Volume 8, Issue 2, February 2020 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Financial inclusion refers to the ability of individuals/organizations to access financial products and services in order to meet their financial needs including saving, transacting, receiving credit and insurance. Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) which unarguably play an important role in any emerging economy have limitations in access to finance which is important for the growth of SMEs. However, as widely accepted, SMEs have struggled with a number of growth barriers – one of the most commonly cited is the inability to successfully access to formal credits. This paper explores the challenges faced by SMEs in obtaining funding from formal financial institutions and the actions taken by Governments worldwide to facilitate SMEs access to credit. A special attention was made to Sri Lanka as an emerging market in accessing the contribution to economic development explaining the practices. Further, it is envisaged by this paper to make suggestions based on the review, on remedial measures to improve SMEs access to funding from the formal financial institutions in Sri Lanka. The outcomes of the study show that small and medium enterprises do face considerable challenges when accessing credit from formal financial institutions. The investigation also determines that financial institutions consider the SME sector as an unreliable/risky industry thereby offering them credit facilities at a premium in contrast to discounted rates offered to the larger corporations thus driving up the costs of SMEs. Further, a case is made for the intervention of the state in a regulatory capacity as well as an independent umpire in the lending market, thereby improving the credit ratings of the SMEs allowing them access to formal lending institutions. The paper concludes that there are barriers for SMEs in accessing financing from formal financial institutions which had led to their stunted growth which in turn impacts the economy at large. Remedial action is necessary and should address the information asymmetry problem and the related stigma of SMEs being unreliable borrowers as well as improve the regulatory framework to include non-traditional approaches to granting credit facilities to SMEs.


Language is a code by which ideas about the world are represented by a conservative system of signals for communication. A child must be aware of certain rules and regulations that describes how language is used for the purpose of communication. Syntax is the grammatical rules used in determining acceptable sequencing, combining and functional use of words in a sentence. Tense marking is an important module of syntax. There are morphologically distinct tenses in language and this are labeled as past, present and future. According to Browns stages of language development tense development begin in stage 2 and continues well into the school age year. Most of the studies explains about the language performances among children with intellectual disability and hearing impairment. This helps to acquire knowledge about language development in children with intellectual disability and hearing impairment. Mary, Byene and Margarat(1977) indicated that children with learning disability and normal population achieved control of future, present, past tenses. In Indian setup there are limited number of studies in grammatical aspects of language and the present study focuses on tense markers in Malayalam speaking children with intellectual disability and hearing impairment. The present study uses quantitative methods to gather data primarily in the form of spoken language. Data sources are observations and interviews with participants. Entire section was audio and video recorded. The samples were analyzed primarily focusing on tense markers. The present study revealed that the tense markers are affected in hearing impaired children when compared to the children with intellectual disability. Lack of data on language development in disorders like intellectual disability and hearing impairment lead us to establish data base which will in turn help SLP’s in providing a quality service, better assessment and rehabilitation for these disorders.


This study was conducted with the aim to determine the effectivity of avocado skin ethanol extract with 50% and 100% concentrations on histopathological image of middle ear mucosa infected by Staphylococcus aureus in white rats. Staphylococcus aureus are bacteria that can cause infection to the middle ear mucosa, or usually known as otitis media. This study used posttest only control group design. Effectivity was assessed using embedding technique, i.e. by dipping the tissue to paraffin liquid. The results were analyzed using Post-hoc Tukey HSD statistical test, where the results found significant difference between treatments. Avocado skin ethanol extract with 100% concentration was better, with PMN cell count of 40.25 per HPF, compared to avocado skin ethanol extract with 50% concentration with only 71 PMN cells per HPF, while treatment using ofloxacin antibiotic only found 22 PMN cells per HPF. The most effective concentration of avocado skin ethanol extract was 100%

Students centre and the concept of learning commons []

The students centre is an essential part of the university life as it presents the opportunities for socio-cultural activities providing facilities for recreation, interaction and relaxation on campus. It serves as the community centre of the campus providing a hub for students to meet, dine, read and play. This functionality has necessitated universities world-wide to develop responsive students centres to cater for the socio-cultural needs of its students. This paper seeks to adopt the concept of learning commons in providing a modern facility for Rivers State university that both meets the contemporary requirements of a student centre and is responsive to the information technology necessities of this generation of students. It was therefore revealed that student centre buildings have evolved from rigid structures that once showed the strength and history of the institutions to a more fun and flexible buildings dedicated to meeting the contemporary needs of the students of the institutions also reflecting the influence of technology information, in their functions, running and operations. The result is a facility with flexible spatial organisation, open continuous spaces, interior visibilities, widened circulation paths providing additional functional opportunities, furniture arrangement varied seating options that promotes interaction and socialisation.


This study sought to determine the effects of shaping technique on shyness among junior secondary school students in Benin Metropolis of Edo State. Two research questions and two null hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance guided the study. A Quasi-experimental design pre-test, post-test non randomized control group was adopted for the study. Purposive sampling technique was used in selecting the sample of 58 shy students out of a population of 327 identified shy students. All the two groups were pre-tested and post-tested using Shyness Personality Scale (SPS) designed by Akinade (2012) and it is a standardized instrument. Data collected for the study were analysed using mean and ANCOVA. Results obtained from the study indicated that shaping technique was effective in reducing shyness among junior secondary school students. Also shaping technique was effective in reducing female junior secondary school students’ shyness. The effect of shaping technique on shyness among junior secondary school students was significant. The researcher recommended among others that shaping technique be adopted as effective treatment strategy in helping students with shyness so as to enhance their performance both academically and socially. Keyword: Shyness, Shaping Technique, Junior secondary school students


Since 2012, the Teachers Service Commission (TSC), teachers’ evaluation policy changed from being confidential to an open appraisal system; whereby the teacher is also involved in the appraisal exercise. The specific objectives of the study were to: assess how teacher appraisal on service delivery influences pupils’ academic achievement in public primary schools in Bungoma North Sub County. The study would benefit the, academicians, policymakers and community members. Mixed method methodology approach and convergent triangulation design was adoptedwith a target population of 1267 respondents comprising of 3 Education Field Officers, 102 Head teachers and 1162 teachers from public primary schools in Bungoma North Sub-County. The study adopted a stratified random sampling technique and sample size of 297 determined using Krejcie& Morgan table (1970). The study used structured questionnaires and interview guides as the main tool of data collections. Reliability of the instrument was determined through a pilot study wheresplit-half technique was used in determining the reliability of the instrumentsThereafter, the correlation coefficient (r) was 0.78 was obtained from the instrument. Quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and presented in tables, inferential statistics was presented through coefficient correlation, while qualitative data was analyzed as per themes and sub themes and presented in narrative form. The study established that appraisal appraisal on teachers’ teaching and planning of materials influenced pupils’ academic achievement in public primary schools. It is therefore, concluded that pupils’ academic achievement in public primary schools improved pupils’ academic achievement in public primary schools.


INRODUCTION: A cochlear implant is a hearing device designed to restore hearing sensation in children and adults diagnosed as having severe to profound hearing impairment and who are observed to get limited benefit from hearing aids. Cochlear implants bypass the pass electrical pulses through an electrode array thus stimulating the auditory nerve to send signals to the brain.Electrodes are electrical connections which transmit the electrical impulses to the portion of the brain responsible for hearing (Wilson 2004). Electrical pulses are given to electrodes located at specified positions on an electrode array. Each electrode is placed in contact with a neuron which in turn stimulates the sound received with an appropriate frequency. An objective measure to check the integrity of the cochlear is the Neural Response Telemetry. Neural Response Telemetry is a non-invasive procedure which helps in estimating the telemetry thresholds. The NRT measurement gives the electrically evoked compound action potential recorded on various positions of the electrode array by delivering electrical pulses to the nerve cells. AIM AND OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate the neural response telemetry based on the type of electrode array used. METHODOLOGY Thirty children of 2 to 10 years of age undergoing rehabilitation in the centre following cochlear implantation surgery were included in the study. The participants had congenital severe to profound hearing loss bilaterally. Fifteen children each were implanted with straight electrode array and with perimodiolar electrode array. The neural response telemetry was obtained using the Custom sound software and the recording parameters. RESULTS Results indicated that ECAP recordings measured through neural response telemetry were statistically significantly lower in children with perimodiolar electrode array compared to those with the straight electrode array. SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION The insertion of the perimodiolar electrode array is deeper and positioned close to the modiolus whereas the straight electrode array is positioned close to the lateral wall hence the current levels required for stimulation to elicit electrically evoked compound action potentials were lesser than that required for the straight electrode array. Key words: Cochlear implant, Neural response telemetry, Straight array, pre modioular array, compound potentials

The Role of Organizational Identity in Improving Job Performance and Organizational Citizenship Behavior []

The purpose of our study is to examine the job insecurities of the employees which influence organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and job performance negatively. Job insecurities hit an individual psychologically due to which a person in unable to handle the situation. It also analyses that how organizational identity being a moderator eradicates the job insecurity. Data collection was taken from the Hospitals of Pakistan (Lahore). Doctors and nurses filled the questionnaires but our primary target was nurses as their duty is to take care of the patients. 210 questionnaires were filled and the response rate was 80.9%. This study is important in a way that the positive impact of OCB towards the patients by the nurses elevates the health positively. This research study has been divided into three phases, in the first phase the relationship between job insecurity and job performance was analyzed. This analysis depicted highly correlated and significant relation among Health Care Sector employees. Second phase deal with moderating role of organizational identity which depict surprising results. In hospitals, employee OCB to the Health Care Sector is not a process of organizational identity, other factors may have an impact which may be conducted for the future research. Furthermore, in the third phase it was investigated that whether organizational identity have a mediating influence with job insecurity, job performance and OCB or not. The result depicted that it strengthens their relation.

Role of Training Programs in enhancing Human Resources Performance: Evidence from Bahrain Civil Defense []

This research investigates the impact of training programs in enhancing employees’ performance; this study employs descriptive analytical method to determine correlations between investigated variables. A set of self-administered questionnaire with thirteen (13) items to measure employees’ performance as the dependent variable was developed. Meanwhile, the independent variables are training material, the duration of the training programs, and administrative and training supervision, were measured by using thirty two (32) items. The results of descriptive analyses revealed that the two variables are instrumental in enhancing the employees’ performance, and the mean score for the study dimensions are above average. In a series of simple regression analyses, this research found all variables have significant influence (R2) over employees’ performance or 29% for training materials, 34% for duration of training programs, and 36% for administrative and training supervision . Based on the above findings, this research provide some recommendations to increase training programs effectiveness. In addition, this research concludes that training program of Bahrain Civil Defense should be incorporated with modern and advanced methods of training delivery


The background of this research is related to the study of factors that also influence stock prices. Macroeconomic conditions and financial performance also had an impact on the stock prices of companies listed on the IDX including the price of shares in companies listed on the IB27 for the 2011-2018 period. Macroeconomic conditions can be represented by BI interest rates, inflation rates and the Rupiah exchange rate against the US Dollar. The company's internal factors are based on the performance of financial statements in the form of corporate financial ratios. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of the BI interest rate, the inflation value and the Rupiah exchange rate against the US Dollar, Return on Equity, Return on Investment, Debt Equity Ratio, Net Profit Margin and Price to Book Value on the company's stock price recorded at IB27 period 2011-2018. This type of research was quantitative using corelational method with cross sectional data. The population in this study was 27 companies incorporated in IB-27 for the 2011-2018 period. The research sample was taken from a number of companies in the population that had consistency throughout the study period. To complete the study it used multiple regression analysis technique using the T-test. This study concludes that for DER, ROE, NPM, PBV, Inflation Rate and BI Interest Rates, the hypothesis proposed in the study was rejected, because they had no significant positive effect on the share price of listed companies listed by IB-27. However, only the ROI variable and the Rupiah / US Dollar Exchange Rate had a significant positive effect on the share prices of companies listed by IB-27.


This research examines the effect of good corporate governance on company value through financial performance as an intervening variable on BUMN companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange. Good corporate governance is measured by variables of institutional ownership (X1) and independent commissioners (X2), financial performance is measured by Re-turn on Assets (Y1) and company value is measured by Price Book to Value (Y2). To implement the objectives of this re-search, analysis techniques are using path analysis with annual financial statement data for each company for the 2012-2018 period. The results show that Good Corporate Governance with a proxy by institutional ownership and independent commissioners had a positive and significant effect on company value. Meanwhile, financial performance cannot mediate between good corporate governance variables and company value.


This study aimed to assess problems facing grade 11 students at Fitche Preparatory School in developing well-written essay in English. The specific objective of the study was toinvestigate challenges students faced in learning essay writing skills. The study was based on the process approach. A descriptive survey research design was adopted in this study. The target population was grade 11 students at Fitche Preparatory School. Simple random sampling technique was used in selecting the sample for the study. Thus, a sample of 60 students was used as the respondents of the study. Data were collected by the use of a questionnaire for the students. The findings of the study indicate that most teachers dominated in the classroom interaction. It was also reported that the teaching methods used were mainly teacher centered such as lecturing and question and answer. However, group work andpair work which have been proven to enhance essay writing skills among other methods were the least used. The results further revealed that major challenges students faced in learning essay writing skills include: incorrect use of grammar, first language interference, limited vocabulary and inadequate teaching and learning resources.Recommendations based on the study were made to enable curriculum developers, policy makers and teachers to address the challenges students faced in the learning essay writing skills through process writing approach. Keywords: writing problems, essay writing, process writing approach


As Chekering and Gamson(1987) cited in Bonewell’s (2000) articulated that learning is not a spectator sport. Students do not learn much just by sitting in class, listening to teachers, memorizing prepackagedassignments and spitting out answers. They must talk about what they are learning, write about it, relate it to past experiences, and apply it to their daily lives. They must make what they learn part of themselves.This study focused on assessing grade seven EFL (English as a foreign language) students’attitudes towards cooperative learning (CL) in learning writing skills at Muketuri Primary School, Ethiopia. The researcher selected 6 research participants (2 high, 2 average and 2 low achievers) out of 43 students based on their first semester results. Moreover, the selection was based on Sidhu’s (1984) ideas. Sidhu elucidated that students are similar in many aspects and, therefore, a study on some of them could throw significant light upon all students. The data for the study were gatheredthrough focus group interview. The results of the study showed that the students who were interviewed understood the benefits of using CLduring oral group lessons though they had poor background knowledge of English. The students frequently used their mother tongues rather than English during the focus group interview.The summary of the findings indicated that the oral group lessons in the students’ English textbook should be taught through CL though there were some problems mentioned above. Key terms: Cooperative Learning, Oral Group Lessons, Focus Group Interview, Perceptions, EFL (English as a Foreign Language)

Numerical Investigation of Reinforced Concrete Columns with Transverse Holes []

It is not uncommon to provide traverse openings in reinforced concrete (RC) columns for various reasons. The presence of a hole in a reinforced concrete column will disrupt the stress distribution leading it to splitting and failure at an early life. The aim of this study is to numerically investigate the behavior of reinforced concrete columns with transverse holes and also evaluate means of strengthening to restore or increase performance losses due to presence of holes. A nonlinear finite element analysis (NLFEA) using ANSYS software program was used for validation analysis of full-scale experimental result reported in literature and further perform parametric study on opening size, shape, single vs multiple, horizontal and vertical positions. Also, strengthening options namely CFRP Jacketing, Steel Casing and their combination are investigated to restore or enhance capacity of RC column with opening cutouts. The results of the finite element analysis were compared with analytical methods. The impact of a hole with a diameter less than or equal to a third of the width of the column was linearly estimated. It was further observed that a square shaped hole results in 5.69% additional capacity reduction as compared to circular shaped opening whereas horizontal opening position has more influence in load carrying capacity than vertical. CFRP jacketing with a steel casing inside the hole was found to be the most significant strengthening method. Keywords: Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis (NLFEA), transverse holes, columns with holes, CFRP jacketing.

Effect of Bioprocess on Amino Acid Profile and Mineral Extractability of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranean (L) Verdc.) Flour []

The effect of microbial fermentation on amino acid composition and extractability of minerals in Bambara groundnut flour was studied. The bioprocessed flour was produced using submerged fermentation with bacterial strains of Lactobacillus plantarum [NRRL B-4306] and Lactobacillus fermentum [NRRL B-1932] obtained from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Analysis of amino acid composition observed a slight increase in all the amino acids while glutamic acid (17.20 - 19.50 mg/100 g), aspartic acid (5.62 - 6.80 mg/100 g) and leucine (7.00 - 8.00 mg/100 g) are the most abundant for non-inoculated and inoculated samples respectively. When compared, the bioprocessed sample was found to meet the WHO/FAO daily dietary recommendation. Calcium content of flour from non-inoculated nuts was 220.30 mg/100 g which decreased to 198.80 mg/100 g after fermentation. HCl-extractability of calcium in non-inoculated sample was found to be 80.50%. Extractable calcium level, after bioprocess significantly increased to 89.90%. HCl-extractability of all other major minerals followed a trend similar to that obtained for calcium. The treatment also significantly increased HCl-extractability of iron (p ˂ 0.05) from the control value of 65.28% to 75.80%. HCl-extractability of all other trace minerals followed a trend similar to that obtained for iron. The study suggests that microbial fermentation may offer a simple means to improve the nutritional pattern of this crop, hence, optimize its utilization.

Microbiological and Shelf Stability Studies of Fermented Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranean (L) Verdc.) Flour []

Microbial load of Bambara groundnut after cooking prior to fermentation, the fermenting medium of 24, 48 and 72 hours of the fermentation period and the fermented flour was determined to ascertain the microbial succession during bioprocessing. The analysis indicates that the raw material after thermal treatment had no microbial growth while the steep water after 72 hours of fermentation ranged from 1.2x103 to 3.8x103, 2.9x103 to 4.8x103 and 1.0x103 to no-growth for bacterial, viable cell and mold counts, respectively. Real-time storage was used to determine the effect of fermentation on the shelf stability of the bioprocessed flour during storage period of 360 days and analyzed for fat, protein, fiber and ash; as well as for colonies of molds, insect infestation and physical changes at intervals of 60 days. At 360 days, fat increased from 4.18 to 7.22% and protein decreased from 22.18 to 19.70%, while fiber and ash was unaffected when compared to initial content. Mold count ranged from 1.34x103 to 1.63x103 and no-growth to 0.38x103 for raw and bioprocessed samples respectively. No presence of insects or their eggs was observed. Parameters such as hand feel and color observation was employed to determine for physical changes and no color change occurred in both samples. However, the raw sample showed slight formation of lumps at 150 days of storage and this became more evident at the end of the study period; thus no such changes was observed in the bioprocessed sample.

Antimycotic Efficacy of Aqueous Extract from Xylopia aethiopica Against Some Zoophilic Dermatophytes []

Xylopia aethiopica is an aromatic plant popularly used as spice. Its phytochemical constituents were determined and the results observed pharmaceutical constituents such as phenolics (1.51 ± 0.06), flavonoids (0.44 ± 0.75), glycosides (0.42 ± 0.01), saponins (0.22 ± 1.00), tannins (0.62 ± 0.00), steroids (0.14 ± 0.35) and alkaloids (1.94 ± 0.02). Thus, agar-well and disc diffusion methods were used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of the aqueous extract from the plant against some zoophilic dermatophytes (Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis and Microsporum equinum) isolated from domestic pets and livestock. The isolates were exposed to different concentrations of the extracts and the control (Itraconazole). Among the isolates, T. mentagrophytes was most susceptible to the extract in all the used concentrations with maximum zone inhibition (3.5 mm) at 1.2 mg/mL for agar-well method; while M. canis at concentration of 1.2 mg/mL showed maximum inhibition with zone formation of 2.84 mm for disc diffusion method. There was no significant (p ˂ 0.05) difference in the results obtained for agar-well and disc diffusion methods and the inhibitory effects of the extract also compared favorably with the control (Itraconazole). Hence, the use of this plant extract in the treatment of these fungal infections in domestic pets and livestock will offer great hope to the rate of constant increase in antibiotic use and resistance observed in most pathogenic microbes.

Fungistatic Potential of Aqueous Extract from Xylopia aethiopica Against Aspergillus niger Isolated from Stored Onions (Allium cepa) []

Evaluation of fungistatic potential of extract from Xylopia aethiopica against Aspergillus niger isolated from stored onions (Allium cepa) was conducted. The phytochemical analysis of the plant material using hydrodistillation technique showed content of pharmaceutical constituents such as phenolics (1.51 ± 0.06), flavonoids (0.44 ± 0.75), glycosides (0.42 ± 0.01), saponins (0.22 ± 1.00), tannins (0.62 ± 0.00), steroids (0.14 ± 0.35) and alkaloids (1.94 ± 0.02). Using the radial growth technique, efficacy of the plant extract was tested against the mycelial growth of the isolate using quantities of 0.1 mL, 0.3 mL, 0.6 mL, 0.9 mL and 0.12 mL of the extract dried under anhydrous sodium sulphate. The analysis was observed for a period of 4 days which included the 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th day of the fungal incubation. An enhancement in antifungal activity against A. niger was observed with increase in concentration and maximum inhibition was observed at 0.12 mg/mL with clear zone of 4.6 mm at the 6th day when the control plate showed maximum mycelia growth. An inhibitive activity of 4.3 mm was also observed for 0.9 mg/mL and 3.6 mm at 0.1 mg/mL concentration for the 6th day of study. However, the concentrations used in the treatment showed significantly (p ˂ 0.05) clear zone of inhibition against Aspergillus niger. Hence, the result indicate that extract from X. aethiopica appear to be an effective alternative method of plant diseases control which are less harmful to human beings and environment.

Impact of green supply chain on management practices: case of manufacturing industries in pakistan []

A conceptual framework was created and the result of the investigation shows that the pressures manufacturing sector in Pakistan are facing are not exceptionally high. The results also indicate that they are facing more barriers in the adoption of GSCM than the pressures they are facing.

Geology and Geochemistry of Messondo Banded Iron Formation-Hosted Iron Ore from the Northwestern Congo craton, Southern Cameroon: Implication for Iron Ore Deposits []

Representative BIF samples from Messondo area in the Nyong unit, situated NW corner of the Congo Craton (Ntem complex) in southern Cameroon were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) method to investigate for the origin of iron formations. The Messondo area is made up of metamorphic rocks composed of biotite-gneisses, mylonitic gneisses, amphibolites and banded iron formations (BIFs). The mineral assemblages indicate that biotite-gneisses, mylonitic gneisses and banded iron formations have been metamorphosed under greenschist facies conditions, while amphibolites display a paragenesis of amphibolite facies. The chemical composition of BIFs shows Fe2O3 and SiO2 as the most dominant major elements and the two elements represent 96.7% of the total rock, while the others represent 3.3%, indicating the purity of the chemical precipitates. Trace elements show relative Mn and W enrichments and minor enrichments are observed for transition metals. They are depleted in high field strength elements (HFSE) and enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILE). The silica contents show that the studied iron formations fall into the group of silicate facies iron deposit, and Fe (26.84-40.50%) concentrations are closer to depleted iron ore (30-50% Fe). The Messondo iron formations are associated to gneisses and amphibolites and have the composition of Fe-sand. Their geochemical signatures indicate that crustal materials contributed insignificantly to the chemical precipitation of the studied iron formation. Messondo iron occurences derive from Precambrian rocks and these rocks were deposited in an oceanic island-arc margin. The Si/Al ratios suggest the hydrothermal origin and all the iron samples fall into the East Pacific Rise Hydrothermal Deposits (EPR) field near the zone defining metalliferous sediments field. The amplitude of the Ce anomaly (0.21 to 1.79) indicates Messondo iron formations into anoxic conditions, while the positive Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu* = 0.29–7.63) suggests that the sources of Fe and Si were derived from deep ocean hydrothermal activity admixing with seawater. The chemical composition of Messondo's iron deposit is closer to the one of Algoma BIF, Lake Superior BIF and Nigeria BIF.

A Hybrid Approach to Reduce the Limitations of Pure Flooding and Ran-dom Walk Method in Unstructured Peer to Peer Network. []

Peer to Peer (P2P) networks are gaining increased attention from the scientific community and the larger Internet user community. P2P networks have become a major research topic over the last few years. Efficient searching for information is an important goal in P2P networks. Searching in an unstructured P2P network is particularly challenging due to the random nature of the P2P overlay links. In this paper, we propose a Hybrid search mechanism that reduces the limitation the Pure flooding and Random walk method. Flooding is a fundamental file search operation in unstructured P2P file sharing systems, in which a peer starts the file search procedure by broadcasting a query to its neighbors, who continue to propagate it to their neighbors. Random walk has been widely used as a strategy for searching in P2P networks. The Hybrid search method that is fully distributed and bandwidth efficient. We compare it with the Pure flooding and Random walk method. Our survey shows that the Hybrid method achieves relatively high success rate, high response rate, and significant message reduction.


Biogas is an alternative energy that can be a substitute solution for energy fuel that is cheap and environmentally friendly. The composition of biogas is CH4, CO2, N2, H2, O2, and H2S. CH4 gas is the main element in biogas which has a high heating value. In addition to CH4 gas which is very much needed, there are also CO2 contents which actually disturb or damage. If this element is present in biogas, it will disrupt the combustion process itself. Therefore, efforts are needed to reduce CO2 levels which are expected to increase the quality of biogas. The study was conducted to reduce levels of CO2 in biogas by using coconut shell ash adsorbent. The method used in this study is pure research that is by taking into account the variation in the flow rate of biogas (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 lt / min) that passes through the adsorbent. Furthermore, purified biogas was obtained as many as 5 variations of biogas (AB2, AB4, AB6, AB8 and AB10). The research was continued by testing purified biogas in the performance of combustion engines with variations in engine speed 1500, 2500, 3500 and 4500 rpm. Purified biogas with various variations shows a significant effect on engine torque. While all variations of engine speed show an increase in torque. Biogas obtained from the purification process shows that the greater the rate of biogas purification, the greater the torque produced. So if the torque of an engine increases in magnitude, it will indirectly be followed by the effective power that occurs will increase as well. keywords : biogas, purification, coconut shell ash, adsorbent, speed, torque, effective power

A Study of Prospects of Non-Financial Incentives in Construction Projects in Anambra State, Nigeria []

Abstracts: A close look at the practice in Construction sites in Awka suggests poor deliberate application of non-financial incentives like job enlargement, job enrichment, job rotation, fringe benefits etc. All too often, craftsmen feel abused and undervalued by construction organizations that treat them as a transient tool on construction sites not minding that their productivity depends on their motivation. The study therefor assessed the prospects of non-financial incentives on craftsmen motivation in construction sites in Awka, Anambra state with a view to developing initiatives for enhancing their adoption. The study employed the use of questionnaire conducted on 40 construction sites focusing on 250 respondents within the study area. The data generated were analyzed using frequency, percentage and mean scores. The attendant benefit r prospects of adopting non-financial incentives is in its ability to enable craftsmen to get their work done easily as a result of the feeling of being valued and a resultant quality output from obtained and internalized training skills. The study, therefore, recommends that all construction sites should adopt recognition based incentive to achieve best quality work or boost their productivity, also government monitoring /regulatory bodies that visits construction sites based on site and government officials be assigned to sites to ensure there is a culture of non-financial incentives plans and workable/implemented motivational scheme non-financial incentives are utilized on all construction sites.


Unemployment is a worldwide observable fact with the economic and social effects. It is one of the challenges facing today’s world. It has a great impact on growth and development at large and it causes a waste of economic resources. The objective of the study was to investigate the long-run and short-run relationships between unemployment and its macroeconomic determinants from 1984/85-2018/19, which is external debt, inflation rate, foreign direct investment, population growth and real gross domestic product, as well as the short and long run direction causality between unemployment and macroeconomic variables. Subsequent to using the Augmented Dickey-Fuller to test for unit root, this study employed Auto Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach. Regression result suggest that external debt, inflation, foreign direct investment, population growth and real gross domestic product variables have together been important in explaining the long run unemployment rate. Except population growth these also persist in the short run. The significant and negative coefficient of error correction term indicates is the high speed of adjustment to achieve the long run equilibrium. Finally, the study suggests the government should increase the level of aggregate supply, economic growth along with job creation, create a conducive environment that entice many foreign direct investment and borrow only for productive purpose, consolidate the existing entrepreneurship activity with new entrepreneurial entrants so as to create more employment and absorb a large pool of unemployed population.

Assessment of the biodiversity of macroinvertebrates populating the Ghara source (plains of sais, Morocco) []

Macroinvertebrates of the source Ghara were studied using samples taken seasonally between October 2015 and August 2016. The fauna listed in this work is made up of 4005 individuals corresponding to 35 species belonging to 7 classes. The taxon of insects is the front while the other classes have low percentages not exceeding 8%. These classes are divided into 12 orders. The size of the benthic population has shown that mayflies are the the most representative. In terms of abundance, it is the species Baetis pavidus which holds the front followed respectively by the crustaceans Gammarus gauthieri and Gammarus marocanus. The remaining species are in the minority. The values of the specific diversity index H and the specific fairness index revealed that the specific diversity of macroinvertebrates populating this source is relatively low. The results obtained in this study highlight an alarming state of the ecological state of the source Ghara.


Industrialization in developing countries has led to an unavoidable increase in the production of waste materials in the construction sector and subsequent accumulation of uncontrollable waste. In this article, milledwaste brick tiles were studied as an admixture in concrete. We performed various levels of milledwaste brick tiles powder as admixture vary-ing from 0 to 20%, followed by some tests to examine the compressive strength of concrete. To achieve the aim of the study, waste brick tiles were milled into powder form and was used as admixture at different percentage levels (0%, to 20%) by weight of the cement.Portland Limestone Cement (PLC) of grade 42.5 was used in producing 150mm x 150mm x 150mm concrete cubes. River sand were used as fine aggregate and crushed stone as coarse aggregates of nominal size 14mm were used in this work. Potable mixing water was used throughout this study. The waste brick tile-sused for this study wassource from a construction site along Opolo-Elebele Road, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nige-ria.Sixty cubes of 150 mm × 150 mm × 150 mm were produced for this study, twelve were control (0%) and twelve cubes for each percentage addition (5%, 10%,15%, and 20%) of ground waste brick tiles powder. Cube samples were cured for7, 14, 21 and 28 days. The compressive strengths of the specimens were computed by dividing the maximum failure load attained during the test by the cross-sectional area of the specimen. The cubes were tested 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Study results showed that with the addition of waste brick tiles powder 5 to 20% gave noticeably greater compres-sive strength than 0%, (control specimens) at 28 days age except 5%. At 21 days, concrete cubes with 10 - 15% waste brick tiles powder addition gave average compressive strengths than the control strength. 5% waste brick tiles powder addition reduces the strength at 21days, while 5-15% waste Brick Tiles powder addition increases the strength at 7 and 14 days.Based on the study results, it is recommended that the waste brick tiles powder can be used as an admixture in concrete production of (10%, and 15%,) by weight of cement.