Volume 7, Issue 9, September 2019 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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This article addressed social value orientation in Brazilian business negotiations. Is it worth competing at the bargaining table? The investigation is part of my doctoral thesis, and the results were attained through N=20 qualitative in-depth interviews combined with the naturalistic approach and Behavioral event interview. Raw data were coded and analyzed through content analysis. Key findings evidenced three critical moments for a given business negotiation: (i) before the negotiation, o preparation stage; (ii) during the negotiation, and finally (iii) the closing negotiation stage. In twenty out of twenty negative failure cases, competition prevailed at the final negotiation stage. Discussion and Future research complete the present work.


Field factors can affect the strength gain of compacted lime stabilized clay that affects the subgrade force. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the field. Factors on the resistance of clay soils stabilized with compacted lime for subgrade construction. Laboratory tests were performed and included in the tissue; Slope, calving ability, compaction test and CBR. Laboratory results showed a 4% increase in lime content and a 4% decrease in CBR (6%). The 4% decrease in CBR is due to unnecessary lime excess in the mix for an initial increase in strength. It has been found that 4% of the lime content is the best to stabilize the clay. Laboratory results showed higher CBR values for dry lime / clay mixtures than for the slurry (wet) mixture. Therefore, in all experiments with lime and CBR clay, the dry mix was used to achieve the highest test yield. In all percentages of lime addition, compression delays had an impact on the CBR. With an increasing time delay, the CBR value decreased. However, the rate of decrease in the CBR value decreased with the increase in lime content. CBR value improved at cure temperatures. Due to the larger correlation coefficient (0.601), it was found that temperature is the most important factor affecting RBC. The SPSS software has developed a model to predict peak and minimum CBR based on lime content, compaction delay and temperature. Possible suggestions are made to improve the accuracy of this study. Further studies are recommended on the long-term results of clay and limestone stabilization, the effects of carbonation and sulfur attack on calcified clays. Minor temperature differences should be considered when conducting experiments to improve the accuracy of the regression model.


Efforts at minimizing the barrage of security problems in West African states still remains a serious challenge facing the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS); and despite the forthright initiatives of the Organization in regional integration and maintenance of peace and security, incidents of violent conflicts appear persisting in various West African states. The bane of the study however, examines the effectiveness of the ECOWAS using its military group (ECOMIG) that was briefly put up in January, 2017 in maintaining peace and stable security in political crisis in the Gambia, a West African state. The theoretical framework employed for the study is elite theory. The study thoroughly examines roles of the ECOWAS and its military group (ECOMIG) in restoring peace and security in the Gambia during and after the post-election crisis that rocked the state. A documentary research design is used for the study. Findings in the study indicate that: the ECOWAS and ECOMIG played significant roles in resolving the political crisis and reducing the spate of violent conflicts that could have engulfed the Gambia during the recent political crisis and West Africa at large; and for the ECOWAS to be truly effective in peace and security maintenance through its military tool (ECOMIG), efforts must be geared towards making member states comply with the Organization’s directives; that it has to be fully ready to solve problems and; that it has a built-in ability to become an efficient player in peace and security maintenance in West Africa but faces unbending challenges which can only be decimated with extensive external support. The study concludes that the major challenge of the ECOWAS in maintaining regional integration with peace and security in West African region, is to prove that West Africans are capable of resolving their own inadequacies.

Good Governance In Public Sector: Panacea To Rapid Socio-Economic Development In Nigeria []

For any meaningful development to be achieved by a nation, there is a need for visionary leadership and strong instituted principles. Unfortunately, governance in Africa and Nigeria, in particular, has been found wanting due to lack of good-will, corruption and lack of vision. Nigeria, which is generally acknowledged as the largest economy in Africa is still regarded as the poverty capital of the world. The Public/civil service which accounts which accounts for about N7.3 Trillion (recurrent expenditure) of the budget, is the machinery of government to implement its policies and execute its project, hence this study seeks to evaluate their conformity to the framework of the principles of good governance as prescribed by IFAC. Based on this framework, this study analyses what norm should be, what we are currently experiencing and recommendation towards achieving these principles. The work will be of enormous use to the federal government and its MDAs towards implementing best practices of governance.


The resistance of micro-organisms to antibiotics has been a serious challenge facing the health sector since the discovery of penicillin. The research was conducted to develop new organic molecules possessing antimicrobial activities against drug-resistant micro-organisms. p-Xylenol was methylated to give 2, 5-dimethyl Anisole which was converted to 2, 5-dimethyl-4-methoxylbenzenesulphonyl chloride in the presence of chlorosulphonic acid. The compound was reduced to 2, 5-dimethyl-4-methoxylbenzene thiol using zinc and concentrated sulphuric acid. Benzoyl chloride was coupled with the thiol to produce 2, 5-dimethyl-4-methoxylbenzenebenzoyl sulphide. Reaction of 2, 5-dimethyl-4-methoxylbenzene thiol with monochloroacetic acid afforded 2, 5-dimethyl-4-methoxylbenzenethioacetic acid. The thiol was also coupled with acetyl chloride to give 2, 5-dimethyl-4-methoxylbenzeneacetyl chloride. The synthesized compounds were characterized by FTIR and NMR. The screening of the synthesized compounds for antibacterial and antifungal activities showed that the compounds possess antimicrobial properties.


ABSTRACT: Although the establishment of MUVUMBA irrigation was in an endeavor to improve the welfare of the people it remains a pressing issue as economic and social problems continue to affect plot holders which results in the scheme being undermined. The purpose of this research is to identify the effect of irrigation schemes on rice production more specifically the MUVUMBA Irrigation Scheme. Both quantitative and qualitative methodologies were used in the investigation of the effect of the scheme on rice production. A sample of 63 respondents out of a total of one thousand plot holders was selected using random sampling. Data was collected using questionnaires and interviews. Analyses were done using descriptive statistics. Tables were employed in presentation and analysis. The results also revealed a big difference in technical efficiency among farmers with the most inefficient farmer at 21% and the most efficient recording 98%. The study examined that there some problems farmers faced like securing capital to buy inputs such as seeds, fertilizers and chemicals. Results were that the irrigation scheme has managed to create employment, income generation and supply water throughout the year. For irrigation farming for rice production to be sustainable there is need for intervention by interested stakeholders such as community based organizations and co-operatives. Economic recovery programs such as farm mechanization are also essential to address the current deteriorating outputs. The responsible authority should ensure that there are good roads and cheap transport that take the crops to different market places for the sustainability of MUVUMBA irrigation scheme. Extension service can also be used to popularize most efficient production methods by sharing information, knowledge and skill to the farmers to increase rice productivity per hectare.

Characterization of Silica-Chitosan as adsorbent and Adsorption Efficiency to Removal Cadmium []

Abstract: The removal of heavy metals from the environment is of special concern due to their persistence. In this study explain the ability of adsorbent to attracted Cd +2 and the adsorption capacity depends strongly on ratio of adsorbent and concentration of Cadmium ion in the solution. CEC of adsorbent was explain the greater value of Chitosan in adsorbent indicate to the largest of active group on adsorbent. It was also found that the Langmuir equation described very well the experimental adsorption data for metallic ion.

Injury surveillance in paediatric emergency department (Mini review and Case study) []

Injury Surveillance Systems involves the establishment of ongoing, systematic collection and analysis of data relevant to injury prevention and trauma management and have a critical role in the effective control of the injuries (1). Injury surveillance may be active or passive .2 In active surveillance, injury cases are sought out and investigated such as cases of child abuse. In passive surveillance, relevant information is collected in the course of doing other routine tasks. Data for Injury surveillance may come from a variety of sources such as police, doctors, nurses or paramedics.

A Case Study Analysis on the Participation of Women in Workforce in Bangladesh []

Female employment plays an essential role in economic development of a country. Involvement of women in workforce helps not only the economic progress of a country but also other social sectors to develop. In compare to last decades though the rate of women employment has increased in Bangladesh but it is still very low in compare to global progress. It is urgently needed to increase female employment rate of Bangladesh for a sustainable development. We collected our data using stratified random sampling method where we interviewed fifteen women, some of them are job holders and others are unemployed. They are also categorized as married, unmarried and divorced. In our study, we analyzed the socio economic condition of women aged between 24 to 30. We find that women are facing many problems in choosing career as well as in their working places. Improvement is needed in the social norms and environment that often act as barriers to women’s employment.

Assessing the Effectiveness of Public Policies in the Oil and Gas Industry for Environmental Protection in Abia State, Nigeria. []

Public policies are important instruments in the society. They are often used to identify and resolve problems and challenges in the society. Public policies can be effective – when they achieve the objectives for which they were formulated in a cost-effective manner, serve the interests of all stakeholders fairly and justly and support government actions as well as encourage good conduct from the entire citizenry. They are ineffective when they are unable to perform these functions. The Nigerian oil and gas industry is replete with public policies. These policies whose main objective, among others, is the prevention of environmental degradation especially in the oil-bearing communities include: the Associated Gas Reinjection Act, 1979; Environmental Impact Assessment Act, 1992; the Environmental Guidelines and Standards for the Petroleum Industry (EGASPIN) Act, 2002, and others. Despite the multiplicity and existence of these policies however, oil spillage and gas flaring – the main culprits in respect of the despoliation of the environment – resulting from oil exploration and production operations, still take place. The objective of this study therefore, is the assessment of the effectiveness of public policies in the oil and gas industry in Nigeria for the protection of the environment and human health. The survey method was used to gather, through the use of a questionnaire, the primary data analyzed; and, the Multiple Regression Technique was used to test the hypotheses formulated to guide the study. The findings include the confirmation that the development and existence of public policies in the Nigerian oil industry in Nigeria have significantly impacted environmental protection in the country through the steady and persistent decline in the volume and intensity of gas flared in the country; increased awareness by the oil-bearing communities of what their rights are under the law and have provided a legal basis for seeking redress in situations of real or perceived injustice, among others. However, the rate of this decline is identified to be slow. Moreover, oil spill incidents are still frequent.


The purpose of this research is to examine the nature of the relationship between political appointees and career officers. Primary and Secondary sources of data were used. The research reveals that the relationship between political appointees and career officers, at local government level is conflictual than cooperations. The researcher recommended that the constitution of Nigeria must be made to recognize and stipulates specific functions to the various unit in the local government. Keywords: Political appointees, Career officers, Public Policy


Construction Project refers to a high stake endeavor aiming at time bound predetermined performance objective. Unless matching resources are planned and procured, no activity can be executed according to a prefixed time schedule. Project managers must take complex decisions under different scheduling needs (such as smooth resource utilization profiles and resource constraints) and under conditions of uncertainty that sometimes extend beyond task durations. The present study deals with resource scheduling for a fast track project with constrained durations. The study has been carried out in two phases. In the first phase, with the aid of PRIMAVERA software project schedule for various activities for the construction of a commercial building was prepared. Subsequently, requirements of resources were attributed to the activities based on Standard Schedule Rates (CPWD). The requisite data has been collected from the detailed drawings and prevailing site conditions. In the second phase, a Resource Constrained Analysis was carried out by Resource Leveling for various activities by decreasing resources with increased duration to study the time-cost implications.

An Experimental Study of the Waste Heat Recovery for the Absorption Type Transport Airconditioning System []

Abstract− This paper deals with the study of heat exchange between the exhaust manifold and refrigerant for the absorption refrigeration system. This type of heat exchanger is called the Absorption Type Transport Airconditioning System(ATTAS) The exhaust gas from the internal combustion engines is used to heat the refrigerant in order to create a temperature difference needed for the cooling of circulated air inside the passenger bus compartment. The ATTAS collects the combustion gases from the internal combustion engine’s exhaust manifold and boils the refrigerants composed primarily water. This study also deals with the effectiveness of the exhaust gas heat exchanger in collecting the heat from the combustion chamber of the internal combustion engine and used it to vaporize the molecules of the refrigerant contained in the heat exchanger. The application of the ATTAS heat exchanger significantly changed the engine exhaust temperature and amount of gas emission. The exhaust gas temperature from the bus engines without ATTAS and without load is 108 oC and with the attachment of the ATTAS heat exchanger without load, the exhaust gas temperature is 88 oC or with an average of exhaust gas temperature reduction of 20.0 oC. The exhaust gas temperature from the bus engines without ATTAS and with load is 127.1 oC and with the attachment of the ATTAS heat exchanger with load, the exhaust gas temperature is 105 5 oC or with an average exhaust gas temperature reduction of 21.6 oC. The composition of the exhaust gases was greatly affected by the installation of ATTAS heat exchanger to the bus engine. With the attachment of the ATTAS heat exchanger, the amount of carbon monoxide increases from 191.9 ppm to 225.7 ppm, the amount of oxygen increases from 16.41 % to 17.8 % while the amount of NOx decreases from 96.4 ppm to 80.4 ppm. Index Terms− absorption refrigeration system, gas emissions, lithium bromide, waste heat recovery


In Nigeria, the drive to boost food security and to fight off insect pests and diseases with other yield limiting factors is gradually introducing unhealthy production risks in agriculture. A cursory survey of the various indigenous farming systems and practices were carried out using a random sampling method of the thirteen local government areas of the state. The popular farming system comprise of Mixed Cropping/Intercropping or combination of crops in mixed cultivation with the dominance of root crops like cassava, yam and cocoyam then maize and vegetables in cycles of land rotations. Traditional farm practices adopted in Ebonyi State include the use of organic matter soil amendment, fallowing, use of simple farm tools, raising of large and high heaps of soil mounds, bush burning, legume cropping etc. The common feature of this system is the production of several species and varieties of crop plants in spatio-temporal discontinuity thus creating natural biological cycles and control with regard to host-pathogen interactions. This system of farming and practices are adjudged sustainable being cheap, efficient, providing high degree of stable and reliable yields. Adequate evaluation and research into this indigenous knowledge of agricultural production in Ebonyi State is therefore recommended so as to be incorporated into modern agriculture.

Epidemiological Profiles And Complications Of Hysterectomies At The General Hospital Of Yaoundé And The Gyneco-Obstetric And Pediatric Hospital Of Yaoundé/Cameroon []

Hysterectomy is the surgical removal of the uterus. It may be total or partial. It may also involve the removal of the cervix, ovaries, fallopian tubes and other surrounding structures. With the aim to study the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic aspects of patients that underwent hysterectomy at the general hospital and gyneco-obstetric and pediatric hospital of Yaoundé (GHY and GOPHY), we carried out a descriptive retrospective study of 8 years going from January 2010 to January 2018. Collected data were analyzed with the software Sphinx V5 and Microsoft office 2016. We recorded 382 cases of hysterectomy out of 8 511 surgical interventions giving an overall frequency of 4.49%. The most represented age group was that of [41-50] years with 40.6% and the mean age of the sample was 46.39 years with extremes at 18 years and 83 years. The indications for hysterectomy was dominated by polymyomatous uterus followed by uterine cervix cancer with respectively 47.90% and 11.30%. The rate of abdominal hysterectomy dominated with 94%. Total hysterectomy was the case of 73.3% of the surgeries. Perioperative complications was dominated by bleedings in 19.90% of the cases. The rate of mortality was of the order of 0.8%. Key words: hysterectomy, epidemiology, GHY, GOPHY

Evaluation of the rate of surgical site infection after the implementation of the use of hydro alcoholic solution at the regional hospital of Ngaoundéré []

Surgical site infection (SSI), defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is an infection related to an operative procedure that occurs at or near the surgical incision within 30 days of the procedure, or within 90 days if prosthetic material is implanted at surgery. SSIs occur in 2% to 4% of all patients undergoing surgical procedures. SSIs significantly remain major causes of morbidity and mortality after surgery even though most infections are treatable by antibiotics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the rate of SSI after the implementation of the use of hydro alcoholic solution (HAS) at the regional hospital of Ngaoundéré (RHN). As such a descriptive prospective study going from July 9th 2018 to November 30th 2018, either a period of six (06) month was carried out. The study included all patients who underwent surgery at the regional hospital of Ngaoundéré within study period, and obtained results from data analysis was made possible by the means of software Sphinx V5 and Microsoft office 2013. Within study period, 214 surgeries were carried out amongst which 21 cases of SSIs recorded, either a rate of 9.8%. This design study with a relevant 9.8% rate of surgical site infection is greatly lower than that observed in 2014 in the same hospital whereby the rate of SSIs was of the order 30.7%. Hence, we observe a difference of 20.9% amelioration of the rate of SSI. This study therefore shows the importance of the use of HAS contribution in the reduction of SSI at the RHN. Key words: SSI, HAS, RHN

Regenerative change of Bone Marrow Hematopoietic Stem Cell (BMHSCs) on Secondary Leukemia and Lung Injury Induced as Adverse Chemotherapeutic (etoposide) Drug in Albino Rats []

Abstract Background: Although secondary myelodysplasia leukemias was observed after some chemotherapy but the treatment of these malignancies is unclear. Thus, this study was examined clinical and pathological features to evaluate the regenerative effect of transplanted bone marrow-derived hematopoietic stem cells (BMHSCS) on the adverse effect of etoposide which induced impairment of bone marrow function, and secondary leukemia induction, in albino rats. Methods: Two groups of albino rats were established. Group 1 was used as control group. Group 2, all rats were injected intraperitoneally with three consecutive doses of etoposide (0.15ml/ rat), then divided into (subgp A), which was sacrificed at 3th, 6th day from the beginning of experiment and (subgp B) which was injected intravenously, with one dose of labeled BMHSCs (0.5x106 cells /rat), at the 6th day from the beginning of experiment, and sacrificed at 1st, 5th, 10th and 13th day post-treatment. Results: All rats received chemotherapeutic drug (etoposite) in subgroup A showed pancytopenia with severe leukemia, interstitial pneumonia and death. However, The Bone Marrow hematopoietic stem cell (BMHSCs) treated group (subgroup B) elucidated overall survival in all leukemic animals (induced by etoposide chemotherapeutic drug), with hypercellularity in bone marrow, and reversible in lung tissues. Conclusions: It could be concluded that etoposide demonstrated immune suppression with myeloid leukemia, complicated with secondary lung injury. However, after the transplantation of BMHSCS, significant repairing of bone marrow and lung tissues was observed.

Empirical Determination Of The Severity Of Vibration Sources In Bridges Using A Distributed Fiber Optic Sensing Technique []

The transient nature of force induced in bridges during vehicular motion requires dynamic analyses of the spectrum of a sensed vibration signal to fully characterize their behavior. This dynamic interaction between the vehicle and bridge induces a vibration in the bridge and this degree of vibrations in the bridge can be sensed using an optical fiber while the spectrum of the vibrations is measured using an Optical Time Domain Reflectometer(OTDR). The OTDR trace shows the various degrees of attenuations across the optical fiber cable. Useful information such as the location of vibration, the severity of vibration, vibration frequency and the vibration modes can be successfully modeled from the recorded OTDR traces. This work focused on measurements and analysis of loss associated with vibration and hence a statistical determination of the vibration severity concerning the dynamic interaction time between the optical fiber and the traversing vehicle as captured on a time series video clip.

This case demonstrates the risk inherent in cross-border real Estate Investment: The USA Experience []

Tina and Tommy were somewhere between confused and angry. It seems the check they were about to receive was much smaller than anticipated. But why and by how much they still didn’t really understand. Tina and Tommy (T&T) considered themselves pretty savvy real estate investors. They owned a custom home near Patagonia, Arizona that Tim, a retired homebuilder, had designed. His wife Tammy was a real estate broker in Tucson where they also owned a home. Given their backgrounds and past real estate investments, they were stymied as to how this deal had seemed to go so wrong. Ten years ago T&T purchased two beachfront condominiums in a Mexican resort Community. Since they purchased while still in the design/build phase they were able to secure the condos at a greatly reduced price of 150,000 US$ for each unit which was well below the price at completion. One condo was for their personal use (unit 1) while the other (unit 2) was purchased as a vacation rental.

The influence of institutional factors in access to healthcare in Kenya: A case of Nairobi County, Kenya. []

Abstract Objective This study examines the influence of institutional factors on access to public healthcare in Kenya, a case for Nairobi County. It focused on the influences of health policies, leadership and governance, health infrastructure, health facilities, health workers, health finances and health insurance. The objective of the study is to evaluate the influence of institutional variables in access of public healthcare. Method The study used data from a sample of 1066 households purposively selected from Nairobi County. All households were aged 15 years and above. The households were subjected to interviews that covered a wide range of topics. Descriptive design was chosen for the study. The study adopted multiple sampling methods for the study. These included purposive sampling, systematic sampling, snowball sampling and multi stage cluster sampling frame. The data was collected using various techniques or instruments which included observation, key informant interviews, questionnaires, in-depth interviews, and focus-group discussions. The data was processed using descriptive statistics. Correlation and regression analyses were used to correlate and interpret the data of the study. Results The findings show that access to healthcare is inadequate and unevenly distributed among the households in Nairobi County. The factors attributed to these inequalities were inadequate and poorly implemented health policies, inadequate health facilities, and inadequate health workers, shortage of essential drugs, low level funding and poorly managed health insurance. Multivariate analysis shows the linear relationships between the variables. The relationship is mutually inclusive and highly correlated. The relationship has 2-tailed significance and it is significant at the 0.01 level. This is less than 0.05 significant level used in most research (0.01 <0.05). This correlation rejects the null hypothesis and accepts the alternate hypothesis. Pearson Product Moment correlation was used to show this statistical relationship. The results are important and are not by chance or due to chance. The independent variable has significant influence on access to healthcare. This study argues that these institutional factors should be made adequate, accessible and quality improved. The focus should be on the lower social classes, who are deprived, and denied capabilities to access healthcare. Key words: Access, inequality, health inequality and socio-economic inequalities


Voting plays important role in democracy of any country. It gives chance to the citizens to select their leader so it must be transparent. Over the years manual voting system replaced by the E-voting to ensure the security and transparency. Electronic voting process reduces human error in calculation of votes and identification of the authenticated user. E-voting involves less human interface which makes the system error free. Many techniques are come into scene over the years to ease the process of authentication of the user and to cast the vote in more transparent way. The E-voting background, definition, features, functionalities, strengths and topology are surveyed in this paper.

Use of Ginger on Edible Coating Caragency-Based to Extend The Shelf Life of Tilapia Meatballs []

This research aims to determine the effectiveness of ginger in edible coating to extend the shelf life of tilapia meatballs. The parameters observed were chemical characteristics (pH) and biological characteristics (total numbers of bacteria). The method that used in this research is an experimental method consisting of 4 treatments, these are without given edible coating and without the addition of ginger, given edible coating and adding ginger with concentrations of ginger are 0,5%, 1%, and 1,5%. This research was conducted in January 2019 at the Fisheries Product Processing Laboratory of the Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Padjadjaran University. The results showed that the used of edible coating on tilapia meatballs had an effect on the shelf life of tilapia meatballs seen from the number of microbes during the storage period. The addition of ginger has the best influence on the shelf life of tilapia meatballs according to SNI 7388-2009, namely at a concentration of 1% with a reception limit up to 12 days and a microbial amount of 6,5 x 106 cfu/g.


This research is aimed to analyze the factors which affect the export number of Guppy fish in Bekasi and any other related factors which also significantly influence the increase of export volume in Bekasi. This research was conducted from August to September 2018 in Bekasi. The research method used in this research is a case study method. The unit case in this research is the decorative fish producers who sell their products locally or internationally. The case study aims to reveal a more detailed description of the background character as well as a particular case and the status of an individual. The subjects of the research are the producers who sell Guppy fish locally or internationally. The data types are classified into qualitative data and quantitative data. One of the data types used in this study is quantitative data, which is the data measured on a numerical scale (numbers). Moreover, in this research, the quantitative data are collected through literature studies such as books, research journals, and data sources published by certain agencies. The result of the research reveals that significant factors could affect the export number of Guppy fish in Bekasi. Keywords: Bekasi , Export, Guppy fish