensingh district as well as Modhupur under Tangail district. A total of eleven locations in different areas under these districts were surveyed to investigate the incidence and severity of cassava diseases. In field condition, only the African cassava mosaic disease of cassava has been found. The highest infection was found in Modhupur, medium in Muktagacha and low in Mymensingh Sadar. The plant infection, leaf infection and leaf area diseased of African cassava mosaic disease in Modhupur was found in 82.38%, 20.95% and 32.57%, respectively. Less disease infection was recorded in Muktagacha thana. Key words: Cassava, Fungal microflora, Muktagacha. Mymensingh Sadar and Modhupur

Paper on anther and microspore culture of SRI tobacco []

Anther culture plays an important role in getting haploid plantlets via either organogenesis or embryogenesis. In addition, microspore culture has also great contribution for producing haploid plants through directly culture on the medium. In the present study, the experiment was evaluated for recording Which Nitsch medium (liquid or solid) is the best for the anthers of Nicotiana tabacum for producing haploids plants, the effects of the anther walls in Nicotiana tabacum formation of haploids plant in liquid medium and evaluating the effects of different stages (satge1-4) Nicotiana tabacum buds for haploid production. In this experiment two different types of medium (solid and liquid) were used. The solid medium was conducted in quadruplo, whereas the liquid medium was conducted in triplo. The four different sizes (stage1: <17mm, stage2: between 17-20mm, stage3: between 20-23mm and stage: 4 >23) Nicotiana tabacum buds were used. The results were calculated on the basis of percentage. Among three media, the highest planlets were observed in solid medium. In the solid medium, the highest plantlets were found in stage 4 (all petri-dishes above 50% except1), while the lowest plantlets were observed in stage1 (all petri-dishes zero, except1). In the stage2, above 50% planlets were found in each petri-dish except 1, while below 50% planlets were observed in all petri-dish except 1 in stage3. The highest plantlets were examined in stage2 (above 50% except1), whereas the lowest plantlets were stage3 (Only one petri-dish contained plantlets) in liquid medium which containing A+M. In the liquid medium (M) only one petri-dish contained planlets, whereas other two petri-dishes were empty in stage1.The other three stages were empty. Our results indicated that the best Nitch media were solid medium than others for producing haploids plants. Among the four different stages, stage2 and stage3 was the best both in solid and liquid medium (A+M).The effects of the anther walls has great impact for producing haploid plantlets in all stages except stage3. Keywords: Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), Anthers, Microspore, Liquid and Solid medium.


The concept of a smart building is emerging in multiple continents, where enhanced building lighting controls, building monitoring, private safety, security, motion detection, and optimization systems are being deployed on a building scale. The main objective of this paper is to present the design and implement a low cost wireless smart college system. The system will be developed to enable controlling various devices via IoT. The main feature of this system is that it will use regular home appliances/devices with no or minimal modification. The proposed design will include the user interface system that will take the commands from the user, the communication system that carries the user commands to the terminals, and the action taken by the terminals when receiving the user command from the main controller.

Inhibition of Staphylococcus pasteuri using Moringa olifera leaves extract []

Abstract: In This study the antibacterial activities of aqueous ethanol, hexane and water extracts of leaf of Moringa olifera were examined. The solvent extracts were tested against some pathogenic bacteria isolated from different patients at Zagazig Hospital University (ZHU). The highest degree of antibacterial activity was shown by the aqueous ethanolic extract of leaf of Moringa olifera against pathogenic bacteria. 16srRNA used to identify the most sensitive bacteria. This bacterium which identified as Staphylococcus pasteuriMN368257.There is a great effect of Moringa olifera than different types of antibiotics against Staphylococcus pasteuri as the indicator organism. Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) examination of the moringa leaves-treated bacteria showed the antibacterial action of moringa leaves against Staphylococcus pasteuri was manifested by signs of cellular deformation, partial and complete lysis of cell components. Keywords: Moringa olifera, Staphylococcus pasteuri, ethanol extract, Antibacterial activity.

Current Position and Challenges of E-health in Tanzania: A review of literature []

The paper is a literature review in nature with the aim of reviewing the current status of adoption and use of the eHealth and challenges of the eHealth system in Tanzania. A broad literature search was conducted to offers a narrative overview of an e-health system from wide ranges from international journals, conference reports, organizations’ websites, and reports. The inclusion and exclusion process results in a total number of 67 articles (60%) were included for review.

On the Solutions of a Linear Fractional Differential Equation []

In this paper, a Modified Adomian Decomposition method (MADM) was introduced and applied to a reduced Fractional differential equation. The fractional derivative is considered in the Caputo sense [6]. The proposed method reduces the equation into an integral equation. Some test problems are considered to demonstrate the accuracy and the convergence of the presented method. Numerical results show’s that this approach is easy and accurate when applied to fractional differential equations.

Empirical Analysis Of Entrepreneurial Orientation And Financial Performance In Selected Paint Manufacturing Firms In Lagos State, Nigeria []

The Purpose of this study is to empirically evaluate the effect of entrepreneurial orientation (EO) on performance in selected paint manufacturing firms in Lagos state, Nigeria. Both purposive and stratified random sampling technique was adopted in which only three hundred responded to the survey questionnaire and published annual report were also used to collect data from a period of 2012-2017. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data and while regression analyses were also used to test and achieved the objectives. The results revealed that there was a positive relationship and significant effect between entrepreneurial orientation variables and performance of sales and profit growth in paint manufacturing firms


THE NEED FOR GOOGLE SCHOLAR ACCOUNT FOR ACADEMIC STAFF OF HIGHER EDUCATION Otekenari David ELISHA Department of Economics Faculty of Social Science Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Nigeria delisha53@yahoo.com ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ABSTRACT Recently, the extent to which academic staff development in accordance with the multiversity and trending world in relation to the Google search bibcock cannot be over emphasised. The concern in ICT and Google scholar has been on the increase amongst academic staff because of its huge benefits. However, this study focused on the implementation of Google scholar account on academic information, findings wide multiversity of materials such as article, books, conference proceedings, it's also allow Google scholar account holders to know who cited them and how many times they were cited. It also revealed poor ICT know-how and poor attitude to ICT as challenges of Google scholar account on academic staff. Furthermore, the study suggested that administrators of higher education ought to ensure academic staff key in into this historic development to position her college in the comity of world class colleges in accordance with the vision of the institution. Keyword: Google Scholar, Higher Education, Academics Staff ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

On the Solutions of a Linear Fractional Differential Equation []

In this paper, a Modified Adomian Decomposition method (MADM) was introduced and applied to a reduced Fractional differential equation. The fractional derivative is considered in the Caputo sense [6]. The proposed method reduces the equation into an integral equation. Some test problems are considered to demonstrate the accuracy and the convergence of the presented method. Numerical results show’s that this approach is easy and accurate when applied to fractional differential equations.


This study focuses on the effect of negative perception of Librarianships on the job performance of graduates` in Umaru Musa Yar’adua University Katsina State, Nigeria. The purpose of this study was to find out why librarianship graduates posed negative perception towards library profession in Musa Yar’adua University Katsina, Nigeria. Three specific objectives were used to guide the study. Objective one was to identify the causes of negative perception of librarianship, secondly to determine the effects of negative perception on graduates performance of librarianship and thirdly to explore possible ways of overcoming negative perception of librarianship in Musa Yar’adua University Katsina, Katsina State. After reviewing related literature, the research uses descriptive survey research design to gather information from a total population of 55 professionals’ librarians in the selected institution. Purposive sampling was adopted which enable the researcher to select appropriate respondents/participants for the study. Within the sampling frame, random sampling was used to select a sample of 60 respondents. Five points Likert type scale questionnaire was personally distributed to the participants and collected within two (2) weeks. Before administered to the respondents the instrument was pre-tested using test and retest method and chronbach alpha coefficient. A mixed method (triangulation) was used to corroborate quantitative and open ended responses. The results of the projects were presented in frequency, percentages and mean score. The study concluded that lack of motivation, awareness, guidance and counseling of the career in library as the causes of negative perception of the librarianship. It was iterated that lack of positive perception results in poor job performances of graduates. However, good motivation, communication, vocational guidance and counseling would provide solution to negative perception of librarianship. The research recommends that proper management of motivation and vocational guidance and counseling should be encouraged in library profession to improve job performance in library career.

Removal of Dye Basic Black 7 (BB7) from Tannery Wastewater Using Convenient Modified Graphene Oxide (MGO) []

The dye containing wastewater originating from leather industries contains huge amount of unreacted dyes which have great influence on water ecosystem due to carcinogenic effects.In this experiment, modified graphene oxide was synthesized using convenient modified Hummars method, for adsorption of cationic dye Basic Black7 (BB7) in water. The functional groups,morphology and elemental compositionof MGO were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Energy dispersion x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Functional groups such as-COOH, OH, -C=O, C-O-C were examined, which would adsorb cationic dyes. The surface particles were appeared rough, porous with clear edge.The adsorption studies were carried out based on several factors such as adsorbent dose, time, pH and initial concentration of dye. However, The removal efficiency of BB7 was found to be 100% of the dye concentration upto 600 ppm by using 10 mg (0.1g/L) adsorbent MGO at pH~7 within 6 minutes. The MGO material was very effective to remove BB7 and it might be used for the treatment of organic dye containing tannery wastewater.


Since one of the major challenges facing the management in the five star hotels in the Kenya coast is employee retention, the main purpose of this research study was to find out the effect of employee retention on employee performance at five star hotels in the Kenyan Coast, in a broader perspective of hospitality industry in Kenya. The specific objectives used included employee training and development, employee reward systems, employee work environment and employee empowerment strategies on employee performance at five star hotels in Kenyan Coast. The study was anchored on the theories such as Human Capital Theory, Equity Theory, Maslow Theory and Theory of Structural Empowerment as these theories tends to explain the relationships between employee retention and the selected objectives. The study adopted descriptive research design as the study methodology. The target population of the study was two hundred and forty three employees from the selected Five Star Hotels in the Kenyan Coast. The formula developed by Cochran's was used to select the sample size from which one hundred and sixty eight was used as the sample size for the study selected through random sampling technique. Data was collected by use of questionnaires after testing the instruments for validity and reliability. The analysis of data collected was done using descriptive and inferential statistics. The study findings, was shown in tables, indicated that training and development, employee reward systems and employee work environment had a significant effect on employee performance at the Five star hotels in the Kenyan coast. However, empowerment was found to have no significant effect on employee performance at the Five star hotels in the Kenya coast. The study recommended further research on finding out whether the same variables could yield similar results either at the four star hotel ratings or at the service industries such as colleges and universities at the Kenyan coast.


Increasing global competition makes continuous improvement practice strategically important to all kinds of organization be it large or small scale enterprise, manufacturing industries or service giving organizations. Theoretically Continues Improvement Tools believed to link higher quality to lower costs and higher market share. Therefore, analysis of the awareness level, and the proper implementation of continuous improvement practices of selected Manufacturing Industries in Ethiopia is the major objective of this study. The manufacturing industries were categorized into five sub-sectors namely, Textile and Apparel Industry Leather and Leather Product Industry, Metal Engineering Industry, Chemicals and Allied Product Industry, Major Food and beverage Industries to collect relevant data for the study. Data were collected through structured questionnaires distributed to experts of selected manufacturing industries. The result of the study revealed the fact that, the manufacturing industries level of awareness of CIP tools is relatively poor. On the other hand, their level of awareness about the application of CI and its benefit is commendable. Despite good awareness level of the benefit of CIP the level of implementation of CIP in all observed industries is poor with the exception of the metal engineering sub-sector whose implementation is somewhat moderate. The major reason for such poor implementation of CIP is lack of awareness of important tools of CI and their consistent implementation in all areas of the manufacturing industries.

Mechanical Design for Flooding Detection System Using Motor Direct Current Control Based On Arduino. []

Floods are known as natural disasters that occur throughout the world. In Indonesia, flooding is the most serious disaster, as flash floods that occurred in Manado on January 15, 2014 caused tens of thousands of people to become victims, and caused tens of thousands of homes and infrastructure facilities to be damaged. The residents who were victims were none other than those who lived near the riverbank. In this study, detecting water level is important. Many researchers use micro-controller based ultrasonic sensors to calculate the flow of water, but when the water exceeds the position of the sensor height, the flood detector cannot function anymore. Therefore the most recent contribution of this research is to design flood detectors equipped with dynamic mechanical systems. The tool does not only measure the height of the water but also can adjust to the conditions of development from the height of the flood itself. Information about water level will be announced for residents, and if a flood occurs at night then an alarm siren for residents living on the river side will be activated.

Quasi Amarendra Distribution and its Properties []

The life time distributions have been playing important role in field of applied sciences. This study on a new Quasi Amarendra distribution and discussed some its properties including moment generating function, rth moment about origin, mean, variance, coefficient of variation, dispersion index, reliability analysis measurements, Bonferroni and Lorenz curves, Renyi entropy, measure order statistics, graphical representation of some functions and discussed on maximum likelihood method.


Budgeting has turn out to be an extremely significant management tool in the Nigerian manufacturing companies in contemporary times. Even though it is still an old concept, an increasing number of manufacturing companies are appreciating its use for achieving profitability goals. This study investigated budgeting as a management tool and its influence on operational efficiency and profitability of selected manufacturing companies in Ibadan. A descriptive research design was adopted and a sample size of 26 staff were randomly selected from 2 manufacturing companies in Ibadan of Oyo State. Data generated through self-structured questionnaire was analysed using mean, standard deviation and ANOVA. The findings showed that long term budget, fixed budget, activity-based budgeting, incremental budgeting, and zero based budgeting and programming budgeting systems were commonly practiced in the two companies. Furthermore, the finding deduced that budgeting techniques have significant influence on operational efficiency (F=244.917; p<0.05) and profitability (F=339.954; p<0.05) of the selected manufacturing companies. The study therefore recommended that effective budget implementation at the company level should be facilitated through capacity building, robust systems and processes, prioritization close monitoring and evaluation. Keywords: Budgeting, Management tool, Manufacturing companies, Operational efficiency, Profitability Word counts:


Automatic temperature control is first step in applications such as industries. The main aim of temperature sensor using SCADA is to sense the temperature and perform the required performance using temperature sensors. It continuously senses the environment temperature and according to it performs its function. It works on the sensation of temperature that when temperature is above 40 degree celsius then fan is on and when temperature is below 23 degree celsius then only a bulb is on which increases the temperature of environment. The project paper focuses on developing a combination of hardware and software to monitor and control various parameters in industry. Almost all the Industrial Data Acquisition and control systems today use connection oriented concepts for interfaces. However, the variety of physical shapes and functional commands that each cable or wire based system has also raises numerous problems: the difficulties in locating the particular area affected by the industrial parameter, the complexity in operation of the system, the maintenance issue and so on. The control of temperature by using SCADA-based wireless technology has gained significant industry attention. The control of the temperature of a room has provides effective and efficient role in industry. They have used cables and bulky equipment which require large amount of space, high degree of the maintenance and are easily destroyed by moisture and excessive heat. Additionally, the Data acquisition and control techniques used so far have imposed considerable computational burden and have not provided a consistent and accurate results expected by the employees and their industries.


This study considered the stand-alone diesel generator system being operated in remote communities of Niger Delta region of Nigeria; in areas not accessible to grid. It also considered integration of renewable energy system with a view of determining an optimal system design that will be most technically and economically feasible and efficient with considerable environmental impact. A typical location was adopted and renewable energy resource data were verified. PV system was designed and component sizing were performed. Diesel generator, PV-Battery and PV-Diesel hybrid systems were simulated and analysed based on their operational behaviour, technical, economic and environmental constraints. The results showed that PV Battery system has 100% renewable penetration, no emission which made it most environmentally friendlier than other systems but it required a very large battery bank which made it the most expensive system with highest NPC and COE. Diesel generator recorded the highest emission into the environment, with highest fuel consumption. The system cost of this model is relatively higher compared to PV-Diesel hybrid system. However, the PV-Diesel hybrid system had 86.6% PV penetration and showed more benefit of cost saving, emission reduction without compromising reliability over the project life of 25 years.


The concept of organizational performance is based upon the idea that an organization is the voluntary association of productive assets including human, physical and capital resources for the purpose of achieving a shared purpose. This study aimed at investigating the effect of teamwork development and organizational performance at Tile and Carpet Centre (T&C) in Kenya. The teamwork theory anchored the variables of the study. The study adopted descriptive research design. The study population was 750 staff working in 3 T&C locations while stratified random sampling technique was used to sample 100 respondents. The pilot testing was conducted using the questionnaire on 10 staff from ICD warehouse, Nairobi County. The measure of reliability was tested using Cronbach’s alpha at 0.7. The study was a descriptive research and primary data was collected using a questionnaire. Frequency distribution tables and figures were used to present the findings where interpretation was done in prose form. The researcher conducted simple regression analysis in order to find out the relationship between teamwork development and organizational performance of T&C. The inferential results on effect of teamwork development on organization performance show R=0.623 indicating a strong positive correlation and R2=0.389 and there was a significant effect between teamwork development and organization performance (t=7.522, p<0.05). The study established and provided evidence that organizational success depends upon the interdependence recognized within teams and how vital it is for team members to understand their roles and work to achieve corporate goals thus having a positive influence on organizational performance. The study recommends that T&C should ensure teamwork development is present in all departments as in the current dynamic business environment, many organizations find the use of teams efficient and productive.

Potential Catching Area of Tuna (Euthynnus affinis) Based on Sea Surface Temperature and Chlorophyll-a In Belitung Waters Indonesia []

One of the fishing areas can be identified by detecting oceanographic parameters in a waters. Parameters that can be used to determine fishing areas include SST and Chlorophyll-a. This study aims to analyze the relationship between SST and Chlorophyll-a on the catch of komo tuna (Euthynnus affinis) in Belitung waters. This research was conducted in two stages, namely field data collection in August and downloading and processing of satellite image data in October 2018 to February 2019. The method used was the survey method with spatial analysis. Primary spatial data is in the form of sea surface temperature distribution and chlorophyll-a distribution in Belitung waters and data on the production of tuna fishing. The results showed that the highest weight of tuna catch in 2017 occurred in January at 20,002 kg and the CPUE highestoccurred in January at 121 kg / trip. The results of multiple regression tests show that 34.7% of the sea surface temperature and chlorophyll-a factors affect the tuna catch. Based on the assessment of fishing area indicators, there are 20 coordinate points for tuna fishing in Belitung waters that can be categorized as potential fishing areas.

Cyber Threats and Cyber Security in the Kenyan Business Context []

Cyber security is basically the process of ensuring the safety of cyberspace from known and unknown threats. The International Telecommunication Union states that cyber security is the collective application of strategies, security measures, plans, threats administration tactics, engagements, training, paramount practices, assurance, and expertize that can be used to guard the information system, organization and related assets. The motivation of writing this paper was therefore to establish through content analysis, the dominant cyber threats and cyber security measures in the Kenyan business context, and to further, illustrate their impact, on the business organizations. The source of information was majorly studies conducted by other scholars related on cyber threats and cyber security, and published in the various journals. The paper has gone ahead to highlight the major cyber threats common in the context of Kenyan Business Environment. The paper has also identified some of the commonly used cyber security measures used to handle the identified threats.

Screening of some Sudanese Plant Extracts Against Common Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria []

Acacia nilotica (Garad), Citrulls colocynthis (Handal), Nigella sativa (Kamoun) and Trigonella foenum greacum (Helba) are plants, believed by Sudanese herbalists to have antimicrobial effect. These plants have been tested in the present study to investigate their in vitro potential effects against nine Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. The selected organisms were Bacillus cereus, Corynebacterium ovis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Niesseria genorrhoeae, Porteus vulagaris and Salmonella typhi. The plants were extracted with two solvents, ethanol was used to extract the polar compounds, and the petroleum ether was used to extract the non-polar compounds, the extracts were tested by two methods Minimum Inhibition Concentration method (MIC) and the filter paper disc method. The MIC of the ethanolic extract of Acasia nilotica, inhibited all tested organisms at 8.3 mg/ml. The most sensitive organism was S. typhi which was completely inhibited at 8.3 mg/ml (no growth). S. aureus, P. vulgaris and N .gonorrhoeae showed no growth at 3.8 mg/ml, 4.2 mg/ml concentration and 2.1 mg/ml concentration they showed variable degrees of inhibition to the tested organisms. In disc method of ethanolic extract of A. nilotica, all tested Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria showed various inhibition zones at the concentration of 500 mg/ ml. The disc method of petroleum ether extract of the A. nilotica was found less effective. The inhibition zones of S. typhi were very narrow (9 mm in concentrations 500 mg / ml and 250 ml). The MIC of the ethanolic extract of C. colocynthis was not effective. On the contrary, it enhances the growth of selected organisms. In the disc method ethanolic, extract of C.colocynthis, C. ovis was most affected as it inhibited at 500 mg / ml and the inhibition zone was 11 mm., ethanolic extract of C. colocynthis was found to have some effect on K. pneumoniae and N. gonorrheae the inhibition zone were 10 mm at 62.5 mg / ml 31.25 mg / ml. In the disc method of the petroleum ether of N. sativa, have a good result at 66.7 mg/ ml with N. gonorrhoeae and E. coil, which are shown no growth In the disc method of petroleum ether of N. sativa, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, S aureus, and N. gonorrhoeae were inhibited. However, E. coil, P .vulgaris, S. typhi, B. cereus and C. vois were resistant. In the disc method of ethanolic extraction of N. sativa, all tested organisms were found resistant, except S. aureus and N. gonorrhoeae. This was inhibited at a concentration of 500 mg /ml. In the MIC method of ethanolic extract of T. foenum greacum enhanced that the growth of all tested organisms. The growth on tested plant was more than that of the negative controls at these concentrations (66.7 mg/ml, 33.3 mg/ ml, 16.7 mg/ml, 8.3 mg/ml, 4.2 mg/ml and 2.1 mg/ml). The disc method of ethanolic extract of T. foenum greacum at all six concentrations (15.625 mg/ml, 31.25 mg/ml, 62.5 mg/ml, 125 mg/ml, 250 mg /ml and 500 mg/ml) revealed no effect except on C. ovis which was inhibited at 500 mg/ml. In the disc method of petroleum ethoer extract of T .foenum greacum, B. cereus was inhibited at 500 mg/ml. However, other tested organisms at all these concentrations (15.625 mg/ml, 31.25 mg/ml, 62.5 mg/ml, 125 mg/ml, 250 mg/ml, and 00 mg/m) were resistant.

Smartphone in smart anaesthesia practice in low resource settings in West Africa []

Abstract: Smartphones are used in many areas of anaesthesia practice. However, recent studies have expressed concerns about smartphone uses in the operating room. It is hoped that this study might serve as a modest beginning to the assessment smartphone’s future in the operating room in developing countries. We performed a survey to learn about the smartphone use habits and views of anaesthesia providers in low resourced settings like Ghana in West Africa. A prospective cross sectional study was conducted after obtaining Institutional ethical committee approval from May, 2018 to July 2018. A questionnaire consisting of 15 questions about smartphone use habits during anaesthesia care was sent electronically. A simple random sampling technique was used to select anaesthetists registered with Ghana Medical and Dental Council. Comparisons of category variables were performed using Chi Square test using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) 15.0 windows vista. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. In our study a total of 272 participants answered our survey. We had 47.3% respondents less than 30 years and 5.1% more than 51 years. Smartphones were used more by younger generation for calculating drug dosage (40.3%), surfing the internet (29.2%), calling for assistance / help (16.7%), medical references (9.6%) and monitoring patient -heart rate, SpO2 (4.2%) during anaesthesia delivery. 76.4% of the respondents indicated that smartphone usage has a benefit on patient care. 81.9% of the respondents indicated they had an anaesthesia related application on their smartphone. 54.2% of the respondents indicated they had never been distracted as a result of using smartphone during anaesthesia care. According to the results of the survey, smartphones are used in the operating room often for non-medical purposes. Distraction with the use of smartphone remains a concern needs more evidence-based data. Keywords: Smartphone, Anaesthesists, Benefit, Distraction (Source: MeSH, NLM)


Brazilian cooperatives branch structure suffered a major change in 2019. The former thirteen activity branches gave birth to seven ones, implying in new balance of representativeness. The first Brazilian cooperative was founded in 1902, at the municipality of Nova Petrópolis, Rio Grande do Sul state, southern Brazil, Armstad Savings and Loans Bank (to date Sicredi Pioneira), by the Swiss priest Theodor Armstad. Cooperatives abide by Federal Law no 5,764/71. Key findings point out currently 6.887 cooperatives registered in Brazil, involving 14.2 million associates, and generating 398,000 jobs. Worldwide, cooperatives involve 1.2 billion people, generating 250 million jobs. If the 300 major cooperatives activities were condensed, the result would represent the ninth world economy, approximately USD 2.5 trillion, in 2019. Cooperatives are also present in 105 countries. Analysis of current scenario, discussion, and recommendations for future research complete the present study.


ABSTRACT Back Ground: - Appropriate delivery care with skills attendant at birth is crucial for both maternal and perinatal health. In addition to professional attention, it is important that mothers deliver their babies in an appropriate setting, where life saving equipment and hygienic conditions can also help reduce the risk of Complications that may cause death or illness to the mother and child. Objective: To assess knowledge, attitude and practice of mothers in child bearing age towards institutional delivery in Adaba town, Oromia, Ethiopia. Methods and materials: - A Community based Cross Sectional Study was conducted from March 15 to March 20. All women of reproductive age group (15-49yrs) were considered as source population. Systematic sampling method was used and data was collected by using structured questionnaires. A study was conducted on 242 women who gave at least one alive birth within five years. The analysis of data was calculated by using scientific calculator and SPSS software. The questionnaires were checked for completeness and consistency through discussion on questionnaire and Prior to applying the total questioner, pretest was done. Result: The overall practice of institutional delivery of last child in this study was 141(58.3 %). The study revealed that out of 242 mothers in reproductive age group, 212(87.6%) have knowledge and 218(90.1%) have positive attitude to words institutional delivery. Age, marital status, religion, parity, income, ANC follow up and occupation had significant association with institutional delivery. Conclusion: practice of institutional delivery is low in the study area. Religion and cultural practice is one of the major factors that make mothers not to deliver at health institution. From a total of 242 mothers 158 (65.3%) of them have delivered at health institution previously while 84(34.7%) of them have never delivered at health institution before. Most mothers have knowledge and positive attitude of institutional delivery in the study area. Recommendation:- health education program about Institutional delivery should be highly given at ANC follow up because mothers who have ANC follow up were more likely to deliver at health institution than mothers who have no ANC follow up. Cost of health service should be reduced because income has significant influence on delivery service utilization.


This study aims at establishing the effect of customer relationship management strategies on customer loyalty of three star hotels in Mombasa County, Kenya. The customer relationship strategies examined are customer service quality management (CSQM), customer social bond management (CSBM), customer relational bond management (CRBM) and customer economic bond management (CEBM). The study sample consists of 44 respondents with a 77 per cent response rate. Data was analyzed by employing correlation and multiple regression analysis. The key findings revealed that customer relationship management strategies have a positive significant effect on customer loyalty in three star hotels in Mombasa County, Kenya. The general findings are limited as the study focused on the hospitality industry in Kenya. Based on the key study findings, hotels employing customer relationship management strategies should direct their efforts on improving the usefulness of customer relationship management strategies to enhance customer loyalty. This study successfully extends customer relationship management strategies in terms of customer loyalty through customer service quality management, customer social bond management, customer relational bond management and customer economic bond management. In conclusion the customer relationship management strategies model in this study presents a considerable amount of improvement in explanatory power.