Volume 8, Issue 1, January 2020 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Behavioural Cultural Competence and Organizational Identification in Deposit Money Banks in Rivers and Bayelsa States in Nigeria []


This study examined the relationship between behavioural cultural competency and organizational identification in Deposit Money Banks in Rivers and Bayelsa States in Nigeria. The study adopted a cross-sectional survey design. The population of the study was 300 managers of 18 Deposit Money Banks Regional Offices in Port Harcourt. A sample size of 169 was determined using Krejcie and Morgan (1970) table for sample size determination. The reliability of the instrument was achieved using Cronbach Alpha Coefficient with all the items attaining coefficients surpassing the threshold of 0.70. The Spearman’s Rank Order Coefficient was used to test the bivariate hypotheses of the study at a 95% confidence interval and a 0.05 level of significance. The study findings revealed that there is a significant relationship between behavioural cultural competency and organizational identification and as such, influence outcomes such as oneness, loyalty and membership. The study thus recommends managers should be trained in the areas of recognizing and perceiving diversity-based issues in a way that adequately guides their decisions and judgements and allows them to interact and relate freely, without bias or stereotyping, with their co-workers and subordinates within the organization.


PRESIDENTIAL ELECTRONIC VOTING SYSTEM []


The focus on the discussion of the security requirements for a reliable electronic voting system and the requirements are implemented in several EVS.The Election that is carried out in democracy is the process that allows a citizen to vote government in power.This is the evolution of voting system which must be strengthened during election process.This implementation of electronic voting system is deferred from a traditional voting system.Electronic voting is very crucial as a tool of the electoral process which is efficient in order to increase trust in its management.E-voting is properly implemented to find solutions of increasing security of the election and make voting to be carried out in easy system.If it is not carefully planned and designed, e-voting can undermine the confidence in the whole electoral process.The presidential election process needs the functional and non-functional requirements.The functional requirements is designed and proposed to well-secured identification and authentication processes for the voter to use the combined simple biometrics.The design of the system guarantees the votes in favor of a given candidate.Due this election system, with the proper incorporation policy, will enhance transparency of voting.The phases of an election process can assure the voter to have his/her choice of candidate to be elected.Besides to that, the main the proposed system is designed to provide several essential non-functional requirements. Key words: security, cryptography.


An Analysis of Management Perception on Hotel Maintenance Practices: A Case Study of Taraba Hotel, Jalingo, Taraba State, Nigeria []


This study was carried out to assess how Taraba Hotel Management perceived the practice of hotel maintenance. Taraba Hotel is classified as a one star hotel located in Jalingo, the state capital. The hotel was established in 1992. Multi data collection method was used in the study including questionnaire, interview and observation. A total of 27 respondents were selected as the sample size for the study by stratifying them into segments of top, middle and junior staff, and then 50 percent respondents were selected from each segment. This resulted in 5 staff from top management (50% of 10), 9 staff from middle management (50% of 18) and 13 staff from junior rank staff (50% of 25). Random blindfold selection of names from folded papers was used to select each of the respondents from each segment. Result and findings from the study revealed that revealed that 29.6 percent of the staff perceived the concept to be very necessary, 51.9 percent believed that the concept and practice is not too necessary while 18.5 percent believed that the concept and practice was not necessary at all. It was concluded that the maintenance culture of the hotel based on their perception was generally poor and facilities were in bad condition due to lack of regular maintenance. The study recommended more proactive maintenance strategies for the hotel, like preventive and routine maintenance and a maintenance overhaul of current facilities in the hotel to prevent further breakdown.


An Assessment of Maintenance Challenges Facing Small Scale Hotels: A Case Study of Taraba Hotel, Jalingo, Taraba State, Nigeria []


This study was carried out to assess maintenance challenges facing Taraba Hotel; a one star rated hotel located in Jalingo, the state capital. The hotel was established in 1992. Multi methods of data collection was used in the study including questionnaire, interview and observation. A total of 27 respondents was selected as the sample size for the study by stratifying them into segments of top, middle and junior staff, then selecting 50 percent from each segment resulting in 5 staff from top management (50% of 10), 9 staff from middle management (50% of 18) and 13 staff from junior rank staff (50% of 25). Simple random blindfold selection method was used to select each of the respondents from each segment. Result and findings from the study revealed that poor management commitment and lack of finance were the major challenges to effective maintenance operation in the hotel. It was concluded that the maintenance culture of the hotel was generally poor and facilities were in bad condition due to lack of regular maintenance. The study recommended more proactive maintenance strategies for the hotel, like preventive and routine maintenance and a maintenance overhaul of current facilities in the hotel to prevent further breakdown.


An Analysis of Maintenance Management Culture and condition of Facilities of Taraba Hotel, Jalingo, Taraba State, Nigeria. []


This study was carried out to assess maintenance management culture and condition of facilities in Taraba Hotel. The hotel is classified as a one star hotel located in Jalingo, the state capital. The hotel was established in 1992. Multi data collection method was used in the study including questionnaire, interview and observation. A total of 27 respondents were selected as the sample size for the study by stratifying them into segments of top, middle and junior staff, and then 50 percent respondents were selected from each segment. This resulted in 5 staff from top management (50% of 10), 9 staff from middle management (50% of 18) and 13 staff from junior rank staff (50% of 25). Random blindfold selection of names from folded papers was used to select each of the respondents from each segment. Based on result from the study, it was concluded that the maintenance culture of the hotel was generally poor and facilities were in bad condition due to lack of regular maintenance. The study recommended more proactive maintenance strategies for the hotel, like preventive and routine maintenance and a maintenance overhaul of current facilities in the hotel to prevent further breakdown


EXPORT STRATEGIES OF TEXTILE PRODUCTS FOR SMEs UNDER COMESA & CFTA AGREEMENT []


Textile and Apparel manufacturing have been considered to be an important element in Egyptian economy. Considering the Marketing strategies widely used by composite apparel manufacturers in a form of direct marketing and relationship marketing. But its potential has not been incorporated in small and medium textile and apparel companies in Egypt. and also activate COMESA & CFTA agreement.This paper focuses on the development and formulation of effective marketing and export strategies for textile and apparel industry. There is also an important opportunity to grow manufacturing exports and make Egypt and Africa the world’s next great manufacturing center as industries shift away from China to lower-cost regions. President Sisi takes over as new head of African Union and directed to work to expand the circle of cooperation with fraternal African countries. The consequence of this study could be an important outline for small and medium apparel and textile companies in order to formulate and execute effective marketing strategies for fostering market growth.Case study method was used to collect qualitative data for this study. However, several unique strategies were identified and explained in favor of introducing a new platform for textile and apparel companies in Egypt. One of our main objectives is to position Egypt and Africa as a major source of supply for textile and Apparel and achievement the integration of textile and apparel supply chain.


MEAT AS FEEDS ON THE GROWTH AND SURVIVAL RATES AND BIOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF MUD CRAB (Scylla serrata) []


Mud crab is considered a new species in aquaculture, widespread interest in its culture is increasing due to rising market value of mud crabs. At present shrimp feeds and trash fish are currently used as feed stuff for mud crabs, however, their prices are continually rising. Finding low cost feed supplies has been identified as one of the key challenges facing the rapid growth of the mud crab farming sector in Asian countries. To identify alternative feed in the culture of mud crab (Scylla serrata), five diets were tested as follows: GAS meat, trash fish, shrimp feed, GAS meat + trash fish, GAS meat + shrimp feed. This study compared the effect of the five diets to the growth and survival rate, % biochemical compositions and economic viability of 75 pieces lean mud crabs fattened for 20 days. Mud crabs were stocked individually in plastic cases fitted in bamboo frames and installed in brackish water pond. Results showed that mean final weight, carapace length and width of mud crabs fed with GAS meat do not differ significantly (P>0.05) among other treatments. 100% survival rates were recorded on mud crabs fed with GAS meat, TrF and GAS meat + TrF. Protein content is highest in GAS+TrF – fed mud crabs. Cost- benefit analysis showed that GAS meat + TrF diet resulted to highest gain. In conclusion, golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) meat is a potential feed source for the mud crab diet as an alternative to trash fish and shrimp feed.


A Review - Communication Architectures and Routing Protocols of Flying Ad-hoc network []


With later Technical advance within the field of electronics, sensors and communication frameworks, the generation of small UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) got to be conceivable, which can be utilized for a few militaries, commercial and civilian applications. However, the capability of a single and little UAV is inadequate. Multiple-UAVs can make a framework that's past the limitations of a single UAV. A Flying Ad hoc Systems (FANETs) is such kind of arrange that comprises of a bunch of little UAVs connected in ad-hoc way, which are coordinates into a group to achieve high level objectives. Versatility, need of central control, self-organizing and ad-hoc nature between the UAVs are the main features of FANETs, which seem extend the network and extend the communication extend at infrastructure-less range. On one hand, in case of disastrous circumstances when ordinary communication framework isn't accessible, FANETs can be used to supply a quickly deployable, adaptable, self-configurable and moderately little working costs organize; the other hand connecting multiple UAVs in ad-hoc organize could be a huge challenge. This level of coordination requires a fitting communication architecture and routing protocols that can be set up on highly dynamic flying hubs in arrange to set up a solid and robust communication. The most commitment of this paper incorporate the introduction of reasonable communication engineering, and an overview of distinctive directing conventions for FANETs. The open research issues of existing routing protocols are too investigated in this paper.


Design and cost comparison of the Solid Slabs and Hollow Block Slabs []


This study describes a design comparison and costs between the Solid Slabs and Hollow Block Slabs for the roof of a three-story building. As for the subject of our study, it was the ground floor ceiling. We adopted the architectural maps of the building to be implemented in the fence the higher and middle institute of the comprehensive professions Bani Walid. And included a study of design and costs between Solid Slabs and Hollow Block Slabs and then the comparison between these two cases in order to obtain results preferably one of them economically, from which we can choose the best and most appropriate type between them and get the sequential results, and where a simple and quick presentation of the plan projection was made and then we moved to the analysis and design of slabs and beams in a way Construction and each model separately, and after that, we performed the calculation of the quantities and costs for each of the proposed slabs, which were represented by a slab of solid reinforced concrete and another slab of reinforced concrete using Hollow Block and the prices were taken from the market in the centre of Bani Walid in the year 2012.


BRIEF ANALYSIS OF HEALTH AND SAFETY REGULATIONS OF PAKISTAN []


In the United States,the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) was made to improve well being in the working environment. Managers are dependent upon OSHA site examinations and must fit in with a lot of far reaching rules and guidelines. Interestingly, in Pakistan, thorough and widespread security guidelines have not been innovated. Laborers are commonly untalented or semiskilled, inadequately paid, incidentally utilized, display low creation (efficiency) rates, and frequently relocate in a gathering starting with one spot then onto the next looking for work. Normally, workers are not prepared in safe work rehearses, and there will in general be an absence of the board promise to security programs and different well being methodology. In nations like Taiwan, the proprietor and the temporary worker are allocated joint obligation regarding claims coming about because of word related mishaps. A fundamental well being control framework, stressing the foundation of a security board of trustees and self investigation, has been created to control venture well being. The legislation in Pakistan is a continuation of the one which was formed decades ago. The paper has evaluated the present legislation being implemented in the country associated to Health safety and environment (HSE). Moreover, it has also given suggestions.


PREGNANT AND POSTNATAL MOTHERS COMPLIANCE LEVEL TO ‘WHO’ RECOMMENDATIONS ON MATERNAL HEALTH IN COMPREHENSIVE HEALTH CENTER, OKE-IYINMI, ADO-EKITI. []


Maternal health is the health of women during pregnancy, child birth and the postpartum period. Every day, approximately 800 women die from preventable causes related to pregnancy and childbirth and 99% of all maternal deaths occur in developing countries.The aim of this study was to assess the compliance level of pregnant and postnatal mothers to World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations on maternal health in Comprehensive Health Center Oke-Iyinmi, Ado-Ekiti. One hundred and ninety (190) participants were selected using purposive sampling technique. A semi-structured adapted questionnaire was used to assess health care seeking behavior of mothers. Data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results showed that majority (38.9%) of the participants was within the age range of 20-29 years, 63.2% were Christians and 70.0% were married. Findings also revealed that participants had poor health seeking behavior as only 27.4% visited the health centre more than three times, half of the participants delivered their babies at health facilities and 37.9% of the participants had postnatal visit of three times and above. Also, barriers affecting utilization of maternal health care services were identified in which majority mentioned financial constraints (71.6%) and poor road networks (63.2%). This study provides an objective data that clearly shows the wide gap between the level of health care and WHO recommended level of health care. It also revealed the low level of maternal health care seeking behavior. Efforts should be made by healthcare professionals to create awareness and educate people on the importance of maternal health care.


rare tumor of the parotid:mucinous cystadenoma about a case []


Background & objectives Cystadenoma is a rare benign epithelial tumor of the salivary glands characterized by a multicystic architecture; most often the surface epithelium lining papillary projections in cystic spaces and rarely it is mucinous type. Cystadenoma accounts for 2% of all salivary gland tumors.It believed that the salivary gland tumors are difficult to diagnose and interpret because they are varied patterns of presentation Methods man 24 years old patient who presented with swelling in the right parotid region for 3 months. Clinical examination found a nodular swelling of the right atrial region measuring approximately 1 cm in supero inferior and 5 cm anteroposteriorly; No lymphadenopathy was evident. The skin above the swelling appeared normal scanner revealed a cystic lesion measuring 4 × 3.5 cm and favored a pleomorphic adenoma Results Macroscopy: a parotidectomy piece measuring 4.5x4x2cm, at the section slice: a cystic formation of 3x3.5cm filled with thick mucus Microscopy: benign epithelial tumor proliferation arranged in multilocular cystic formation, the wall are fibrous and lined with an epithelium which emits small papillary projections, the cells are cylindrical high to small basal nuclei and cytoplasm abundant clear mucinous and sometimes of foamy appearance Conclusion Cystadenoma is a rare benign tumor of the salivary glands. Two histopathological variants are recognized by the WHO which are papillary cystadenoma and mucinous cystadenoma. About 45% of all cases of cystadenoma develop in the parotid; the majority of these tumors are localized in the small salivary glands, particularly in the lips and oral mucosa. Clinically, it is difficult to differentiate it from other benign tumors and the phenomenon of mucosal retention. The diagnosis is histological and requires extensive sampling or complete inclusion of the parotid to search for peri-neural invasion that make the differential diagnosis with a malignant tumor like cystadenocarcinoma


FLEXIBLE HOUSING; A SOLUTION TO HOUSING PROBLEMS IN NIGERIA []


FLEXIBLE HOUSING; A SOLUTION TO HOUSING PROBLEMS IN NIGERIA ABSTRACT A building must change and adapt, this is none negotiable. The trend has been that the residents of houses are deprived the right to modify their living environment. Housing in Nigeria has long been targeted at creating static entities that doesn’t allow for change. Beyond their design phase, buildings do not change except there is a need to resolve construction problems. The housing schemes thus far have concentrated on producing prototypes all around the country that completely suppresses individuality. In fact when there is a change in need of the occupants, the most common solution has been to move them to other housing units. The existing housing designs in Nigeria cannot adapt to societal changes and this causes management problems. Also, the end users of the buildings are not involved in the early design stage. Their preferences, their culture and their way of life aren’t considered at all. The end users are unknown during the process of decisions which leads to the production of dwellings. They are represented in an abstract way when design discussions go on. We stand to reason therefore that nothing reaches the designers from the end users in terms of information needed for effective designing. Since the land is so valuable in Nigeria, the architects pay most of his attention on the dimension of the units. They don’t give much attention to the relationship between human beings and his spatial environment. The room is merely a box for the occupant to fend for himself as good as he can. The substandard spatial quality not only causes physical discomfort, but also leads to psychological stress and family conflict. Therefore, the situation in which users have to adapt to their apartment has to change to the situation where an apartment has to adapt to the constantly changing needs of the users. The favoured solution is to allow conversion within the existing flat rather than a move to another apartment. Flexibility in both planning strategy and housing design is essential to adapt different needs and unpredictable future trends. The public housing design should become a more democratic process and architects should treat people being housed as clients and let them voice their opinions and become involved in the process of planning and design.. The economic condition of Nigeria is not in a desirable state. As its population increases its GDP reduces. Therefore, it should be that the nation would endeavor to cut cost at all cost. The cost of building new buildings in the future to meet with the future needs would be avoided if flexibility is at the back of the mind of the designers. Also, if the building envelope is to be tampered with at all, the cost will not have much negative effect on the nation’s economy. Also, the more money is saved, the more capital there is to provide more flexible houses so that housing can be available for all. Therefore this study explores the role of flexibility in housing, explaining the ‘how’ and the ‘why’ of flexible housing. It also discusses how flexibility grants the opportunity to the architect to produce creative options that will respond to changing demands of the users during occupancy both for the present and for the future. KEYWORDS: Flexible Housing, Solution, Housing, Problems.


Product Innovation and organizational Agility in the Banking Sector of Nigerian Economy []


This study examined the relationship between product innovation and organizational agility in the banking sector in Nigeria economy. The study adopted a cross sectional survey research design. 36 top and middle managers from 18 Deposit Money Banks formed the population of the study and the 36 respondents were the size of our sample. Pearson Product Moment Coefficient was used in testing the hypotheses at a 95% confidence interval and a 0.05 level of significance. The reliability of the research instruments with all the items attaining coefficients surpassing the threshold of 0.70with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20.0. The study findings revealed that there is a significant relationship between product innovation and organizational agility in the banking sector in Nigeria economy. Therefore, product innovation in the banking sector in Nigeria led to high sensing agility, decision agility and acting agility. The study recommends that there should be more emphasis on product innovation for the attainment of sensing agility in the pursuit of organizational agility.


Capacity Enhancement Outsourcing and Employee Commitment of the Oil and Gas Sector in Rivers State, Nigeria []


This study investigated capacity enhancement outsourcing and employee commitment of the oil and gas sector in Rivers State, Nigeria. The study adopted a cross sectional survey research design. The population of the study was 15,299 and a sample size of 377 was determined using the Krejcie and Morgan Sample Size Determination Table. Primary data was collected through structured questionnaire. The reliability of the instrument was achieved by the use of the Cronbach Alpha coefficient with all the items scoring above 0.70. The hypotheses were tested using the Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20.0. The tests were carried out at a 95% confidence interval and a 0.05 level of significance. Results of data analysis revealed that there is a significant relationship between capacity enhancement outsourcing and employee commitment of the oil and gas sector in Rivers State. Consequently, the study concluded that capacity enhancement showed significant associations with employee commitment of the oil and gas sector in Rivers State. The study recommends therefore that organizations should develop conducive environment as means of support for capacity enhancement outsourcing in order to create a sense of value to the employees and make them feel obligated to remain with the organization and that business strategy should include a well-develop organizational culture that is employee focused as this influences employee’s commitment in organization. When employees work in a cordial environment where everyone is seen as equal, they feel at home and should be properly carried along, especially in matters of decision making.


Procedural Justice and Employee Loyalty of Deposit Money Banks in Port Harcourt, Nigeria []


The study examined the relationship between procedural justice and employee loyalty of Deposit Money Banks in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The study adopted a cross-sectional survey research design. Primary data was collated using structured questionnaire. The population of the study was population of one thousand four hundred (1400) across the twenty one (21) Deposit Money Banks in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The reliability of the instrument was achieved by the use of the Cronbach Alpha Coefficient with all the items scoring above 0.70. The hypotheses were tested using the Spearman’s Rank Order Correlation Coefficient. The tests were carried out at a 95% confidence interval and a 0.05 level of significance. The result of the findings revealed that there is a significant relationship between procedural justice and employee loyalty of Deposit Money Banks in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The study thus concluded that procedural justice significantly influences employee loyalty of Deposit Money Banks in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The study thus recommends that Deposit Money Banks managers should first improve the procedural justice and hence increase overall levels of perceived justice by involving employees in the procedures used in making decisions and allocating rewards. Procedural justice can be fostered further through employee involvement which gives them a voice during a decision-making process, influence over the outcome or by adherence to fair process criteria.


ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME PLANTS EXTRACTS AGAINST MRSA []


Abstract This study is applied to determine the effectiveness of some plants extracts against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA by in vitro disc diffusion method to find potential antimicrobial effect of some plant of some plants that used and to cure infectious disease in herbal and traditional medicine in Saudi Arabia. MRSA is specific strain of Staphylococcus aureus, it causes the same diseases' symptoms seen in other staph infections, but the MRSA strain is resistant to treatment with commonly used antibiotics. krameriaceae (Khawajoawa) Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea tree oil), and Acacia nilotica (Garad), are plants, believed by herbalists to have antimicrobial effect. These plants have been tested in the present study to investigate their in vitro potential antimicrobial effects against MRSA. First the plants were extracted, the polar compounds of Rhatany krameriaceae was extracted with ethanol Show narrow inhibition zone of 19mm, the polar compounds of Acasia nilotica was extracted by distilled water Show inhibition zone of 24mm, The commercial product of tea tree oil extract use as non-polar compounds of Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea tree oil), show large inhibition zone 48mm, the extracts were tested by the filter paper disc method.


ACCOUNTING INFORMATION AND THE SURVIVAL OF SMALL SCALE BUSINESSES IN NIGERIA: THE NEXUS OF NECESSITY []


The importance of small businesses in employment creation and sustainable economic development of Nigeria has necessitated the need for empirical inquest into the nature of their financial challenges. In Nigeria, the management of these enterprises have been constrained by lack of accounting knowledge by the stakeholders. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the extent to which accounting information can be used to ameliorate the financial challenges of small business enterprises in Nigeria. A survey method of research was adopted. Structured questionnaire was administered on one hundred and fifty (150) small scale business owners carefully selected across Ondo State, Nigeria to elicit first-hand information from them. Chi-square statistical technique was used to test the validity of the result. The result reveals among others that the success of small scale enterprise in Nigeria depends largely but not limited to accounting information which most small scale enterprises lack due to ignorance. It also reveals that most small scale enterprises access to finance depends largely on the quality of accounting information which is determined by the accounting practices in place. The study is concluded by recommending that managers of small scale businesses should employ and utilise the services of professional accountants and that accountants should encourage small businesses owners to access their services by making their professional fees afforded to them.


Comparative Chemical Composition of Iru Fermented spontaneously and with Bacillus subtilis A2 as Starter Culture []


The effect of using Bacillus subtilis A2 as starter culture for iru production was examined by comparing the proximate and antinutritional composition with those fermented spontaneously and commercially available iru. The proximate composition result obtained for the spontaneously fermented iru using traditional method, iru fermented with Bacillus subtilis A2 and commercially produced iru respectively are as follows; protein (26.43, 29.21 and 27.62)%, fibre: (9.73, 8.97 and 9.46)%, ash (2.68, 2.50 and 2.52)%, moisture (10.22, 11.98 and 10.33)%, fat (14.06, 13.98 and 13.82)% and carbohydrate by difference (36.88, 33.36 and 36.25)%.The antinutrient result; oxalate (0.192, 0.184 and 0.196)g/100g, phytic acid (7.69, 6.47 and 6.99)g/100g, phytate (0.183, 0.176 and 0.186)g/100g, total phenol (0.61, 0.86 and 0.56)g/100g and trypsin inhibitor (48.92, 41.73 and 45.33)g/100g. It can therefore be concluded that Bacillus subtilis A2 has the potential to be used as starter culture for Iru fermentation since it hastens the process and it gives it an improved feature.


Dominant Strains of Microorganisms Involved in the Spontaneous Fermentation of Obiolor, a Nigerian Cereal Beverage []


The study was conducted to determine the microflora of obiolor beverage produced from the natural fermentation process of sorghum and millet. One hundred and fourty four microorganisms were isolated and characterized using phenotypic and biochemical methods. Results revealed that yeast count increased from 4.33±0.06 to 5.50±0.01 log cfu/ml from 6 h -24 h fermentation time. Growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was not observed at the 6th hour, however at the 18th and 24th hour LAB count ranged from 8.17±0.00 to 8.25±0.061 respectively. Population of aerobic mesophilc count was on the rise from 7.05±0.22 cfu∕ml to 8.23±0.02 cfu∕ml from the start to the end of fermentation period. The frequencies of dominance of LAB were Lactobacillus delbrueckii (44.29%), Lactobacillus leichmanii (31.43%), Lactobacillus fermentum (12.86%), Lactobacillus plantarum (10%) and Lactobacillus bulgaricus (1.43%). Yeast strains were identified as Candida sojae (66%), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (26%), Kluyveromyces lactic (6%) and Saccharomyces bisporus (2%). Aerobic mesophilic bacteria as well as indicator organisms were also present in the microbial population such as Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus mycoides, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, klebsiella oxytoca and Enterobacter cloacae. Results have shown that lactic acid bacteria and yeast were mainly responsible for the fermentation of obiolor and could serve as possible starter culture(s) for obiolor production.


DEPTH ANALYSIS AND ITS IMPLICATIONS ON HYDROCARBON PROSPECTIVITY IN PART OF THE LOWER BENUE TROUGH OF NIGERIA USING HIGH RESOLUTION AEROMAGNETIC DATA []


ABSTRACT. High resolution aeromagnetic map of Ugep in the Lower Benue Trough of Nigeria was analyzed with the intention of determining its potentials in terms of hydrocarbon prospectivity. The vaarious transformations were carried out by plotting the TMI, upward continuation, SPI and Euler deconvolution maps using Oasis Montaj software, version 6.4.2. The results showed a magnetic high due to a shallow crystalline magnetic basement in the entire western and the far northern region of the study area with magnetic intensity ranging from 88.5nT and 107.9nT. The areas with thick sediment deposits was noted to be the eastern, the south-eastern as well as some parts of the south-south region wit magnetic intensity of between -14.4nT and 27.3nT. The shallow basement regions when analyzed quantitatively, reveal a depth to basement of about 280m, hence the recommendation for a further investigation to determine the potentials for mineral exploration. On the other hand, the sedimentary regions have depth of between 2477m and 3386m. The presence of hydrocarbon was not ruled out here since the sediment thickness is reasonable


The Effectiveness Of The Extract Of Bay Leaves (Syzygium Polyanthum) And Kaffir Lime Leaves (Citrus Hystrix ) In The Growth Of Pityrosporum Ovale Fungi []


Abstract: Background: Bay leaf contains vitamin A, vitamin C, and vitamin E which function as antioxidant. Its extract has the effect on anti-fungi and anti-bacteria. Kaffir lime is known as the source of food and assumed as active compound which can be used as herbal medicine with the highest antioxidant content. The objective of the research was to find out the effectiveness of the extract of bay leaves (Syzygium Polyanthum) and kaffir lime leaves (Citrus Hystrix) in inhibiting the growth of Pityrosporum ovale fungi. Method: The research used experimental laboratory research with sensitivity test method (Disc Diffusion Method). It was conducted in April, 2019. The samples were bay leaves and kaffir lime leaves obtained from the yards of the houses at Diski, Sunggal Sub-district, Deli Serdang. Result: It was found that the extract of bay leaves and kaffir leaves had the effectiveness of anti-fungi in inhibiting the growth of Pityrosporum ovale fungi which was indicated by the establishment of inhibitory zone or limpid zone surrounding disc paper. The diameter of inhibitory zone was measured by using vernier calipers to find out the power of anti-fungi. The concentration consisted of 50%, 75%, and 95%. Conclusion: It was concluded that the extract of bay leaves had the effect on inhibiting the growth of pityrosporum ovale microbe (fungi) with the inhibitory power of 16.20 mm in which miconazole that was used at its positive control had higher effect in inhibiting the growth of anti-fungus from Pityrosporum ovale with the inhibitory power of 27.1 mm. It is recommended that testing of guinea pig be done by using the extract of bay leaves and kaffir lime leaves with different cases. Keywords: Extract of Bay Leaves (Syzygium Polyanthum), Kaffir Leaves (Citrus Hystri), Growth of Pityrosporum Ovale Fungi


CYBER ATTACKS: An Emerging War []


This research work aims to review “cyber attack” being a significant global risk in terms of likelihood of occurrence stipulations; it will further evaluate the mechanism for attacks, and develop control measures for future attacks. Using the Russia and Georgia cyber conflict in 2008 as a case study, this paper will elucidate the effect of cyber attack on a nation, designs a contextual diagram of the relationship between cyber attack and other World Economic Forum (WEF) identified global risks. This work identifies the possibility of cyber attack triggering terrorism, organised crime, global governance failure, massive incident of data fraud or theft and critical fragile state if left uncontrolled. This paper implements the ISO 27001 ISMS Model of PLAN, DO, CHECK ACT to management of cyber attack risk; using reports, computer journals, peer reviewed articles and internet sources, will design a cyber attack risk control hierarchy strategy in organizational context to combat this emerging challenge.


Levels of ICT Governance in the Zambian banks []


This research seeks to broaden and strengthen the holistic understanding of ICT and Security governance effectiveness by specifically examining how ICT and Security governance practices provide a structure for banks to ensure that IT investments support business objectives. ICT and Security governance is one of these concepts that suddenly emerged and became an important issue in the information technology area. To address this objective, we investigate the operations of the banks, analyze IT governance practices and design an ICT and Security governance model and Information Security Strategy model that aligns Information Technology and Information Security with the corporate governance of the banks. Corporate Governance is the type of governance system that covers the organization's operations holistically. Corporate governances are cascaded to ICT and Security governance that covers and aligns IT strategy to the corporate business objectives. Therefore, Control Objectives for business-related technologies (COBIT) is one of the frameworks that is used for the implementation of ICT and Security governance in organizations. ICT and Security governance has been implemented by several organizations globally with the view of aligning IT to business requirements so that the shareholders may realize benefits from the investments. Locally, the Bank of Zambia has directed all the banks to implement good corporate governance. The republic of Zambia has also directed and mandated all the parastatal companies to formalize the implementation of the COBIT framework. In 2015, the auditor general indicated that all parastatal ICT audits were based on COBIT framework.


Survey []


The main objective of this studywas to identify the types of leadership in Oromia Arsi and East shewa zone selected urban cities. The study followed a surveyand focus group discussion. The data were collected from four selected cities i.e. Adama, Asella, Batu, and Shashemenne. Analyses weremade based on primary data generated through structured questionnaire for leadership types. Focus group discussion was also conducted with selected informant groups. Descriptive analyses were specified to identify the current practice of leadership types. Further to explore the significant differences in leadership types among the selected cities,Kruskal-Wallis test was employed. The focus group discussion data were subject to thematic analyses and triangulated with the findings from survey analyses. The investigation revealed that the leadership types within the city administration mainly tend to ideological and pragmatic with low level of charismatic.Among others, the finding for leadership type showed that ideological leadership type dominates the city administration. A Kruskal-Wallis H test showed that there was a statistically significant difference in Charismatic, ideological and pragmatic leadership types within the city administration. Keywords: Leadership types, Charismatic, Ideological and Pragmatic


REDUCTION OF MERCURY CONTENT IN A SOLUTION BY ACTIVATED BENTONITE []


Bentonite deposits of major importance occur in association with volcanic rocks, tuffs and tuffaceous sediments of Miocene and Oligocene age, the bentonite layers and veins indicate the bentonization of the tuff having 1-2 m thickness of the beds. The chemical composition of bentonites is SiO2 (50-60%), Al2O3 17%, Fe2O3, FeO, MgO, CaO, Na2O, K2O and traces of TiO2 and cation exchange capacity value of bentonites are around 98 meq/100g. Due to the presence of exchangeable cations, the important applications are decolourising oil, manufacture of catalyst, production of oil well drilling muds softening of hard water and suitability of decontamination of radioactive wastes. Bentonites have been found a good adsorbent. The purpose of the present study is to find the best activator for bentonite to reduce the mercury content in a solution. Bentonite was activated by HCl, H3PO4, NaCl, ZnCl2, NaOH and KOH use different concentration such as 0.5 M, 1.0 M and 1.5 M. Activated bentonite has been characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectroscopy and atomic absorption spectrometry. Activated bentonite has bigger pores than natural bentonite. Atomic absorption spectrometry showed that H3PO4, HCl, NaCl, ZnCl2, NaOH and KOH can reduce the mercury around 99.99%, 99.87%, 97.48%, 9.24%, 99.81% and 99.86%. Thus, H3PO4 is the best activator for activated bentonite as a low-cost adsorbent.


The Effects of Competence and Internal Control Systems on The Accountability of Village Financial Management with Organizing Commitmen as Moderation Variables []


Abstrack—This study aims to determine the effect of competence and internal control systems on village financial management accountability with moderate organizational commitment. The population in this study was 120 Technical Implementer in Village Financial Management in Barru District. Sample selection method used was convenience sampling, samples of 120 Technical Implementer in Village Financial Management. This data obtained were analyzed using Moderated Regression Analysis (MRA). The results of this study indicate that (1) competence has a positive effect on the accountability of village financial management, (2) internal control system has a positive effect on the accountability of village financial management, (3) organizational commitment can be moderate the effect of competence on accountability of village financial management, and (4) Organizational commitment can be moderate the effect of internal control system on accountability of village financial management. Therefore, the government should consider these aspects in formulating strategies to support accountability of village financial management. Keywords—competence, internal control system, organizational commitment, accountability of village financial management.


THE EFFECT OF CHLOROFORM EXTRACT OF CHASMENTHERA DEPENDENS ON CARBON TETRACHLORIDE (CCL4) INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY []


This Background: Chasmenthera dependens have been reported to have many biological activities such as anti-fungal and anti-inflammatory activity. This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of the plant extract against CCl¬4 induced hepatotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Phytochemical and acute toxicity studies of the chloroform extract were carried-out. Twenty-four female albino rats divided into six groups of four rats each were used. Group I served as normal control. Groups II, III, IV, V and VI were injected (i.p) with CCl4 (1ml/kg, 1:1 v/v CCl4 and olive oil) every seventy-two hour for 10 days. Groups III, IV, V and VI were administered orally with 200, 400 and 600mg/kg of the extract and 200 mg/kg of Stalvan (standard drug) respectively. Group II served as the experimental control. After ten days, the animals were sacrificed. The serum and liver homogenate activities of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin levels were measured. Data obtained were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Results: The extract shows no lethality at 5000mg/kg of the extract. The phytochemical result showed the presence of phenolics, flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids, alkaloids, tannnins, carbohydrate and reducing sugar. The chloroform extract of C.dependens exhibited a strong hepato-protective as well as hepato-curative effect as it significantly (p<0.05) and dose-dependently reduced CCl4 induced elevation of liver enzyme activities (AST, ALP and ALT) and total bilirubin levels. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that C. dependens extract exhibited strong inhibition against CCl4 induced liver damage.


A Review of Entrepreneurship Education and Entrepreneurs' Skills []


This paper aims to demonstrate the theoretical relationship between entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurs' skills which include: technical, business management skills and personal entrepreneurial skills. The theoretical literature review helps to understand the entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurs’ skills. A systematic review method was chosen to explore the entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurs' skills. However, entrepreneur education plays a vital role in providing the necessary skills for an entrepreneur to operate their daily business requirements, and how to face obstacles and challenges that will face them during their entrepreneurial live. This study would be relevant for the higher education institutions which considering the entrepreneurship education for encouraging entrepreneurial skills.


Climate Change Impacts on Blue Economy in Bangladesh : A Study []


Climate change has become one of the most pressing issues in the world. The trend of climate change is happening with passive scenarios. Climate change is one of the most important agenda to tackle the generation and possibly any generation in history. Recently, Bangladesh has become the most vulnerable state in terms of climate change impacts according to the international agencies research outcomes and reports in 2019 like UN report. The threatening impacts are many and all are destructive for the future consequences of Bangladesh. The negative impacts of climate change hampers all the social-economic as well as environmental establishments and amenities of a country and Bangladesh will suffer in near future. The study focuses on blue economy which is one of the most emerging economic sectors of Bangladesh and the climate change associated impacts on the sector. The study has an elaborative effort to identify the most potential impacts as well as the article has a holistic and sanguine endeavour to recommend to mitigate the indispensable challenges or impacts on blue economy of Bangladesh


Challenges of Group-based Micro and Small Enterprises Performance: Evidences from Woreda Fourteen of Kolfe Keranio Sub-City, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia []


The main objective of this study was to investigate the challenges group-based of MSEs performance (construction, manufacturing and service enterprises) in the Woreda 14 of Kolfe keranio Sub city. Unemployment and low income are very common and remain challenging in urban and cities of Ethiopia. Thus, government of Ethiopia has formulated policies that mitigate the overwhelmed problem by fostering micro and small enterprises.


Developmental and Implementation Challenges of E-Learning Management Systems in Higher Education. []


Currently educational organization encompasses to chase improvement of knowledge to give elevated authorization in learning. Growth in Information technology is considered as one of the most important factor that affecting the changes in higher education in educational organizations, particularly through E-Learning system. The main objective of this research is to investigate how to E-Learning system improves the teaching and learning process at University in higher study. Lahore School of nursing one of the prestigious department at University of Lahore in Pakistan, by using E-Learning System. The developed E-Learning that is being tested by developer and user to be analyzed and assessed. The outcome shows that the teaching and learning processes can be well improved by integrating the developed E-Learning system as well as its precise interfaces and platform. The results also show that the developed system is well acknowledged by potential users, as indicated by the user acceptance test. The outcome of the study is analyzed by using the descriptive investigation to disclose the capacity of the system. It shows that developed E-Learning system is competent to be implemented in Lahore school of nursing, provided that the infrastructure is also prepared to support such system.


FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS OF SEAWEED (GRACILARIA SP) IN MUARA GEMBONG BEKASI DISTRICT []


This research aims to analyze the feasibility of seaweed business (Gracilaria sp) Pantai Mekar Village, Muara Gembong, Bekasi Disctrict, West Java. This research began in January 2019 until January 2020. The research method of survey method is the research carried out by taking samples from a population and using questionnaires as a primary data collection tool. The sampling technique used was snowball sampling by using the recommendations of the farmers to determine respondents in each marketing institution so that the total number of respondents was 18 people. Data analysis included marketing channel analysis and marketing efficiency analysis including business profit analysis, payback period,. The results showed that there were marketing channels and seaweed marketing institutions consisting of 10 farmers, 4 collectors, 4 large traders. The marketing institutions that have the highest level of efficiency are large traders with a BCR value of 2.16, with a business feasibility has a profit of IDR 261,923,125 in 1 year and has a payback period value of 0.17.