Volume 7, Issue 9, September 2019 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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After 59 years of independence, and twenty years of uninterrupted civilian rule, Nigerians expected the principles of democracy and sustainable development to have been assimilated, particularly in the Niger Delta, but the optimism has unfortunately been misplaced due to bad governance that has ‘over consumption’ of natural resources as its cardinal focus.


There seem to be less enthusiasm in the commitment of the use of drum, ikoro, ekwe and other communicative modes in the dissemination of information in Bende society due to western urbanization. Prior to this, these indigenous communicative systems and other channels of communication aided the creation of interactions and had direct impact and considerable influence in the public sphere, which was defined as the socio-political arena, through institutional provisions in ancient Bende, South-east, Nigeria. The advent of colonialism and certain of its policies put these channels of communication down, notwithstanding the fact that these traditional communicative channels define and explain the people philosophical worldview.


In Kenya, University education has expanded rapidly in recent years from the initial seven public universities in the mid-1980s to a total of 79 universities currently. Of these, 31 are fully fledged public universities. Because of this, the Higher Education Industry has become very competitive. Competition is evident for resources like funding, human resource, facilities, student enrollment, research grants and collaborations. Universities, therefore, need to design strategies to help them survive and remain competitive in the industry. One of the strategies suggested is involvement in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) initiatives. Although from literature review it is evident that CSR positively influences competitive advantage in various organizations, it is not clear whether public universities fully benefit from it. This research, therefore, sought to find out how environmental, societal and educational CSR initiatives can influence Competitive Advantage in public universities. This research adopted a descriptive research design. Census survey was carried out in all Kenyan public universities. Both primary and secondary data were collected for this study. Primary data was collected by use of questionnaires while secondary data was gathered from books, newspaper articles, academic journals, internet and other relevant sources. Purposive sampling was used in identifying the respondents in each university. A total of 31 officers, one from each university formed the sample size. Data collected were analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. Correlation analysis and Regression analysis was used to analyze the data. The findings were presented in tables. The study found engagement in Environmental societal and Education CSR initiatives has an influence on competitive advantage in public universities as supported by an R-value of 78%. The study also revealed that engagement in Environmental and Education CSR initiatives has a strong influence competitive advantage in public Universities. This study thus recommends that further studies be conducted in the area of the engagement of public universities in CSR initiatives as a way of gaining competitive advantage so as to establish the reasons behind this move.

Entire enumerated details about adenium obesum []

The ornamental plant Adenium obesum is the most Beautiful plant . This plant comes under the family Apocynaceae, this family is also called as the dogbane family. This family includes more than 415 genera and about 4600 species. These family is distributed primarily in tropical and sub tropical regions all over the world. It belongs to the order Gentianales. Other names of the plant are Sabi star , Kuda, Mock, Impala lily and Desert rose. In this paper the basic knowledge about the plant external and internal morphology, physiology and the nutritional requirements of the plant for it’s growth and metabolic activity. This plant requires the minimal amount of the water therefore it was named as desert rose. It is an angiospermic woody plant. This exquisite plant was mostly found in house. Its look so woody but not sturdy, the compound flower appears like a rose . In this plant the bottom portion is so broader than its top. It looks like a tree but, it is a shrub .It has an ability to grow in a small container. This plant is less toxic in nature not only for humans also for the elephant via it may have the ability to penetrate through the skin and causes intoxication.


Enhancing the resilience of social-ecological systems as a critical response option to climate change was cited in the literature, and assessing the resilience of agro-ecosystems to climate change in the Koga Watershed of the Blue Nile Basin is the focus of this study. The study compared the resilience of two distinct farming systems (irrigation supplemented downstream and rain-fed upstream) created due to the introduction of the Koga irrigation scheme. Household level data were collected on indicators of agro-ecosystem resilience determined by the results of three focus group discussions and a literature review. Data analysis involved descriptive statistics, independent samples ’t’ test and multiple regression. The results of the study showed significant differences in many of the agro-ecosystem resilience indicators and socio-economic variables between the upstream and downstream Koga Watershed. The study also showed that farming experience by far most strongly determined agro-ecosystem resilience to climate change, followed by age of household head and soil fertility. Overall, the irrigation supplemented farming systems of the downstream tended to be more resilient than rain-fed upstream farming systems. Therefore, the study concluded that irrigation schemes not only enhance the adaptive capacity of individual farmers but also the farming system as a whole. Thus, while considering possible measures to build the agro-ecosystems of the watershed as a whole, it should be a priority for stakeholders to enhance the resilience of agro-ecosystems to climate change in the upstream Koga Watershed.


The study evaluated the effects of soil remineralization by rock dust on the emergence and early growth of Banana (Musa acuminata). Pot experiments were conducted to determine the effect of remineralization of soil using granite and basalt rock dusts as soil remineralizers. There were seven treatments including control used for the experiment and these were replicated four times. The treatments were T1 (0.5tons/ha of granite dust per 2kg of top soil), T2 (0.5tons/ha of basalt dust per 2kg of top soil), T3 (1.0tons/ha of granite dust per 2kg of top soil), T4 (1.0tons/ha of basalt dust per 2kg of top soil), T5 (1.5tons/ha of granite dust per 2kg of top soil), T6 (1.5tons/ha of basalt dust per 2kg of top soil), T7 (Control). The experiment was laid out in Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Data were collected on days of emergence, number of leaves, plant height (cm) and stem girth (cm) for 5 weeks. Watering was done twice daily both in the morning and evening. Data collected were subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and no significance means among the treatments except for number of leaves at 0.05 level of significance. The results showed that T6 (1.5tons/ha basalt) had the best mean days to emergence (16.75) while T7 (control) had the least mean performance for emergence (33.50). For plant height T2 (0.5tons/ha basalt) had the best mean performance (15.90cm) and T7 (control) had the least mean performance of (10.70cm), for number of leaves, significance difference occurred among the treatments but none in the application rate. T6 (1.5tons/ha basalt) had the best mean performance (8.75) and T5 (1.5tons/ha granite) had the least mean performance (4.25), for stem girth, T2 (0.5tons/ha basalt) had the best mean performance of (7.63cm) while T7 (1.5tons/ha granite) had the least mean performance of (5.28cm), at 10 weeks after planting. Observing the best performance from the parameter assessed using treatments including control, soil remineralization by rock dust should be encouraged to enhance the emergence and early growth of Musa acuminata. These rock dusts are readily available at quarries and are environmentally safe.


During the design stage a construction project is exposed to numerous risks including clashes between Architectural, Structural and MEP designs and poor estimation of quantities and costs. These risks lead to delayed completion and over run costs. In construction project main stakeholders, the contractor and the client wants the project to take least time with cost as less as possible. Building information modeling (BIM) is a solution to these problems which not only detects the clashes but also gives a reliable platform for solution of these clashes before the project execution. Moreover BIM also automatically generates quantities and costs accurately. Along with it, different models can be prepared during the planning phase, which gives detailed visualizations of the project at the very start of the project and all the stakeholders can have a good idea of what the end product would look like. The flow of our project involves creation of 3D model of District Headquarter Hospital Mardan using the tools of Autodesk Revit which included Architectural model, Structural model and MEP model. Later on, this model was used for different kind of analysis. The model was exported to Autodesk Navisworks, which was used for the clash detection of all the three models within themselves and also for the simulation and quantities takeoff of construction activities of the project. Energy analysis was carried out using Autodesk 360 service Green Building Studio.


The Boko Haram Terrorist upheaval easily stands out as the worst security challenge Nigeria had ever faced since the end of Nigeria-Biafra Conflict (1967-1970). This devastating insurgency is a hideous war of attrition characterized by guerilla war tactics, deployment of improvised explosive devices, suicide bombings, kidnapping and massive bloodletting. This paper identifies literacy as a critical component in the overall elements leading to the Boko Haram terrorist uprising. The paper is equally primed to locate and properly situate literacy within the entire gamut of elements surrounding the emergence, rise and sustenance of Boko Haram terrorist mayhem in Nigeria. Arising from this study, is the recommendation that government takes immediate action to improve on the literacy level in the flash point States of North East Nigeria.

The effect of Face book on Improving Reading Comprehension Amongst Khartoum University students []

This paper aimed to investigate the effect of Facebook on improving reading comprehension of English students at Khartoum University. The study attempts to highlight the obstacles that students encounter at the college level in reading and using online materials. The study adopted a descriptive method. The subject was students of English in fourth-year at the faculty of Education Arts, Khartoum University in Sudan. The study sample consists of ten students who were chosen as a purposeful sample with a number often as focus group involves the study subject. Data was collected by T-test method.


Abstract Ecological issues have been a source of concern to some Nigerian experts and one of the greatest challenges of our time. Man as the inhabitant of the environment is a religious being who has a profession of one religion or the other. The environment as he sees himself has really affected him and also his relationship with the object of worship which is as a result of advancement in technology, modernity and man’s quest to explore and control the environment. This work looks at how man interacts with his environment and how man as a religious being is been affected by ecology. It will further look at how some religious traditions are working towards helping in contributing to correcting some of these ecological problems prevalent in the society today with the aim of arriving at a better, conducive and healthy society. This work adopts a sociological approach in its study and is framed with the theory of crossing and dwelling. This work recommends that people should be careful in the use of the environment in order to reduce the rate of environmental degradation prevalent in our society today. It also recommends that religious leaders should advise their adherents on the use of the earth with the view that we are all stewards and must give account of how we use things giving to us to care for.

Exploring the Capacity Gaps of Law Enforcement Institutions in Dealing with Cases of Gender Based Violence (GBV) in Zanzibar []

Law enforcement institutions play a significant role in the fight against all forms of violence against women and children in Zanzibar as well the community at large. However, gender based violence is likely affecting the overall physical, psychological, mental well-being as well as socio-economic development of the victims. This paper aims at exploring the capacity gaps of law enforcement institutions in dealing with cases of gender based violence in Zanzibar through a review of literature. A total of 134 respondents throughout key stakeholder’s institutions were sampled and data was collected from them using questionnaire and interview methods. The study found that, the level and capacity of law enforcement institutions in dealing with cases of GBV was very low. The low level was significantly associated and critically attributed with low conviction rates, long delays and bureaucracy in cases, lack of sufficient evidences and ineffective procedures and case management. Furthermore, the findings showed that low level of reporting cases, limited awareness from the community, possible stigma and shame, lack of faith in the justice system, inaccessibility of trained police and preference for an informal resolution and mediation of cases increase violence incidences and reduce the degree of accountability and accessibility of justice throughout law enforcement institutions. Finally, the findings suggested an improvement of expedient transaction in investigating and ruling cases of violence, effective procedures and case management should be put in place and periodic review and monitoring of judicial practices to ensure compliance with substantive and procedural aspects of the law should b carried out

Optimal Interactions of Nitrogen Fertilizer Rates and Water Levels for Highest Performance of Greenhouse Lettuce in KARLO Kabete, Nairobi []

An experiment was conducted at the KALRO Kabete situated in peri-urban Nairobi, laid out as a split plot in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) for two seasons (Season one Oct- Dec, 2017) and (Season two, Jan to Feb, 2018). The treatments included 3 levels of irrigation (W1-100% (22 minutes), W2-70% (17 minutes) and W3-40% (12 minutes) to FC) in main plots while 4 Nitrogen levels (0, 65, 105, and 145kg N/ha) were assigned to the subplots, resulting in 12 treatment combinations which were replicated three times. Findings showed significant variation due to interaction effect of nitrogen fertilizer rates and water levels on lettuce height and number of leaves at season two but insignificant during season one. Significant variation was observed due to the interaction effect of nitrogen fertilizer rates and water levels on lettuce diameter at season one and season two. There was significant variation observed due to interaction effect of nitrogen fertilizer rates and water levels on percentage chlorophyll during both seasons. However, no significant variation was observed due to interaction effect of nitrogen fertilizer rates and water levels on fresh and dry weight of lettuce during season one and season two. As such, farmers growing lettuce under greenhouse technology should use the 40% to Field Capacity with 65kg N/ha combination of irrigation water that is applied for 12 minutes (160mls/12 min/plant/day) at 40% to the field capacity and nitrogen fertilizer in a split- application rate of 65kg N/ha (4g/plant/split) since it exhibited efficient resources use.

Potential of Lates calcarifer’s Bone waste as a Source of Main Ingredient for Edible Films []

This research aimed to utilize the bones of white snapper fish as a material for making gelatin, besides, the specific goal was to found out the best edible film characteristics of white snapper bone waste. The making of edible films was conducted at the Fisheries Products Technology Laboratory, which was conducted from February to August 2019.

Optimization of the standard radiography technique for people with reduced mobility at the Central Hospital []

People with reduced mobility (PMR) are very often called upon to do radiographic examinations and whose hard work is commonly accepted by radiology and medical imaging technicians. The authors report their experience in the practice of standard radiography in PMK to optimize their practice. People with reduced mobility (PMR) are very often called upon to do radiographic exams and the hardness of realization is commonly accepted by radiology and medical imaging technicians. The authors report their experience in the practice of standard radiography in PMK to optimize their practice

Contribution of the Imagery by Magnetic Resonance (IRM) in the diagnosis of encephalic pathologies in Cameroun []

Encephalic pathologies are a real public health problem. Their support in imaging is important for clear characterization of lesions and therapeutic decision making. The aim of our study was to determine the benefits of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of encephalic pathologies

Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products: A Review Based in Oman []

Pharmaceuticals and personal care products are being excessively in use. In return, their disposal is a difficult issue to deal with. Excessive/unused pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCP) are being disposed ineffectively and leaking into waterways and soil, which in return causes eminent environmental damages as well as harms animals and humans. This is a review article that explains what PPCPs are, their damages to environment and animals. It also includes treated Omani water analysis done by HPLC to determine the concentration of several different PPCPs present. Lastly, it also includes a survey carried out within Omani individuals to observe and understand people’s awareness about PPCPs and a proper conclusion is drawn out of this analysis and survey on what kind of PPCPs are present in waterways and individuals’ awareness on this topic. According to the survey results, suggestion and policy changes are listed in order to educate people/pharmacist/policy makers and scientist on this topic, to prevent further harm from PPCP.


This study investigated the impact of team teaching on the academic performance of learners in linear programming among the grade eleven (11) pupils at Ndola Girls’ National Technical School. A pre – test post – test quasi-experimental research design was employed. The study population was purposively drawn from 200 grade eleven (11) pupils. Eighty-seven (87) pupils from two out of four classes took part in the study. Random selection of participants into groups was not possible as classes were already established by the school. Nevertheless, the two intact classes were randomly selected out of three using simple random sampling procedures. Thereafter, the two randomly selected intact classes were randomly assigned with the status of being an experimental group and a control group by tossing a coin. The participants in the experimental group (n = 44) were team taught by three teachers while those in the control group (n = 43) were taught by a single teacher. Data collection instruments included a self – constructed achievement test consisting of linear programming questions of the ECZ Ordinary Level, and a questionnaire which collected data pertaining to learners’ perception towards team teaching of the experimental group. The main research question was ‘what is the impact of team teaching on the academic performance of grade eleven learners at Ndola Girls’ National Technical School in linear programming which was answered using the mean, standard deviation and the percentages, while the research hypothesis was tested using the independent group t – test at alpha level 0.05. Results of the study showed that there was no significant difference between the pre – test mean scores of the experimental and the control group [p = 0.939 (two tailed) > 0.05]. However, the findings did not only reveal that there was a statistically significant difference in the academic achievement of pupils in linear programming between the post – test mean scores of the two classes [p = 0.028 (two tailed) < 0.05] but also showed that the majority questionnaire respondents expressed preference for team teaching over the traditional teaching method. It was concluded, therefore, that the significant difference in learner achievement was attributed to different teaching formats. Based on the foregoing findings, the researcher recommended that School Administrators, including Heads of Departments should encourage and support team teaching for enhanced academic performance of learners. In addition, team teaching can also be used when teaching integrated subjects such as Business Studies, Social Studies, Integrated Science, Design and Technology to mention but a few subjects currently made up of different areas of specialisation. Key words: Academic performance, linear programming, team teaching; traditional (conventional) teaching.

Does Ethno-biology Improve pupil’s Understanding in Ecology? []

The main purpose of the study was to investigate whether ethno-biology improves pupils’ achievement in ecology and attitude towards ecology at Lubuto secondary school in Ndola district. The research design of the study was pre-test post-test control group quasi- experimental. The school was drawn through a purposive sampling, and two grade twelve intact classes were assigned as control and experimental groups by self-selection. The total sample size comprised of 100 pupils.

Mathematical modeling and analysis of teenage pregnancies in Kenya incorporating contraception and education []

Teenage pregnancies have become a malaise in Kenya, with some areas in West and Coast having 1 in every 4 girls affected as per Kenya De-mographics and Health Survey(KDHS). Studies on teenage sexual and reproductive health rights posit, that teenage pregnancies pose a serious health, Psycho social and economic dangers to the girls including thwarting their reproductive health including child birth, schooling, career growth, keeping them in vicious cycle of poverty (many come from already poor family), and overall limiting there capabilities, opportunities and choices. In Kenya 18 percent of adolescent girls between the age of 12 and 19 years are mothers. The rate of child bearing varies across Kenya. While progress has been made to decrease the number in some regions, in others it remained alarmingly high. With 13000 girls dropping out of school every year (KDHS), there is a need to look deeply into this problem. To make informed policy choices and create a revised research agenda for population and development, this paper aggregates recent quantitative evidence on the socioeconomic consequences of and methods to curb teenage pregnancies in the developing world. The population is divided into three compartments: S(t) susceptible class, I(t) the Infected/Corrupted class, and T(t) the Treated class. We calculate the basic reproduction number R0 . For R0 < 1 the system has one globally asymptotically stable equilibrium where no Infected/Corrupt or treated individual exists. For R0 > 1 , the system has additional equilibrium where Infected/Corrupt population are endemic. A lyapunov function is used to show that, for R0 > 1 , the endemic equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable. These results are established by applying the LaSalles invariance principle. Based on our model we asses strategies to counter teenage pregnancies


This study aims to analyze the potential of the fishing industry that affects people's economic prosperity and development in Bandung City. Analyzing the role of the fisheries industry sector in the development of the area of Bandung City based on the comparison of the production of regional and provincial fisheries products. This research began in March 2019 until October 2019. The research method was carried out with literature survey techniques data collected through survey decisions which were then analyzed quantitatively and presented descriptively. The research data consists of two types, namely primary data and secondary data. Data analysis carried out included Shift Share Analysis and Location Quotient (LQ) Analysis. Based on research conducted on the Potential Study of fisheries industry in Bandung City, it can be concluded that the Potential Fisheries Industry in Bandung, namely dozing / surimi / jelly (LQ 3.68) and fresh handling industry (LQ 3.51) is a superior industry in Bandung City. Shows the net shift in the value of the production of the fishing industry in Bandung with an average of 2013-2017 of -5436.65, the fishing industry shows a PB value> 0, meaning that the fishing industry in the city of Bandung has a slow growth rate due to the amount of industrial production in the city of Bandung relatively small when compared with the amount of West Java production.


Low self-esteem is a central construct in present day research. This study investigated the effect of assertiveness training technique on secondary school students’ low self-esteem in Orlu Education Zone of Imo state. The study is a quasi-experimental research which adopted a pre-test, post-test, control research design. One research question guided the study while one null hypothesis was tested at 0.05 level of significance. A sample size of 102 SS 1 male and female secondary school students were purposively sampled from two highest determined schools with students identified with low self-esteem. The instrument for data collection was Index of Self-esteem which was developed by Hudson in 1982 but revalidated and used in Nigeria by Onighaiye (1996). The data collected was analyzed using mean scores for the research question while ANCOVA was used in testing the null hypothesis. The mean score norm of 30.89 for female students and 32.04 for male students provided in the instrument manual guided the decision. The findings of the study revealed among others that assertiveness training technique was effective in enhancing the students’ low self-esteem. Based on the findings and implications of the study, the following recommendations were made: it behooves guidance counsellors to start early and adopt the use of assertiveness training technique to counsel students in enhancing their low self-esteem. Also, the government and nongovernmental organisations should fund training programmes on enhancing low self-esteem through workshops, seminars for equipping teachers, counsellors and other significant others in order to assist in the enhancement of students’ low self-esteem. Key words: Assertiveness training Technique, Secondary School, Students, Self-Esteem

Climatological Indicator of Sunshine Hours in Association with other Climatic Factors in Nigeria []

The amount of sunshine hours serves as a climatological indicator since it is conceivable that solar variability plays a role in altering weather and climate at some yet unspecified level of significance. The changes in sunshine duration in association with the amount of rainfall, relative humidity and average temperature over Nigeria were examined for 1980 – 2010 to examine its significance. The sunshine duration hour (hr), the amount of rainfall(mm), relative humidity (%), as well as the average temperature (oC) data were obtained for the six geographical synoptic meteorological stations from the Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NiMeT) for the period of 1980-2010) for Sokoto (12.55oN, 5.12oE), Maiduguri (11.51oN, 13.05oE), Ilorin (8.26oN, 4.30oE), Ikeja (6.35oN, 3.20oE), Port Harcourt (5.01oN, 6.57oE) and Enugu (6.28oN, 7.34oE). All climatologically data were processed and the quality controlled archived. The monthly, annual and seasonal means were calculated for the stations where the estimation of the monthly mean values of parameters, Pearson’s correlation, Mann-Kendall test (detect trend) and Sen’s Slope (magnitude of the trends), anomalies and annual, seasonal decadal were examined. The mean monthly, annual and seasonal sunshine duration suggests that the highest long term monthly daily sunshine duration occur in the months of November to February ranging from 6-7 hours per day. With the minimum daily sunshine recorded in July and August at approximately 4 hours per day. The Sunshine duration over Nigeria has decreased from the months of April to July (ranging from 2.26hours/day and 0.75hours/day) then peaked at August (increased) and starts decreasing again at September (0.32 hours/day) with the rest of the year showing increasing trend. Sunshine duration has a strong negative correlation with the amount of rainfall and relative humidity (0.84 and 0.86 respectively at 0.01 significance level) and a strong positive correlation with the average temperature (0.9 at 0.01 significance level) across the country. The sunshine duration’s trend across the country varies with upward and downward trend for temporal variation (anomaly) but while carrying out the Mann Kendall trend test it showed an upward trend in sunshine duration. Key words: Sunshine Duration, Amount of Rainfall, Relative Humidity, Average Temperature, Trend, Mann-Kendall, Nigeria.


This study aims to analyze the theory of the basis of economic growth and analyze the growth rate of the fisheries sector in Bandung based on a comparison of the total gross regional domestic production of cities and provinces. The research began in March 2019 until July 2019. The research method was carried out by survey methods which were collected both through decision surveys which were then analyzed quantitatively and presented descriptively. This research data consists of two types, namely primary data and secondary data. Data analysis included Shift Share Analysis and Location Quotient Analysis (LQ). Based on research conducted on the Analysis of the Economic Growth Structure of the Fisheries Sector in the City of Bandung, it can be concluded that the Fisheries Sector is a non-base sector in the City of Bandung with a LQ value of 0.0015. Shows the growth value of the net shift in the production of the fisheries sector in Bandung City with an average from 2013-2017 of -1.355.298,37. The fisheries sector shows a PB value <0, meaning that the fisheries sector in Bandung has a slow growth rate

Chemical composition of milkfish mackerel flavoring powder []

This research Determine the most preferred chemical analysis of milkfish mackerel flavoring powder, the which is 15%. The solution is Carried out at the Food Technology Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering, University of Pasundan, Bandung. The method is analysis of ash, water, protein, fat and carbohydrate levels .and a solubility of 4%. Proximate analysis was 8:05% ash content, moisture content 2:28%, 13:53% protein content, total fat content 0:25% and 72.58% carbohydrate content.


This study aims to analyze the potential of the fishery product processing industry and the growth rate of the processing industry sector which affects the development of the Bandung area during 2013-2017. The research began in May 2019 until July 2019. The research method was carried out with a literature survey survey technique which was collected either through decision surveys which were then analyzed quantitatively and presented descriptively. This research data consists of two types, namely primary data and secondary data. Data analysis included Shift Share Analysis and Location Quotient Analysis (LQ). Based on the research of potential fishery processing industries in Bandung, namely dozing / surimi / jelly (LQ 3.68) and fresh handling (LQ 3.51). Shows the growth value of the shift in the production of the processing industry in Bandung with an average from 2013-2017 of -25286.04. The manufacturing industry sector shows PB value> 0, meaning that the manufacturing sector in Bandung has a slow growth rate.

Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Corroded and Coated Reinforcing Steel Embedded in Concrete []

Chlorides has been known to be introduced in concrete through several sources which in turns result to corrosion that generates tensile stresses in steel reinforcement surroundings concrete thereby resulting to early cracks and poorly on service life of the structure. This study evaluated the utilizations of inorganic eco-friendly exudates / resin extracts of trees original from cola acuminate as preventive measure towards the corrosive actions of salt water attack on embedded reinforcing steel in concrete structures within the marine region using experimental application of half cell potential, concrete resistivity and tensile strength test to examined the change in the surface condition of reinforcements mechanical properties of non-coated and exudates/resin coated specimens embedded in concrete slab in an accelerated corrosive medium of for 150 days immersion in sodium chloride and with applied currents potential of -200 mV through 1200mV, with a scan rate of 1mV/s. Results of potential Ecorr,mV corroded specimen percentile value is 337.3433% and percentile differences of 237.3433% against -70.3566% and -68.347% of control and coated specimens. Concrete resistivity ρ, kΩcm percentile average value 64.36129% and percentile difference -35.6387% against 55.3729% and 96.06209% of control and coated specimens. Mechanical properties “ultimate strength” of corroded specimen percentile average value of 107.6483% and percentile difference 7.648311% against -7.10491% and -6.67339% of control and coated specimens. Results showed high ultimate yield of corroded specimens to control and coated specimens due to the effect of corrosion on the mechanical properties of the steel reinforcement. Average mechanical properties “weight loss of steel” of corroded specimens has percentile average value 180.4375% and percentile difference 80.43747% against -44.5791% and -45.1857% of control and coated specimens. Results of weight loss of steel showed higher percentile values against control and coated specimens due to the effect of corrosion on the mechanical properties of steel. Average mechanical properties “cross- section area reduction” of control has percentile average value 87.75926% and percentile difference -12.2407% against 13.94809% and 13.94809%. Cross- section area reduction results showed higher percentile reduction values due to effect of corrosion on the mechanical properties of steel. Entire results proved the usefulness of cola acuminate exudates as corrosion inhibitor.

Behavioral Failure Load and Midspan Deflection of Reinforced Concrete Beams of Corroded and Coated Members []

Load-carrying capacity, stiffness and force redistribution of reinforced concrete structure is affected by the corrosion of reinforcement embedded into concrete. This study investigated the comparative effect of coated reinforcing steel with khaya senegalensis exudates / resins and that of corroded residual flexural strength after 150 days corrosion accelerated periods. Flexural failure load of corroded has percentile variation of -35.3841% against 54.7607% and 52.5252% non-corroded and exudates coated specimens. Midspan deflection with percentile variation of 89.11864% against -47.1231% and -42.1841% non-corroded and coated specimens. Average ultimate tensile strength with percentile difference of -12.193% against 13.88614% and 13.64808% of non-corroded and coated specimens. Average strain ratios with percentile variation of-10.1738% against 11.3261% and -11.16659% of non-corroded and coated specimens. Averaged elongations with percentile variation of -40.0134% against 66.7038% and 61.44629% for non-corroded and coated specimens. Corroded members entire results showed high; flexural failure loads against non-corroded and coated specimens, midspan deflection against non-corroded and coated specimens and ultimate tensile strength of corroded specimens against non-corrode and coated specimens. Corrosion attacked on the mechanical properties of reinforcing steel embedded in concrete led to the behavioral states of tested properties.

Reinforcing Steel Mechanical Properties Influence on Bond Strength of Corroded and Coated Members in Concrete Structures []

The mechanism of bond is the mechanical interlocking between the concrete and any deformations of the steel bar. The bond zone element contact surface between the steel bar and concrete, along with the surrounding concrete in immediate proximity. An investigative study on the effectiveness of olibanum exudates / resin as coated materials on reinforcing steel was studied to curb the trend of corrosion of reinforcing steel in the marine coastal region with salt water influence on concrete structures. Direct application of exudates / resins on reinforcing steel with coating thicknesses of 150µm, 300µm, 450µm, inserted into concrete cubes, immersed in harsh corrosive water and accelerated for 150days. Examinations showed that non-coated specimens corroded while coated specimens showed resistive / inhibitory characteristics. Average failure load is -38.9079% against 63.6874% and 62.48896% percentile difference of control and coated exudates/resin member. Average percentile bond strength load is -31.347% against 45.66004% and 71.84448% percentile difference of control and coated. Average maximum slip values is 0.083567mm and represented -25.3054% against 33.87847% and 75.30913% percentile difference of control and coated. Test results reviewed that corroded specimens have low bond strength and higher failure bond load as well as low maximum slip while exudate/resin coated specimens possessed low failure load and high bonding strength. Experimented specimens showed exudates/resin members showed higher percentile values in comparison to corroded specimens with high bond strengths to pullout and high splitting properties to slips


In today’s world of ever increasing competition, organizations are forced to look for new ways to generate value. In the ever-increasing turbulent business environment, organizations are always searching enhanced ways of gaining competitive advantage. The purpose of this study was to assess business process outsourcing, leadership styles, strategic planning and organization productivity in telecommunication industry in Kenya. The study objectives study were to determine the effect of business process outsourcing on organization productivity; effect of leadership styles on organization productivity as well examining examine how strategic planning affect organization productivity in telecommunication industry in Kenya. The study was based on Resource based View Theory, Transaction Cost Theory and Transformational Theory of leadership. The study utilized descriptive research design. The target population comprised of 9 head of departments and 1536 staff of Safaricom, Airtel and Telkom Kenya. Stratified sampling was adopted to select 219 staff while census was used to sample all the nine head of departments. Questionnaires and interview guides were used to collect data. To test reliability, the study applied the Cronbach’s Alpha Coefficient. Quantitative data was analyzed by use of descriptive statistics such as percentages, frequency and mean and inferential statistics like regression analysis. Data was presented using tables while qualitative data was analysed using content analysis. Respondents were assured of privacy of the data provided and privacy of the source of data as the questionnaire did not call for disclosure of identity. From the study it was established that; business process outsourcing had significant effect p=0.000 on organizational productivity, leadership styles had significant effect p=0.000 on organizational productivity and strategic planning had significant effect p=0.000 on organizational productivity. This study recommends that organizations should ensure that the right service providers are selected to achieve the objectives of outsourcing, organizations should focus on using the transformational and democratic leadership styles in the organizations so as to improve the organizational performance and management should establish a knowledge management culture that would facilitate faster adaptation to change.