Volume 6, Issue 12, December 2018 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

Phytochemical, Antimicrobial, Proximate and Heavy Metals Analysis of Extracts of the Bark of Tetrapleura tetraptera Fruit []

Extraction of the bark of Tetrapleura tetraptera fruit was done using methanol, ethanol and distilled water to obtain the crude extracts. These were subjected to antimicrobial, proximate and heavy metal screenings. Ten different phytochemicals were screened namely; alkaloids, flavonoids, phlobatannins, saponins, steroids, tannins, terpeniods, carbohydrates, phytosterols and phenolic compounds. The phytochemical analysis of ethanol extract revealed the presence of almost all the phytochemicals above with exception of saponins and phytosterols, however, methanol and water extracts, revealed the presence of most phytochemicals except flavonoids, phlobatanin and phytosterols respectively. Antimicrobial analysis of the aqueous, ethanol and methanol extracts respectively was done using the agar well diffusion method against clinical isolates of gram positive bacteria (staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The result of methanol extract showed higher inhibition than that of water and ethanol extracts when compared with the positive control Ciprofloxacin. Proximate analysis of the plant showed the following results; ash content (85%), crude fiber (7.8%), moisture content (38%), protein (0.2%) and carbohydrate content (69.38%). Heavy metals analysis conducted, showed the presence of zinc with the highest value of (31.309ppm) followed by lead (Pb) with (1.574ppm), then Arsenic with (0.955ppm), copper (0.138ppm), cadmium (0.073ppm) and mercury (0.068ppm). Mercury (Hg) is the least metal present in this plant. All were within W.H.O acceptable limit except Arsenic. These results is a confirmation that the bark of Tetrapleura tetraptera has medicinal value as speculated by the orthodox medicine, but the presence of some heavy metals in the plant especially lead (Pb) should be taken into consideration to avoid taking contaminated extracts as medicine.


This aim of this research was to determine the percentage of red tilapia bone flour as a source of calcium in the most liked stick snacks which resulted in the expectation of increased calcium intake in consumers. Research was carried out from July to August 2018 at the Fisheries Product Processing Laboratory, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Universitas Padjadjaran. and chemical tests were conducted at the Ruminant Animal Nutrition and Animal Food Chemistry Laboratory, Faculty of Animal Husbandry, Universitas Padjadjaran. The method used in this research was an experimental with 4 treatments, which were the addition of red tilapia bone flour to wheat flour among the treatments were 0%, 5%, 10% and 15%, involving 20 semi panelists as replication. The measurement parameter were the hedonic test (level of preference) based on organoleptic characteristics which included appearance, aroma, texture and taste and also chemical tests (water content and calcium content) on the stick snack. Based on the research results, it can be concluded that all treatments were accepted by the panelists, but the 10% red tilapia’s bone flour treatment was the most liked treatment by the panelists with the median value that featured appearance, aroma and the taste was 7 and the texture was 8, water content value was 2.5% and calcium content value was 0.36%.


Background: In the last few decades, thousands of patients have benefited from platelet rich plasma (PRP) therapies and its use in medicine has become increasingly more widespread during the last decade. Eczema (atopic dermatitis) is a complex disorder caused by the interplay between multiple genetic and environmental factors. Materials& Methods: Patients with eczema for more than 6 months were selected. Subjects with any other medical disorder were excluded by history, examination and routine blood tests. Fifteen cc venous blood samples were collected on day 0, day 15, and day 30 for the following biochemical, hematological and inflammatory markers parameters were carried first rest of the blood sample was used for the PRP. Three consecutive PRP therapies were conducted with a gap of 15 days in between. The affected area was photographed at each visit before performing procedure. Result: Baseline reports revealed an elevated ESR and CRP, along with increased eosinophil count and serum IgE level. The base line parameters were normal. All the inflammatory biomarkers were reduced after PRP. Clinical examination revealed marked improvement in the rash on her second visit. Furthermore, after the second therapy, the patient reported marked control on itchiness and disappearance of rash. She was quite satisfied with the treatment. Conclusion: This study suggests that use of platelet-rich plasma has beneficial effects on skin disorders which can be attributed to various platelet-derived growth factors causing improvement. It is safe, cheap, and non-allergic and appears to be a useful adjuvant in the management of eczema.

A Performance Optimizing of VANET Communications: The Convergence of UAV System with LTE/4G and WAVE Technologies []

With the bulky intensification of conventional vehicles on roads presently, driving has become more challenging and dangerous issue. Roads are filled up with vehicles, reasonable speeds and safety distance are rarely adhered to, and travelers frequently lack adequate concentration. As such, leading automobile fabricators decided to collectively work with government organizations to come out with solutions geared toward assisting travelers on highways by anticipating dangerous scenario or refrain from severe traffic regions. Hence, Vehicular communication systems has been come to existence. Vehicular communication systems are networks in which smart ground vehicles and roadside units are the fundamental communicating nodes, providing each other with information, such as safety warnings and traffic information. Moreover, there are two basic types of communication approaches, V2V and V2I respectively. Even though, both approaches have their own constraints within various scenarios. For instance, V2V communication in highway scenario, to broadcast a delay-sensitive information such traffic accident warnings, it has entirely depended on the sparseness and swiftness of smart ground vehicles. Thus, it will be difficult to achieve the goal of safety applications due to intermittent connectivity. Additionally, each vehicle periodically broadcasts a beacon or hello message to each other that used to exchange their current states and surrounding info, consequently this, they have consumed a high bandwidth from limited VANETs spectrum (75 MHz). Whereas, V2I communication in urban and highway scenarios, the effectiveness of the communication between smart ground vehicles and roadside infrastructures mostly depends on the capability of roadside infrastructures. Therefore, it will be expected from VANETs technologists and authors to bring out pretty solutions for improvement of VANET communications and applications incorporate with the existing ones. In this paper, based on reviewed various literatures and related works, I have selected and integrated UAV system, LTE/4G and WAVE wireless access network technologies to optimize the VANET communications and satisfy some demands of its basic applications, particularly safety and traffic, in highway scenario. This work proposed a converged novel architecture of UAV system, LTE/4G and WAVE technologies with its forwarding schemes in highway scenario to enhance the VANET communications and achieve some requirements of its basic applications, particularly safety and traffic. Algorithms for UAV’s sensing, tagging (based on my proposed safety and traffic info model) and broadcasting operations, and forwarding of safety or traffic info to respective infrastructures and then smart ground vehicles are designed, particularly to minimize intermittent connectivity and high bandwidth usage, and as well as to satisfy some requirements of VANET applications. Keywords - VANET; UAV System; LTE/4G; WAVE; Converged Wireless Technologies in VANETs

Level Dependent Perishable Inventory System in Supply Chain Environment []

This paper analyzes an (s,S) Inventory system in supply chain environment. In this paper, we consider a level dependent perishable inventory system, where raw materials arrive from two warehouses which are situated nearby the central processing unit. Arrival of demands follows Poisson process with rate λ . Production takes place when at least one component of each category is available in both the warehouses. Replenishment for the warehouses occurs in negligible time once the component amounts reaches to zero unit. It is assumed that the initially inventory level is in S and system is in OFF mode. Inventory level decreases due to demands and perishability. When the inventory level reaches to s then the system converted ON mode from OFF mode. The production follows exponentially distributed with parameter µ. Perishability follows exponentially distributed with parameter θ. Perishability will be level dependent that is rate of perishability will depend on the amount of inventory available in the stock. Steady State analysis is made and some system characteristics are evaluated by numerical illustration. Key-words: Level Dependent, Supply chain, Replenishment, Perishable, Warehouse Subject Classification AMS 90B05, 90B30


The doctrine of reality and a new paradigm of science are proposed. The unity of formal logic and rational dialectics is the correct methodological basis for the solution of the problem of reality. The main result is the following system of conceptions: (1) reality represents the unity of opposites: the controlling (governing) aspect and the controllable aspect. The controlling (governing) aspect is God, and the controllable aspect is the Universe; (2) the principle of existence and of uniqueness of God reads as follows: the scientific object “Absolute, Creator, and Governor of essence (information) and of material manifestation of essence” exists. This scientific object is the unique and correct theoretical model (identifier) of the religious object “God (Creator and Governor of the World)”; (3) the Universe represents the informational-material system: the unity of essence (information) and of material manifestation of essence. The manifestation of information is matter. The material structure of the Universe represents the set of states of matter: the physical vacuum, the system block, the ether, and the discrete objects; (4) God created the system block, the ether and the objects, entering information into the physical vacuum. God governs the Universe by means of information; (5) the correct science of the 21st century should research the fundamental relation between the controlling (governing) information and the material manifestation of the controlling (governing) information in the Universe.

In Vitro Hybridization of Clarias gariepinus x Heterobranchus longifilis and Rearing of Larvae with Formulated Diets for Selection of Desirable Hybrid []

Abstract A study was conducted on the in-vitro cross-breeding and larval rearing of African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus x Heterobranchus longifilis with formulated diets to produce hybrid with good survival, desirable growth rate and other metric characters. The larvae fed with live and/or artificial formulated diets for 21 days in an indoor hatchery were closely monitored. The brooders Heterobranchus longifilis -Av. wt of female 180 ± 0.50 g; versus the male C. gariepinus- Av. wt of 120g ± 0.75 g) were procured from kerma farms, Onna, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria and stocked in Akwa Ibom state University Aquarium near the experimental site, 2-weeks prior to spawning for acclimatization. The fish were successfully induced spawning using ovaprim hormone at 0.5 –1.0 ml/g body weight to the female brooder. The milt was extracted from the male catfish C. gariepinus, and mix with 0.65% saline to inactivate and reduce its metabolic activities. The milt was added to the eggs with gentle shaking for 5 min and distilled water was later added to the mixture to activate fertilization. The results indicated that fertilization occurred and the eggs hatched within 24-30 hours. Fertilization, hatchability and survival percentages were respectively recorded as 87.35%, 92.40% and 80.7%. After yolk-sac absorption, fry of 7 days old were subjected to 3 types of formulated feed trials including Artemia nauplii as control for 21 days. The larvae fed on diets II and Ill showed significantly (P< 0.05) better length and weight gain as compared to control than those of the larvae fed on diet I. The larvae fed on diet Ill showed the best survival rate (83%). However, the condition factor and SGR of the larvae fed on diet 11 was significantly better than those of the larvae fed on other two diets.

Purifying Inorganic Phosphate using Sawdust Activated Carbon in Solid Phase Extraction for Stable Oxygen Isotope (δ18OPO4) Analysis: A Review on Different Methodological Approach []

Analysis of isotopic composition of oxygen in phosphate (δ18OPO4) is a sophisticated technique to examine phosphate in water and soil, but, this technique requires purified phosphate. One of the prominent method in purifying phosphate is solid phase extraction. This review will serve as guide on different sorbent to use in solid phase extraction. This paper will also discuss about the potential use of sawdust as an effective resin in solid phase extraction. Challenges that usually have been encountered in the analysis of δ18OPO4 and its environmental applications will be tackled as well.


The advent of computerised reservation system (CRS) has influenced the way organisations used to store and retrieve information and conduct transaction related to reservation of rooms, air ticket, train ticket and most types of transportation. Organizations like Hotels transact businesses and conduct their room reservation with the help of an internet. However, computerised reservation system is not widely used in most parts of developing countries. A computerised reservation system has been designed to improve room reservation system that gives students access to reserve a room. The main aim of this report is to develop an online student room availability system, designed in context of a computerised reservation system. The reservation system has been implemented using PHP/MySQL coupled with HTML and JAVA scripts. PHP was used to connect the reservation web pages and the reservation database. The linear life cycle model (waterfall model), used to plan the activities and stages of the report has helped to provide a Detailed and well documented report. The final artefact was tested and evaluated to assess its achievements against its requirements, and suggested possible future enhancements.

Impact of Public Expenditures on Economic Growth of Afghanistan Using an Econometric Model OLS Approach []

The public expenditure is an important phenomena and most important factor of economic growth and development; furthermore it is consider being significant proportion of gross domestic product (GDP). In 2015, public expenditure almost covered 12.5% of national expenditure in case of Afghan economy. The focus of this research is to assess the impacts of governmental expenditure on economical growth of the Afghan economy and to encounter whether there exist relationship between government total expenditure (GTE) and gross domestic product (GDP) in Afghanistan. This study cover the data from 2002 to 2015 and the data is retrieved from World bank development indicators, Ordinary Least Squire econometric approach is used to find-out cause and effect relationship between dependent variable (GDP) and independent variable (GTE). The empirical analysis indicated that there is positive relationship between dependent and independent variables thus the study fail to reject null hypothesis, in other word, the government should exercise significant fiscal policy measurement to stabilize economical performance and achieve macro-economical goals. On the other hand, bad governance and the lack of fiscal management policy and control will lead to economical cost that will bear by society.

EOQ Model for Ameliorating Items with Time Dependent Demand and linear Time-Dependent Holding Cost []

In many instances, the demand for inventory items fluctuates with time. The demand may increases, decreases, remains constant or even vanishes with time. An economic order quantity model for ameliorating items that describes the above scenario is hereby developed. Stocked items are said to be ameliorative when they incur a gradual increase in quality, quantity or both with time. We develop a model that determines the optimal replenishment cycle time such that the total variable cost is minimized. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the derived model.

Demographic Factors and Accuracy of Mothers’ Perception of Low Birth Weight: a longitudinal study in two rural districts in southern Ghana []

Background LBW remains a significant public health concern globally, especially in low and middle income countries where 95% of all cases occur. In Ghana, and sub-Saharan Africa in general, the burden of LBW is substantially underestimated due to poor record keeping and the huge proportion of home births. The issue of birth weight in Ghana and factors influencing it has not received much needed attention. This study assessed the accuracy of low birth weight as perceived by mothers and factors influencing whether their perceptions were accurate Methods Analysis secondary data using Stata Version 13 was calculated for birth weight data extracted from the Dodowa Health and Demographic Surveillance System site database. The analysis also involved calculating the sensitivity and specificity of the birth weight. Results By maternal demographic characteristics, birthing of LBW babies was highest amongst teenagers (25.9%)and mothers who initiated ANC in the third trimester (35.8%). Fifty-two percent of mothers with recorded LBW babies correctly identified actual LBW (sensitivity =0.52). Only 4.5% of all mothers perceived their NBW as having LBW. Diagnostic indicators varied slightly with maternal age and ANC attendance. Forty-six percent of teenage mothers (sensitivity=0.46) and 53% of mothers aged 20 years and above (sensitivity=0.53) accurately identified LBW. Among the women who initiated ANC in the first trimester, 52% accurately perceived LBW (sensitivity=0.52), while 47% of mothers who initiated ANC in the second trimester (sensitivity 0.47) did same. Accuracy of mothers’ perceptions on LBW was highest, 52% each (sensitivity=0.52), for educated, primiparous and multiparous mothers’. Conclusion The evidence points to the need for multi-sectoral interventions to mitigate the incidence of LBW in rural settings. The lack of sufficient and comparable evidence, however, renders fairly premature the definitive acceptance of mothers’ perception as a valid substitute in cases where actual birth weight is not recorded at the time of delivery. Key Words: Low birth wieght determinants of LBW, nutritional deficiencies, child health issues, pre-term birth, intrauterine growth restriction Preterm birth


ABSTRACT Background: Morinda lucida has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effect that characterizes liver disease but from this study it shows that this report was not achieved until when the extract was withdrawn and the administration of vitamin C along with the aqueous extract acts as anti- oxidant to protect the effect of any likely damage done to the liver. This research work examined the effect of morinda lucida during administration, upon withdrawal and the protective effect of concorrmittant administration of vitamin C and the extract. Methods: 20 wistar rats (120g-180g) were used for this research. The rats were randomly selected into four groups of five animals each. Group A were used as control given only water ad libitum. Group B were given 6400 mg/kg/bw aqueous extract of morinda lucida for 4 weeks, group C were given 6400 mg/kg/bw aqueous extract of morinda lucida for 4 weeks and withdrawn for two weeks while group D were given 6400 mg/kg/bw of the extract simultaneously with 5mg of vitamin C for 6 weeks. . The rats were then sacrificed and the organ excised, weighed and fixed for histological processing and stained with heamatoxylin and eosin. The photomicrographs of the control and the treated groups were observed and compared for changes and differences. Results: The findings showed sign of inflammatory changes secondary to administration, upon withdrawal, there appear to be reversal of the effect. However, concormittant administration of vitamin C shows evidence of protective effect. Conclusion: Morinda lucida has inflammatory effect on the liver but there is a reversible effect upon withdrawal and the concurrent administration of vitamin C as anti-oxidant has protective effect on the damage done to the liver. Keywords: morinda lucida; anti- inflammation; liver, heamatoxylin; eosin.


Jatigede Reservoir is located in Sumedang Regency, West Java Province. This reservoir was built by damming the Cimanuk River in the Jatigede District, Sumedang Regency. After a period of flooding, many elements of nitrogen and phosphate enter the waters of the Jatigede Reservoir, the inclusion of these elements comes from the discharge of wastewater from residential areas carried by the Cimanuk river flow. Natural and anthropogenic activities that surround the reservoir will cause a decrease in the quality of the reservoir water. Declining water quality will reduce the usability, yield, productivity, carrying capacity and capacity of the reservoir. This research was conducted to determine the water quality of the Jatigede Reservoir so that it is expected to be used as input to determine the right management effort so that water quality can be maintained and sustainable. The research method used was descriptive comparative with 4 stations and 6 sampling times. The results showed that the condition of the quality of the Jatigede Reservoir based on parameters of temperature, pH, nitrate, phosphate and chlorophyll-a showed that it was suitable as class II and class III water quality standards based on Government Regulation No. 82 of 2001.


Abstract With the current market scenario, all the projects that we do are highly dependent on Total Installed cost and are Schedule driven. And to help us meet this crucial deadline, we are utilizing various technologies and high-end software’s. But seldom we innovate or seek new ideas to find alternate solutions to problems. In this paper we are talking about two ideas, by thinking out of the box, which we had implemented in our current project. One is about converting the 3D loop in a steam line to Flat loop and another about locating transportation support to eliminate the additional scaffolding.

Mobile Phone Penetration and Economic Growth in Kenya: A systems dynamics approach in the context of the Kenyan Vision 2030 []

System dynamics modelling is a scientific method for modelling complex, nonlinear natural, economic and technical systems. This research assesses the Kenyan mobile industry thus, identifying success factors and challenges for Kenya to substantially increase its economic growth outputs. Based on a Systems Dynamics approach, a Mental Model (Causal Loop Diagram) has been prepared as a step towards building a model to simulate the expected effect of mobile phone usage on economic growth. A computer simulation provided a mathematical model, providing practical insight into the dynamic behavior of the observed system, i.e. the analysis of economic growth and observation of mutual correlation between individual parameters. The results of the simulation are shown in graphical form. The dynamic model of the effects of mobile phone penetration on Kenya’s economic growth has been verified by comparing simulation results with existing data on economic growth.

Studies on environmental Mycobacteria and its importance to public health []

Environmental Mycobacteria comprise both saprophytic species and a number of pathogens that have been identified as causative agents of a wide range of diseases. Several environmental mycobacteria have been shown to be important human pathogens linked to immunomodulation especially in relation to effect on vaccination. We undertook this study to assess the usefulness of various conventional and molecular methods in identification of environmental mycobacterial species. In our study, Two hundred and twenty five environmental samples; 75water, 75soil&75 fecal samples were examined by conventional culture technique, biochemical tests and confirmed by PCR for isolation and identification of Non Tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM). The isolation rate varies in different samples as 13%, 18% and 10% from soil, water and feces, respectively. Based on culture characters and biochemical tests, there were 56 identified isolates. These 41 environmental mycobacterial isolates, included several potentially pathogenic species such as 12.2% M. fortuitum, 4.9% M. chelonae, 19.5% M. avium, 12.2% M. marinum, 4.9% M. kansasii and others belonged to nonpathogenic species, 14.6% M. smegmatis and 4% M. flavescens. In conclusion, it is important to realize that, NTM was significantly isolated from both animal and human surrounded environment. There is no "stand alone" assay for the identification of NTM.

Evaluation of Cement, Lime and Bagasse Fibre Ash Waste Admixture on Swell – Shrink Control of Road Embankment Materials []

The study evaluated the strength gained distinction of expansive clay soils with swelling – shrinkage attributes on the application of two cementitious stabilizing agents of cement and lime in combination with bagasse fibre ash of pozzolanic characteristics from waste agricultural products of costaceae lacerus. Preliminary investigation results factioned the soils as A - 7 - 6 on the AASHTO classification System as shown in table 3.1 and are below required laid standards and specifications for road embankment materials. The soil has unsoaked CBR values of 8.58%,8.83%, 8.05%, 7.38%, and 9.05% and soaked CBR values of 6.33%, 7.15%, 7.35%, 5.9% and 8.23%, unconfined compressive strength values of 58.85kPa, 63.35kPa, 57.75kPa, 53.75kPa and 63.85kPa and percentage paasing # 200 are 73.85%, 67.38%, 76.35%, 82.35% and 71.55% respectively of sampled roads of Ogoda, Bodo, Ogbogu, Ula-Ikata and Kaani, all in Rivers state, Nigeria. Detailed analyzed compaction test results of maximum dry density (MDD) and optimum moisture content (OMC) of all sampled roads showed incremental percentile values with inclusion of composite materials of cement / lime + CLBFA with respect to percentage ratio increase. Percentile values increased recorded more in cement to lime composition. Figures 3.2 and 3,3 showed graphical presentation with higher values in cement. Results demonstrated an incremental percentile CBR values for both unsoaked and soaked with optimum composite combined mix ratio of 0.75% + 7.5% to soil corresponding clay soil. Comparative results showed cement and lime + CLBFA good strength increased to optimum with dominance in cement to lime. Unconfined compressive strength test results obtained showed incremental percentile values with composite ratio increase for cement / lime + CLBFA combination with cement in higher values to lime composition. Consistency limits test results showed percentile decreased in plastic index properties relatively to stabilizers inclusion percentages to soils. Figures 3.4, 3.5 and 3.6 showed graphical representation of consistency limits with cement composition in dominance reduction over lime.

Comparative Strength Evaluation of Cementious Stabilizing Agents Blended with Pulverized Bagasse Fibre for Stabilization of Expansive Lateritic Soils []

Niger Deltaic lateritic soils are the most widely used materials for road embankment in the entire region, yet, they are less matured and do not conform to the to the widely reported parent-rock-related gradation trend common to other lateritic soils as indicated the by FMW Specifications (1997) and to achieve the required standards, soils have to be improved before use. The research work evaluated the application of agricultural waste materials of plantain rachis fibre, hybridized with cement and lime and to modify the engineering properties of expansive lateritic soils. The soils engineering properties are classified as shown in table 3.1. Descriptive Statistical comparison of the soils are maximum dry density (MDD) and optimum moisture content (OMC) test results are Ogbogoro, 1.030% and 1.020%, Egbeda 1.032% and 1.033%, Igwurut 1.025% and 1.022%, Aleto ,1.083% and 1.026% correspondingly of MDD and OMC. California bearing ratio (CBR) test results of unsoaked are 5.011%, 4.942%, 3.930%, 4.191% and soaked, 5.372%, 4.538%, 5.352%, 4.268%, for Ogbogoro, Egbeda, Igwuruta and Aleto respectively at 100% clay matural conditions. Unconfined compressive strength test of sampled roads are Ogbogoro 1.577%, Egbeda 1.612%, Igwuruta 1.339% and Aleto 1.474% respectively at 100% natural state. Results of consistency limits (Plastic index) test results from Ogbogoro 0.985%, Egbeda 0.980%, Igwuruta 0.981% and Aleto 0.979% at preliminary test 100% soils. Comparative strength of un-stabilized and stabilized soils with composite materials shown in tables 3.2 – 3.16 and figures 3.1 – 3.5, compaction test results obtained showed that maximum dry density (MDD) and optimum moisture content (OMC) of stabilized clay soils of sampled roads demonstrated incremental percentile values with inclusion of composite stabilizers agents to soils with varying percentages ratio. Computed results of California bearing ratio (CBR) of unsoaked and soaked soils stabilized with stabilizing agents of cement, lime and PRF showed percentile value rise to corresponding additivies to relatively to optimum mix ratio of 91.75+0.75+7.5%. Crack formation noticed beyond optimum with values reductions maximum ration of combinations. Unconfined compressive strength test results of stabilized soils with cementitious agents of cement / lime + PRF showed incremental percentile values as ratio of additives to soil increases. Consistency test results decreased in percentile values of (Plastic index) with increase in stabilizer agents percentages to soils ratio. Combined composite materials are good soil stabilizers for the manipulation and modification of expansive problematic soils. Comparatively as shown in the discussions, cement composite samples showed higher percentile rise to lime

Modification of Expansive Lateritic Soils of Highway Subgrade with Blended Composite Materials and Performance Characteristics []

Susceptible degradations and excessive settlements of highway pavements has been the major issue of concerns in the Niger Delta region. Roads within this region have to undergo routine repairs seasonally to curb the menaces of unusual potholes and cracks. The research work evaluated the engineering behavioral characteristics of stabilized expansive lateritic soils with cement, lime and irvinga gabonesis fibre, their combined strength characteristics. Preliminary test results of lateritic soils as seen in table 3.1 showed that the physical and engineering properties fell below the minimum requirement for such application and needs stabilization to improve its properties. The soils classified as A-2-6 / SC and A-2-4 / SM on the AASHTO classification schemes / Unified Soil Classification System. Percentile descriptive statistical tests of sampled roads maximum dry density (MDD) and optimum moisture content (OMC) are Odioku, 1.006% and 1.010%, Oyigba 1.012%, and 1.022%, Anakpo 1.013% and 1.014%, Upatabo 1.010% and 1.025%, Ihubuluko 1.011% and 1.024% respectively of MDD and OMC at 100% natural soils. Results obtained of California Bearing Ratio (CBR) test conducted at preliminary state of 100% are unsoaked 4.644%, 4.447%,3.696%, 4.835%, 4.467% and soaked, 4.382%, 4.321%, 3.576%, 4.921%, 4.551%, for Odioku, Oyigba, Anakpo, Upatabo and Ihubuluko respectively. Unconfined compressive strength test conducted at preliminary stages of 100% natural soil from sampled roads yielded the following peak percentile results; Odioku 1.393%, Oyigba 1.483%, Anakpo 1.636%, Upatabo 1.633% and Ihubuluko 1.441% respectively. Consistency limits (Plastic index) at preliminary tests of 100% natural soil from sampled roads are Odioku 0.995%, Oyigba 0.989%, Anakpo 0.988%, Upatabo 0.997% and Ihubuluko 0.987%. Comparatively, un-stabilized and composite stabilized soils result shown in tables 3.2 –3.3 into 3.2A and 3.3 and figures 3.2 – 3.3, maximum dry density (MDD) and optimum moisture content (OMC) of compaction test parameters showed percentile increment to percentage ratios of composite stabilizers to soil. Indication confirmed the rise in MDD and OMC due to inclusion of stabilizers. Results of stabilized California bearing ratio (CBR) of sampled roads with composite materials of cement, lime and IGF showed incremental percentile values with ratio variation. Both cementitious materials showed percentile increased to optimum mix ratio of 91.75+0.75+7.5% with higher strength performance in cement than lime. Reversed values were notice beyond optimum mix ratio with crack formations in both cementitious agents. Results obtained of unconfined compressive strength from sampled roads, stabilized with cement / lime + IGF showed incremental percentile rise to corresponding ratios of composite materials to soil. Results of consistency limits (Plastic Index) in comparison showed percentile decreased values with increased in composite materials to soil ratio. Results demonstrated that the increase in ratio variation decreases plastic index of soils. Entire results proved composite materials as good soil stabilizers with maximum values strength increase recorded in cement samples over lime.

Potential of Cement, Lime - Costaceae Lacerus Bagasse Fibre in Lateritic Soils Swell – Shrink Control and Strength Variance Determinations []

The investigative work examined the contributive improvement on expansive lateritic soils with less matured characteristics, sensitive to manipulations by many forms with hybridized composite materials of cement + costaceae lacerus bagasse fibre and lime + costaceae lacerus bagasse fibre, their varying strengths and the behavioral attributes for soil modifications. The soils classified as A-2-6 SC and A-2-4 SM on the AASHTO classification schemes / Unified Soil Classification System, reddish in color, with plasticity index of 17.30%, 14.23%, 15.20%, 15.50%, and 16.10%. The soil has CBR values unsoaked of 8.7%,8.5%, 7.8%, 9.4%, and 10.6% and soaked of 8.3%, 7.8%, 7.2%, 8.5% and 9.8 %, unconfined compressive strength values of 178kPa, 145kPa, 165kPa, 158kPa and 149kPa respectively of Odiokwu, Oyigba, Anakpo, Upatabo and Ihubuluko Town sampled Roads. Descriptive statistical percentile varying preliminary compaction test results at 100% natural clay conditions of maximum dry density (MDD) and optimum moisture content (OMC) from sampled roads are Odioku, 1.015% and 1.021%, Oyigba 1.027%%, and 1.056%, Anakpo 1.024% and 1.043%, Upatabo 1.101% and 1.016%, Ihubuluko 1.038% and 11.037%, respectively of MDD and OMC. Results of California bearing ratio (CBR) test results of unsoaked are 2.626%, 3.724%, 3.635%, 3.048%, 3.014%, and soaked, 3.410%, 3.199%, 3.215%, 2.782%, 2.842%, for Odioku, Oyigba, Anakpo, Upatabo and Ihubuluko respectively at 100% clay matural conditions. Unconfined compressive strength test of sampled roads are Odioku 1.275%, Oyigba 1.414%, Anakpo 1.303%, Upatabo 1.316% and Ihubuluko 1.483% respectively at 100% natural state. Consistency limits (Plastic index) test results at 100% natural condition from sampled roads are Odioku 0.936%, Oyigba 1.019%, Anakpo 1.069%, Upatabo 0.947% and Ihubuluko 1.038%. Stabilized soils maximum dry density (MDD) and optimum moisture content (OMC) demonstrated incremental percentile values with increase in composite stabilizers inclusion percentages ratio to soils. Incremental percentile values of California bearing ratio (CBR) stabilized soils with cement, lime and CLBF showed optimum percentile ratio at 91.75+0.75 +7.5% were obtained. Results confirmed that both cementitious agents showed good combination with CLBF. Figure 3.7 illustrated the strength variations of composite stabilizers with respect to percale ratio inclusion with cement at higher values. Unconfined compressive strength test of stabilized soils with cement / lime + CLBF showed incremental percentile relatively to the percentage ratios to stabilizers and soils. Results of consistency limits (Plastic Index) test showed percentile decreased values with increased in composite materials to soil. Summarized stabilized soils result demonstrated incremental percentile value of cement and lime + costaceae lacerus bagasse fibre. Results showed the potentials of both cementitious agents as good composite materials suitable for soil modifications with cement composition in higher dominant values.

Indigenous Knowledge Systems and Practices (IKSP): Essential Support to Coordinated and Integrated Access to Disaster and Risk Reduction Management in the Cordillera Administrative Region CIA-DRRM, 2017 []

Ancestral Domain is life to the Indigenous Peoples of Cordillera and the IKSPs are directly related to the preservation and protection of the AD. This paper aims to interface Indigenous People’s Knowledge to disaster and risk reduction management undertaken by the Mountain Province and Ifugao Divisions with Risk Reduction Plans and organized School Disaster Risk Reduction Group. The results disclosed that respondent schools need to improve Implementation of the Disaster Risk Reduction Measures and organization of Incident Command System that can be activated in times of emergency. Major organizational functions as Logistics, Finance and Strike Teams has to be undertaken and instructional areas such as Barangay Halls and makeshifts rooms as alternative Instructional venues be reinforced. Access to Distance Learning Modules for Secondary should be improved in both provinces. The respondents revealed plans on Preparedness and Mitigation and shall enhance response action and rehabilitation efforts. The study further revealed that the IKSPs on Disaster Risk Reduction Preparation/ Management Modules particularly on Water - Soil Management have caused significant increase in information to learners. The DAYNEK, LUTAK and LEGLEG learning modules of Mountain Province proved Very Significant Learning among Grade 1 and Grade 7. The Water/ Soil management Indigenous Systems of Ifugao like PAYO and TUPING for Grade 1 and Grade 7 proved Significant improvement, while module on UMA proved No Significant difference in learning among Grade 7 learners but has proven Significant among Grade 1. The findings promote further enhancement in curriculum contextualization and strengthening the Disaster Risk Reduction Implementation in both Provinces. Keywords: Ancestral Domain; IKSPs; Risk Reduction Group; Cordillera


The purpose of this research is to figure out the community structures, distributions and environmental conditions based on the presence of benthic foraminifera in the coastal zones of East Coast of Pangandaran and Karapyak beach, West Java. This study was carried out on 19 April 2018 till 21 August 2018. Six samples from this research were used to analyze the community structures and benthic foraminifera distributions, along with their connection with environmental conditions. The analysis results showed that the largest number of sub-order discovered throughout the whole research stations is Rotaliina sub-order with its typical genus, Ammonia. It has an abundance of 48% in the East Coast of Pangandaran beach and 36% in Karapyak beach. The calculation result of the community structures has an average diversity value of 1.68 and the evenness value has an average of 0.74, indicating that the environments are in stressed conditions, both naturally and anthropogenically which are characterized by the abundance of opportunistic genera of Ammonia, Pararotalia and Pseudorotalia from Rotaliina sub-order.


Background: Even though 20 million women are eligible for cervical screening in Ethiopia only less than 1% of women are screened. Part of the explanation for the low uptake of cervical cancer (CC) screening could be rooted women`s health beliefs and inadequate knowledge of risk factors. Objectives: To assess women health beliefs on CC screening and CC risk factors knowledge who visited Sister Aklesia Memorial Hospital (SAMH) for any medical reasons in Adama town, Oromia, Ethiopia. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted and a total of 412 women participated between September and December 2017. Results: The average age of women was 44.6 years. Among 28 women who visited health facility, thirteen (3.2%) had underwent screening test either of VIA or Pap test. Association between women's education (p<0.05) and household income (p<0.05) with health facility visit for the purpose of CC screening were found statistically significant. Women didn't visit clinics for screening purpose because they belief "douching every day" can prevent CC; and "no see and treat" system existed; "uncomfortable if a man does the procedure"; "no self-sampling device available" were the main barrier factors. Women believed that they are not susceptible of CC when they don't have sex with many partner (p<0.05) and don't have symptoms (P<0.05), and so they don't need a CC screening test. Significant number of women (p<0.05) didn't consider abnormal CC screening tests without treatment can lead to cervical cancer. Conclusions: The health belief model could be used to study factors influencing Ethiopian women's participation in cervical cancer screening. Therefore, changing social structure and living condition of women may improve health through increasing preventive belief and incentives for screening tests. This study is identified several factors influencing cancer screening uptake and compliance.


Chemical and mineralogical characterization of Akure South Silica-Iron earth sipped mineral was investigated. Its susceptibility to magnetic and gravity methods of mineral separation was also studied. Samples of the mineral were sourced from three different deposit regions in Akure South Local Government Area, Ondo State, Nigeria. The sourced samples were crushed, homogenized, and 50 kg was weighted out. Chemical characterization of the mineral was carried out via Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (ED-XRF). Mineralogical characterization was carried out via X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). Fractional sieve analysis of the crude sample was carried out using sieve range of 500 m to -63 m towards particle size distribution and liberation size determination. 2 kg of the crude was randomly sampled out and pulverized to 100% passing -180+125 m. Susceptibility of the mineral to magnetic and gravity separation methods were assessed via hand induced magnetic separation and sink float technique respectively. Chemical analysis of the crude sample via Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (ED-XRF) revealed that the crude sample contains 17.55 % Fe2O3, 63.7 % SiO2, 15.5 % TiO2, and other compounds in trace form. Mineralogical analysis via XRD revealed the mineral phases present in the crude sample as Quartz (87.07 % SiO2), Magnetite (0.59 % Fe3O4), Ilmenite (9.89 % FeTiO3) with other associated minerals such as Rutile (0.53 % TiO2), Anatase (0.25 % TiO2), Kaolinite (0.09% Al2(Si2O5(OH)4) and Albite (1.57% Na(AlSi3O8)). SEM imaging revealed interlocking of some minerals within the crystal aggregates of the crude and the EDS analysis revealed the presence of Al, Mn, Cu, O, Si, C, Fe, and Ti; such that silicon, titanium, and iron are the major elemental constituents of the ore matrix. Chemical analysis of the processed samples gotten from susceptibility studies, revealed that the crude (17.55% Fe2O3) has been successfully upgraded via magnetic separation to 33.01% Fe2O3 at a recovery of 22.78 % and via gravity separation to 18.54% Fe2O3 at a recovery of 54.0%. In conclusion, characterization studies carried out revealed the mineral to be an iron-bearing mineral having silica (quartz) as the major associative gangue and susceptibility studies carried out revealed that it is highly susceptible to magnetic separation method compared to gravity separation.

Adsorption Studies of Heavy Metals and Dyes using Corn Cob: A Review []

In the process, a variety of adsorbents have been treated and modified to increase its efficiency, effectivity, and capabilities to be applied for the major pollutants namely effluent dyes, heavy metals, and organic contaminants. Agricultural wastes, however, showed full utilization because of its abundance in nature. Even though its low-cost, it can compete with other synthetic adsorbents that are highly expensive. The review aims to comprehensively list and discuss adsorbents made of biomass and their adsorption capacity under diverse conditions which will then be compared to corn cob which is the focus of the review. The review literature presented in this paper aims to provide the potential of corn cob as an adsorbent to remove various pollutants from wastewater. However, the practical utility of such adsorbents needs to be further explored before they can be commercially applied.


Female headed household is one in which female has high decision power and play a key role in all household chores such as income generation and provision of care to their members. Female headed households have being engaging in a very low pay job which is not defined as economically active employment in national account just to support their family. In case of female headed households involved in small scale farming and particularly in semi- arid regions are not fully studied. Therefore this study aimed at investigating food security status in female headed households involved in small scale farming in semi-arid region. The study was conducted at Chololo village Kikombo ward in Dodoma Municipality whereby 30 female headed household involved in small scale farming were interviewed. Multiple data collection methods were utilized ranging from Household Survey, Focus group Discussion, Key Informant Interview and Observation. The study found that, female headed household involved in small scale farming in semi arid region are always suffer from food insecurity. The reason is due to the fact that they are in disadvantage side in regard to resource ownership as it was revealed that the maximum size of land one own was two hectors which is very small to support enough food production in semi arid region with precarious climatic condition. Also due to lack of male support they suffer from increased household burden for which they have to carry it alone. All these contribute to food insecurity in female headed household. The study recommends that female headed household should be given special attention by government and considers them as vulnerable group so that they can be included in development agenda.

Modeling and Simulation of Small-Scale Wireless Communication Scenarios []

The present work is dedicated to the simulation of several scenarios that they use the wireless channel as a means of transmission, for which MATLAB simulation software, specifically its SIMULINK tool. In order to achieve this objective, a search was made of information on the main characteristics of communication systems, specifically those of wireless communications, and an in-depth study of the Channel models that include the software in their libraries. Modeling and simulation of five scenarios were carried out, three of them used the Rayleigh channel model and two of them the Rician model, once the simulations were analyzed the main results of each variant used and then arrived at conclusions.


Jaffna, Kilinochchi, Mullaitivu, Vavuniya and Mannar districts are under the Northern Province. Most of the northern region got affected due to the civil war around 30 years. Due to this war water resources development were damaged severely. The major, medium and minor irrigation systems were dilapidated conditions. After the resettlement stack holders are engaged with agriculture activities and several investments were done for the irrigation infrastructure. However still stack holders suffering with cultivation issues. Most of the area of the Northern Province has been used for paddy cultivation. During the dry seasons most of the irrigation schemes in this area became dry. Hence the com-mand area of those irrigation schemes cannot be irrigated successfully for two seasons. As a consequence cultivated crops fail and farmers are affected heavily. Hydrological Modeling is a commonly used tool by water resources planners to simulate the hydrological response in a basin due to the precipitation for the purpose of management of basin water. With the increasing demand for limited water resources in every basin, careful management of water resources be-comes more important. The Kanagarayan Aru River Basin in Srilanka supplies water to number of new and ancient irri-gation systems and the management of water resources in the Kanagarayan Aru River Basin. total catchment area of this River Basin is 906Sq.Km. Important for optimum utilization of water for these irrigation systems in the project con-tinuous rainfall-runoff modeling in pat of the Iranamadu Tank, Chemamadu Tank and Kanagarayan Kulam Tank. Storage Irrigation systems using the hydrological Engineering centre – Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC-HMS) VERSION 3.0.1 to estimate the runoff in the Kanagarayan Aru River

Estimation of Potential Zone of Mackerel Fishing Based on Sea Surface Temperature and chlorophyll-a in Waters Indramayu Using a Citra Aqua Modis []

The objective of this study was to analyze the relation of chlorophyll-a and sea surface water concentration distribution to the mackerel fish catch in the territorial waters of Kabupaten Indramayu and to estimate the map of mackerel fishing potential zone in the territorial waters of Kabupaten Indramayu. The method used in this research is survey method, descriptive discussion with quantitative and correlation approach. The research data includes sea surface water and chlorophyll-a which were obtained using satellite images from KPL Mina Sumitra Indramayu. The result of this study shows that the highest temporal distribution of sea surface temperature tends to occur in the transition season 1 (March-May). The temporal distribution of chlorophyll-a concentrations shows that values tend to be high in the West season (December-February). Distribution of sea surface temperatures tend to have a cooler pattern toward offshore waters and warmer towards coastal waters. Spatial distribution of chlorophyll-a concentration has a tendency to be smaller in offshore waters and higher in the coastal waters. In general, the correlation between sea surface water and chlorophyll-a on CPUE of mackerel fish was quite high. The correlation between sea surface temperature and CPUE of mackerel fish was 0.436. Correlation of chlorophyll-a concentration to CPUE of mackarel fish was 0,431. The estimation of the potential zone of mackerel fishing is located at the latitude line 5ºS and longitude line 108ºE.

Effects of insitu rainwater harvesting and integrated nutrient management options on sorghum production []

Reduced food productivity in smallholder farms is the principal cause of food insecurity in semi-arid and arid areas in Zimbabwe. Crop productivity is low due to inherent soil fertility and limited soil moisture to promote crop growth. The use of insitu rain water harvesting and integrated soil fertility management (ISFM) are the promising practices which can improve crop productivity but their use is not yet clear for sorghum productivity in Zimbabwe. The study aimed to assess the effects of tied ridges, planting pits and conventional tillage in combination with selected organic (cattle manure) / inorganic amendments on sorghum grain and stover yields. The water harvesting techniques evaluated were planting pits, tied ridges and conventional tillage (control). Cattle manure was applied at 0 and 2500 kgha-1, 30 kg N ha-1 was applied in combination with cattle manure and 60 kg N ha-1 was applied as a sole amendment. The experiment was run as a complete randomised design. Experimental data was subjective to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and mean separation using least significance difference (LSD) at p <0.05. the results showed that planting pits with cattle manure (PC) had the highest grain yield of 4.40 t/ha compared to tied ridges and conventional tillage although the results for tied ridges and planting pits were not significantly (p>0.05) different and significantly (p<0.05) different to conventional tillage grain yields. Grain yields from tied ridges and planting pits with cattle manure + 30 kg N ha-1 and with 60 kg N ha-1 only were not significantly (p>0.05) different to grain yield from conventional tillage with cattle manure. Stover yields were highest from planting pits with 60 kg N ha-1 (9.20 t/ha) followed by tied ridges with 60 kg N ha-1 (9.10 t/ha). Treatments with no amendment had the least stover yields which were not significantly (p>0.05) different

Islanding Operation of Distributed Generation System and it’s different Aspects []

As the penetration of renewable energy sources are increasing in the distribution grid, distributed generating system is becoming more popular. Recently the islanding operation of distributed system with distributed generation has become of the one of the biggest area of concern. The islanding can occur intentionally or unintentionally. The intentional islanding operation is providing many benefits to the distribution system operators and is becoming popular day by day. This paper basically focuses on the different aspects of intentional islanding operation of grid.

Metabolic site and metabolites prediction of 2-[(1E)-N-{2-[(2-{(Z)-[1-(2-hydroxyphenyl) ethylidene] amino}ethyl) amino]ethyl} ethanimidoyl] phenol Schiff base ligand []

The aim of the present work was to evaluate In silico the metabolic sites and metabolites of the ligand 2-[(1E)-N-{2-[(2-{(Z)-[1-(2-hydroxyphenyl) ethylidene] amino}ethyl) amino]ethyl} ethanimidoyl] phenol by online computer software programs such as ACD/I-Lab, Metaprint2D.


Urban growth and land use changes in the Federal Capital City (FCT) of Nigeria is on the increase and need to be investigated using geospatial (Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System GIS) techniques. The remotely sensed Land Sat data of 1990, 2004, 2008, 2015, and Sentinel 2 of 2018 were used for the study. The image pre-processing and processing was carried out using ENVI 4.7, ArcGIS 10.1 and QGIS 2.3.18. The stacked composite images were classified into Built-up, rivers, rock surface, vegetation, Thick vegetation, and bare land. The classified images for the various years were compared to investigate urban sprawl and land used changes within the FCT. Cross-tabulation was used to estimate the degree of the urban sprawl, and land use changes in the FCT. And it was noticed that urban sprawl has completely change land use pattern within the FCT most especially Abuja municipal area council which has virtually converted agricultural land to built up. More also, there are considerably more changes noticed across the remaining five area council. However, the degree of urban sprawl and land use changes has affected the natural surfaces, weather, and climatic condition and geological foundation within the FCT. Slums settlement and un-pattern Built-up area have claimed 90% of greenery in the FCT which has resulted to Urban Heat Island (UHI) in the FCT. The ENVI, ArcGIS, and QGIS software were used for download, processing, and creation of the thematic map. The results of the study are the classified thematic map that shows the various classes, accuracy assessment of classified results, cross tabulation results that analyses the transformation of the classes from one class to another within the study area. Conclusively, this study will help town planners to have a better understanding on how to monitor urban growth and development such that, it will favor living condition within the FCT and to preserve agricultural land, greenery, and natural reserve.


Open Private Organization (Public- private partnership) in development is picking up in prominence. PPP acquirement is viewed as a viable method to accomplish an incentive for cash in broad daylight foundation ventures. With the developing financial improvement experienced on the planet, there is an inclination for progressively and better open framework. Open private organization is an inventive strategy for conveying these offices and administrations. This investigation investigates achievement variables of open private organizations and open works ventures. Customarily, freely subsidized open works extends ordinarily incorporate some sort of structure that is utilized by or for the network, for example, dams, roadways, extensions, schools, and government structures. Since the 1980s bigger foundation ventures have started to join some private segment interest. The PPP has turned into an important resource for networks to renew their monetary attractiveness and help with required social, lodging, foundation and business programs. Whenever social, lodging and foundation organization programs have no investors, have confined profit premiums, are free from the state and convey an open administration The reason for this review is to investigate and looks at central factors that add to effective PPP and open works ventures and to thoroughly analyze the discoveries of the examinations to give bits of knowledge to enhancing the current practices of PPP ventures.


Petroleum is the major source of energy exploited worldwide. It is literarily known as ‘black Gold’ because of its scarcity on earth and the economic importance attached to oil and gas exploitation. Crude oil is evaluated by the physicochemical analysis of its constituents. This study investigated the chemical properties of Ngamia oil field in Turkana County, Kenya. The crude oil samples were collected from the Ngamia oil field (Ngamia well sites nos. 3, 6 and 8) and analyzed for pH, moisture contents (MC), total acid number (TAN), sulphur contents and concentration of mineral salts (metals). The results show that the mean levels of Ngamia crude obtained during the study were: Moisture content 0.70 ± 0.17 %, Sulphur content 0.0924 ± 0.0022 %, total acid number 0.66 ± 0.39 Mg, KOH, pH 7.33± 0.45 and that of the metal ion concentrations for the presence of Zn, Cu, Pb, Mn, Cd, Fe, Na, K and Ca ions were Zn(8.90 ±1.03) µgg-1, Cu(25.28±3.99) µgg-1, Fe(12.91±1.63) µgg-1 and Mn(8.10±1.84). The mean concentrations for Sodium, Calcium and Potassium were (70.50±2.52), (1983±2.58) and (22.0±3.57) respectively. The concentration levels of both Cadmium and Lead were below the detection limit. In conclusion, the Ngamia oil was found to be weakly acidic with low moisture content % (0.70± 0.17) and is free from high heavy metal ion concentrations.


Climate change has significantly affect the livelihood of many people across global for many years. Sub Saharan Africa is amongst of the regions of the World where those impacts are apparently. Despites the prevalence of the problem many initiatives to capacitate famers to cope with the situation has been made including dissemination of knowledge and new technologies on climate smart agriculture practices. This study therefore intended to verify the status of Small Holder Farmers livelihood in Tanzania Lake Zone regions (Shinyanga, Simiyu, and Tabora) where many projects on CSA capacity building and support were made since 2014. Six Districts namely Igunga, Shinyanga, Msalala, Maswa and Urambo were randomly selected through which samples were drawn. The study used both probability and non probability sampling design for obtaining all sampled respondents including 160 Small Households Famers (SHFs), and 10 Extension officers. Data were collected from both primary and secondary sources, while instruments for data collection include survey method through the use of questionnaire, interview, Focus group discussion, and observation. The findings revealed that, climate change has significantly impact SHFs in Tanzania and Lake Zone in particular. This resulted to reduced production. This can be revealed by the status of harvest farmers obtain in the past farming season 2016/2017 where data show that there was variation of harvest among farmers in comparison to their investment (farm size and fund spent). Majority earn low harvest. However the efforts made by many projects including Rural and Urban Development Initiatives (RUDI), Heifer International, JICA, Musoma Food Company, Oxfarm and other development partners in terms of CSA knowledge and technology in some areas especially those with irrigation schemes has slowly changed the situation. On the other hand the survey discovered that, SHFs suffer much from insufficient extension services, pest and diseases, and unreliable government and other development partners’ supply of subsidies. Other challenges involved limited capital, low price of agricultural out puts and presence of low quality seeds in market places which continue to damage their efforts. The recommended solutions include the following: training on CSA knowledge dissemination should go in line with material support such as provision of improved seeds and fertilizers in contractual basis. During survey it was identified that the majority of SHFs were guilt on receiving training but fail to put in practices due to low income. Inputs and technology are expensive. Further SHF’s are highly exploited in market places. It is highly recommended that project in place should link farmers to reliable markets of their produce either through contractual basis or in other appropriate arrangement. Furthermore, training which are going on CSA knowledge dissemination and practices should go hand in hand with fully material supports. During the verification it was identified that, majority of SHF’s were guilt on receiving more training but fail to put in practices due to low income. Inputs and technology are expensive. In deed the supply of inputs should go in line with agricultural calendar and the amount to be supplied should depend on farmers request with regards to the targeted farms size. Further SHF’s are highly exploited in market places by middle men. It is highly recommended that project in place should link farmers to reliable markets through contract basis or in other appropriate arrangement. To the government, extension services is a challenging issue to most of rural farmers in Tanzania, This is partly due to limited human resources as well as limited transport facilities as witnessed during the survey. It is also recommended that, more extension officers are required to accommodate the required services. The supply of subsides by government also need to be reliable and manageable to farmers. Government should also play part on price control so as farmers can earn considerably.


The existing study aims to highlight the challenges and opportunities of e-government in the third world nation. World governments are investing outmost efforts to launch the reliable e-projects and reduce the traditional work mechanism in the public sector organizations. The miracle of globalization empowered the next generation with the adaptation of scientific age to interconnect whole world as a global village via online means. The majority the earlier researchers paid attention on developed countries, whereas developing countries are beyond the centre of attention and face the number of multifaceted hindrances in the social, political and economic nature in order to meet the e-project goals. The current study presents the debate concerning the opportunities and obstacle of e-government in the developing countries like Pakistan. In this way, there are several opportunities of e-governments in Pakistan society to make it adoptable in the society and it results to decrease investment of time and resources on traditional work mechanism. The major dilemmas relating to the third world countries are associated with to social, political and economic issues. Additionally, this study also provides appropriate strategies to prevail over the obstacles, in order to meet challenges to be faced in the way to adopt e-project and make it successful. Thus it can be expected, that prevailing review will assist to understand the key difficulties related to technological adoption which are belong to political, social, economic, infrastructural, and users’ perspectives and legal issues in Pakistan. In this study, the nature of the conceptual research has been incorporated and exploratory research followed. It can also assist the researchers, policy makers and officials for their positive implementation and development of e-projects.

Indeginise management solution to Pakistan excess naphtha []

Pakistan is gasoline deficit country (Platt’s).Crude oil refineries in Pakistan are contributing 33.6 % to the country gasoline demand. Around a million metric ton of Naphtha i.e. raw material to produce gasoline was exported during financial year 2014-15, OCAC Pakistan Oil Report (2014-15). Naphtha could not be used as final product due to its lower octane number of 67(max) while the gasoline used in vehicles should have octane number of 87(min). Countries with lower technology advancement opt to produce gasoline either by using blending techniques or by using different additives, Ivanova & Tsigankova, (2011). Russia, Ukraine, China and other countries where the industry does not provide sufficient production of high gasoline fractions are fulfilling their gasoline deficit by using Octane boosters. Technology advancement on the other side, especially in Pakistan, is not only time taking activity but is also an expensive option for crude oil refineries. NMA, n- methyl aniline, is the non metallic additive and octane booster that is proposed to be used all over the country at a minimum percentage of 1.5 %. It will not only enhance the in-house gasoline production 95% but will also reduce Naphtha exports and gasoline imports. The paper discusses the impact of octane booster on petrol and naphtha market of Pakistan.