Volume 7, Issue 10, October 2019 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Many MSMEs souvenirs of West Sumatra specialty food that have sprung up in West Sumatra make not all businesses run well because of business competition, where there are differences between MSMEs both in terms of quality and quantity. MSMEs food souvenirs in West Sumatra, especially in the city of Padang are usually dominated by non-native people who are non-native people of Padang who have long lived in the city of Padang. Therefore in this study, we want to find out how marketing is compared to native and non-native MSMEs in the city of Padang. Are there differences in activities and marketing strategies in native and non-indigenous MSMEs. In collecting data the method used by interviewing informants directly. The type of interview used in this study is a semi-structured interview which means the researcher already has a guideline regarding what information will be collected. From the results of research on marketing strategies carried out by MSME souvenirs of Minang typical foods owned by natives and non-natives have similarities and differences. Conclusions can be drawn as to why non-natives are more well-known than natives, because non-natives are more active in attracting consumers than indigenous MSMEs. Non-native MSMEs are able to provide convenience to consumers by way of ordering via online, telephone, and whatsapp, and can also be assisted by sending through the expedition from the MSME. MSMEs souvenirs from Minang special foods, especially indigenous people, need to develop the market, for example, providing delivery service. It is better to do more promotion for MSME souvenirs of Minang special foods both non-native and indigenous online, mass media, and electronic media so that they can reach more markets.

Honor Killings, what does it feel to be a problem? What does it feel to be a woman? Jordan as an Example []

Abstract Honor killings in all over the world, mainly within the Muslim communities, take the attention and the concern of human rights activists and women’s forum discussions. However, despite all the human rights instruments, local legal codes, and research that has been done so far, the crime is still in the loop. Honor crimes in Jordan is one of the crimes that the country has not been able to stop despite the change in the law, education and political well in the country. However, this paper is not tackling honor killings from a legal angle or as a social problem. Rather, it articulates the fact that women need to recover their voice exactly as Mary Prince did in McBride’s book Truth, Abolitionism, and Slave Testimony Impossible Witnesses (McBride, 2011) Mary Prince who lived “freedom” although she was bounded by all the barriers looks like most victims of honor killings in the Arab world in general and in Jordan in particular. This papers aims at liking impact of honor killings in Jordan to the same impact of accepting crimes under the name of honor and accepting the outcomes of being a victim of the honor killings crime. This paper concludes that the war against honor crimes in Jordan should take the path that Mary Prince took to fight slavery. Keywords: honor killings, honor, Jordan, Slavery and Mary Prince.

Substance use and risky sexual behaviors among students of the University of Abuja, Federal Capital Territory (FCT) Nigeria. []

ABSTRACT Background: Use of alcohol and other substances has been linked to risky sexual behaviours. Substance use and risky sexual behaviours have negative effects on the individual and the society, therefore, there is an urgent need to identify the factors that contribute to these practices. The study set out to assess the burden of substance use and the magnitude of risky sexual behaviours among University of Abuja students, factors associated with substance use and those associated with risky sexual behaviours; and to assess the association between substance use and risky sexual behaviours in the same population. Methodology: this was a cross-sectional study which investigated the burden and relationship between substance use and risky sexual behaviours were investigated among 363 1st to 6th year students from 10 faculties of university of Abuja. The students were selected using simple random sampling technique. Data collection instrument was adopted from WHO questionnaire on substance use and risky sexual behaviours. Data was analysed using SPSS software version 20 and the appropriate test statistics with level of significance set at p-value <0.05. Results: Lifetime substance use among male and female respondents was (75.8% and 53.8%, p = 0.0001), current substance use amongst males and females was (25% and 8.8%, p = 0.194) for alcohol and (6.4% and 1.4%, p = 0.282) for cigarette respectively. The major reasons for substance use among males and females were “to enjoy living” (75.0% vs. 25.0%) and “for curiosity” (61.8% vs. 38.2%, p= 0.622). Significant predictors of substance use were type of accommodation (OR: 5.2, 95% C.I: 1.107, 24.86) and faculty (OR: 4.4, 95% CI: 1.268, 15.445). Lifetime practice of risky sexual behaviour was 41.6% and major predictors for risky sexual behaviour were marital status (OR 5.2, 95% CI: 1.540, 5.848, p = 0.014) and substance use (OR 3.8, (95% CI: 3.763, 3.763, p = 0.001). Conclusion: This study suggests a heavy burden of substance use and risky sexual behaviour. Appropriate health education and substance use cessation strategies are urgently needed to mitigate these problems.

The Effect of Work Motivation as Mediation Variable Between Training and Performance in Employees of PT. PLN (Persero) Transmission Service Unit Padang []

This study aims to determine the effect of training on performance. The effect of work motivation as a mediating variable was also examined. This research was conducted on the employees of PT. PLN (Persero) UPT Padang. Data was collected from 186 permanent employees of PT. PLN (Persero) UPT Padang and through field surveys. The results of the survey data were analyzed using Smart PLS software. The results supported that the training had a significant positive effect on employee’s performance. Employee motivation had a significant effect on employee’s performance. The results of the study also supported that training had a significant positive effect on motivation. This study concludes that employee motivation partially mediates the relationship between employee training and employee’s performance. Keywords: Training , Motivation, Employee’s performance

Theoretical Expression of Forbidden Energy Level and Existence of Tiny Segment Photon []

The objective of this paper is to show the existence of numbers of forbidden energy level in forbidden gap or between valance and conduction band by theoretical approximation. This mode work for those system, which have conduction and valance band and can be seen clearly when low energy photon incidence on materials surface, having energy is less then the work function of materials. In this paper lower energy refer from 0 to slightly less than work function of materials. When photon incidence on the target electron having less energy (in eV) then work function electron is not kick out from materials but the energy of the incidence photon is loss. In this work we are trying to show that these energy is not loss but it emit a new photon called tiny segment photon in between these band or forbidden energy level. The emission of such tiny segment photon take place when electron get energy from incidence photon, and are unable to leave the material or incidence photon has no more energy to reach electron to conduction band or beyond it. When electron get energy from incidence photon it goes on excitation either there is less or greater than work function. If energy is greater than work function photoelectric effect take place but if less then photo-emission take place. This photo-emission take place from any energy level between forbidden energy level in forbidden gap or conduction and valance band.

The Effect of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and Government Capital Expenditures on Environmental Quality in Indonesia []

This study aims to determine the direct and indirect effects, foreign direct investment (FDI) and government capital expendi-ture on environmental quality in Indonesia. The data analysis technique used to discuss the problems in this study is the structural analysis model. The results showed that direct foreign investment (FDI) had no direct effect on environmental quality, but direct for-eign investment (FDI) had a negative effect on environmental quality through GDP per capita and poverty, and for government capital expenditure directly had a negative effect on environmental quality, whereas Government capital expenditure has a positive effect on environmental quality through GDP per capita and poverty.


The purpose of this study was to determine the factors that influence interests of millennial generation towards purchase decision involvement mediated by trusts. The independent variable in this study is social media usage, eWOM, third party recognition, and legal framework. The data of this study consisted of primary data and secondary data. Primary data were obtained from 216 respondents. Secondary data obtained from books, journals, and publications related to this research. Data analysis technique used in this study is Maximum Likelihood. In this study obtained social media usage, eWOM, and legal framework have a significant positive effect on purchase decision involvement, while third party recognition has no effect. For mediation by trusts, social media usage, eWOM, third party recognitiom, and legal framework, affect purchase decision involvement.


ABSTRACT: inclusive education at all institutional level continues to be a major concern of the Ministry of Education in Rwanda. This is because the quality of education depends largely on inclusive education at all level of education. It is on this basis of the above assumption that this study was set out to investigate contribution of educational resource centres to the promotion of inclusive education in Rwanda. To accomplish this task survey method was used in conducting the study. The total of 158 respondents were used for data collection out of which 24 children with disability, 67 were children without disability, 45 respondents were teachers, 15 respondents were parents, 5 head teachers were used, 1 sector education officer was used and 1 leader of Komera785 Centre was used in the study. Stratified random sampling technique and purposive sampling were used to identify the study sample. Questionnaires and interview guides were used for data collection. Documentation, Qualitative and quantitative techniques were employed to analyze data. The study revealed the following challenges facing educational resource centres: shortage of qualified staff personnel; inadequate educational materials; insufficient physical facilities: lack of support from the community; negative attitude from the community. In conclusion, urgent measures should be put in place so as to minimize the hindrances. Keywords: Challenges, Inclusive education, educational resource centre


Voice onset time is measured as the time interval between the release burst and the first quasi periodicity in the acoustic signal (Lisker and Abramson 1964). VOT value are not absolute; they are rather influenced by several factors such as rate of speech, gender, age, vowel duration, height of the vowel, place of the articulation and so on. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of age and gender on voice onset time with respect to voiced stop consonants in typical Malayalam speakers. For this study 80 subjects were grouped into two age group (adolescence and adult). The three voiced stop consonants /b/, /d/, /g/ were stimulus for the study. The participants were seated comfortably in front of a computer connected to a microphone kept at a constant distance of approximately 5cm from the mouth of the speaker. The utterances were recorded and acoustically analyzed via PRAAT. During the formal recording, they were required to read the words in a normal speed. All productions were recorded with a sampling rate of 44.1 kHz. The VOT values of the target stops were obtained from the wave form and verified with the spectrogram. As for the spectrographic readings VOT intervals from the beginning of the release burst to the onset of voicing were analyzed. The obtained data statistically analyzed. The result conforming that adult performance was slightly better when compare to adolescence for all the voiced stop consonants/b/, /d/, /g/. Across genders females are having high VOT when compare to males, The mean VOT value for adolescents across the group of females and males for bilabial /b/ was 21.65 and 20.85 and statistical comparison yielded no significant results (p value; .558) and for Adult across the group of females and males for bilabial /b/ was 28.05 and 24.25 and statistical comparison yielded significant results (p value; .025) The VOT value for Adolescents across the group of females and males for alveolar /d/ was 25.15 and 21.9 and statistical comparison yielded highly significant results (p value; .017) and for adult across the group of females and males for alveolar /d/ was 29.7 and 25.55 and statistical comparison yielded highly significant results (p value; .004)


ABSTRACT This research aimed to determine the level of panelists' preference for marinated Osteochilus hasselti fillet for five differ-ences treatment. This research was conducted at the Laboratory of Fisheries Product Processing at the Faculty of Fisher-ies and Marine Sciences, Padjadjaran University, which began from April 2019 to May 2019. The research method was carried out experimentally consisting of 5 different soaking times as a treatment namely for 70 minutes, 80 minutes, 90 minutes, 100 minutes , and 110 minutes with 20 semi-trained panelists as examiner (replications). The observation pa-rameters in this study were the rendement of Osteochilus hasselti fillet, the appearance of Osteochilus hasselti fillet with photograph, organoleptic test, and pH test. The method of preference analysis used Friedman and Bayes Test. Fillet rendement, the appearance and pH test were analyzed descriptively. The most preferred product by panelists was mari-nated Osteochilus hasselti fillet with a soaking time of 80 minutes that has a shiny grayish-white appearance with a pH value of 6,3. Keywords : Marinated, Osteochilus hasselti Fillet, pH, Soaking Time, Levels of Preference.

Spontaneous Perforation of Sigmoid Colon: Case Study []

Spontaneous perforation of colon (SPC) is defined as sudden perforation of deceptively healthy colon in absence of diseases or injury. SPC is a rare clinical case which is rarely reported in literature, less than 100 cases were reported. Case report: A 45-year-old gentleman presented to emergency room (ER) with acute renal failure, and admitted to the ICU. In the ICU, abdominal Pain started with sudden onset and then increasing intensity of pain with abdominal distention. On general examination, he was conscious, alert. His vital signs: afebrile, pulse: 106/m, B.P: 140/100, local examination showed generalized abdominal tenderness & distention with absent intestinal sounds. P.R. exam showed remnants of stool with blood stain on gloves, no masses. Computerized tomography (CT) abdomen showed perforation of viscus with abdominal collection. He was taken to operation room (OR) and Hartman procedure was done. Post -operative period was uneventful and he was discharged in good health. Three months later, he was admitted for colostomy revers. Conclusion: SPC is a serious condition with great morbidity and mortality due to delay in diagnosis and management. We consider it is essential to call attention to the probability of spontaneous perforation in the presence of diverticulosis. In operating on patients with acute abdominal conditions, the surgeon at times discovers peritonitis without recognizable cause. Therefore, every effort should be made to make diagnosis especially in elderly and prompt surgical intervention should be done.


Tanjungsari is one of the districts in Sumedang which has the third-highest population density, so the impact on high food industries such as restaurants. This situation can have the impact of organic waste products provide high dining so it needs the utilization of organic waste as not to become a new problem. One of the efforts is to utilize organic restaurant waste as an alternative feed ingredient. This research aims to analyze the extension that is done to the community Tanjungsari, about the utilization of restaurant organic waste as fish feed has a function as information about these innovations. The method in this research is the descriptive-analytical approaches to the public with the participation of outreach activities, through pre-test and post-test. Based on the research that has been done obtained increased public interest to utilize organic waste as fish feed and the public understand that making the feed to utilize organic waste meal was able to have economic value and be able to help reduce the pollutant load of organic waste.

A Parametric Test of Ground Zero – Sino-US Trade War []

On $34 billion worth of Chinese goods, including flat-screen televisions, aircraft parts, and medical devices the trump administration imposed sweeping tariffs. The goods marked for tariffs will now face a punishing 25 percent border tax when they will be imported into the US. It is done to penalise China by making Chinese products more expensive for American consumers and businesses to buy. If Chinese products suddenly become more costly, they’ll buy those same products from somewhere else, and Chinese businesses will lose money in the market. China immediately accused the US of starting “the largest trade war in economic history to date” and responded by imposing 25 percent tariffs on $34 billion worth of US goods, including soybeans, automobiles, and lobsters.

Constraints to Agroforestry practices and Livelihood Outcome of farmers in adjoining communities of Onigambari Forest reserve, Oyo-state, Nigeria. []

Agroforestry integrates trees with crops and /or animals with the main objectives of reducing risk and increasing total productivity. This study reveals the constraints to agroforestry practices and livelihood outcome of farmers in adjoining communities of Onigambari forest reserve of Oyo-state, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling technique was used, five adjoining communities were randomly selected for the study and systematic random sampling was used to select farming households from each of the communities. Fifty percent (50%) of farming households were randomly selected across the communities giving a sample size of 139 respondents. Primary data was obtained using a well-structured questionnaire complemented with interview schedule to elicit more information from the farmers. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical tools. Results show that male farmers were greater in number than female farmers. Most of the respondents were medium scale farmers who source for credit from self, friends and family. Farmers were cultivating between four to six acres of land for their farming activities with more than one farm land under their control. Farmers were into all forms of agroforestry practices. The prevalent agroforestry practices among the respondents in the study area was home-stead gardens, tree planting/ animal rearing, community woodlots, apiculture and tree planting on boundaries. The main constraints encountered by the agroforestry farmers in the study area was lack of access to credit followed closely by climate change and long gestation periods of trees. Pearson Product Moment Correlation analysis shows no significant relationship between constraint faced by farmers and their livelihood outcome. Farmers should establish cooperative societies through farmers’ associations to access soft loans in order to address the constraint of lack of access to credit. Farmers should also be enlightened more on measures to mitigate and adapt with climate change issues. Research institutes should disseminate more information to farmers about trees whose gestation period has been reduced so that farmers can plant such trees with crops on their farmlands. Keywords: Agroforestry, access to credit, constraints, farmers

ATM PIN Authentication using Facial Recognition []

Whenever someone enters their pin while withdrawing money from the ATM machine, they make sure that no one has stuck their eyes to it. People tend to check their pockets and wallets thousand times once they have entered their card in some machine just to check if they have their cards safely with them. They remain very careful, yet people have different ways like - skimming, using fake keyboards, using hidden cameras, card tapping and keystroke logging to hack the pin and use others’ card. So, to avoid such practices we plan on designing a machine that along with the pin, also detects the face of the person using the card. If the user’s face does not match with the database, he/she will not get access to the further page. The access will be denied and the person using the card will not be able to make any transactions or alter any data. Along with the user, authorized spouse, and children whose information is fed in the database can use the card. So, if the family can manage only one card, there is no problem since, it won’t hamper the security of the system anyways. This enables full security as no other person can access and use the card except for the most trusted ones who are registered in the database. Even if someone manages to get the card, he/she cannot use it; as facial recognition runs parallel with the pin entering process, the system remains unbeatable.


The quality of Web Services (WS) depends on the efficiency of considered WS model. In a real environment, the efficiency of WS models are measured and evaluated by various vital metrics such as: reducing Response Time (RT), CPU Utilization and memory space. Traditional WS model has three components, which are WS Provider, WS Consumer and WS Registry as in [5],[3] .Actually, WS have two types based on principles either SOAP or REST as in [6].Each SOAP and REST has advantages and disadvantages over others. SAOP depend on XML files rather than REST that can operate on XML or JSON files. In fact, XML files have a large size and more manipulating time rather than JSON files. In this paper, proposed component has been added and tested into WS traditional model that has been called XMLOptimizer. Based on results of experiments that have done on WS model with XMLOptimizer, the XMLOptimizer enhanced the performance of WS. The measured factors of performance were Response Time (RT), CPU Utilities and Memory space. For instance, the RT of search operation has been enhanced to 99% as well as the memory space of XML files have been reduced by 90%.


Climatic and non-climatic factors play a significant role in food crop production. Research has proven that given our limited ability to predict climate-change-induced actions, coupled with our inadequate understanding of how climatic and non-climatic factors contribute to determining food crop production is the main reason for variations in food crop especially in the developing countries. This paper attempts a comparative analysis between climatic and non-climatic factors and their influence on agricultural production in Ndu Sub-Division. Field observations, focused group discussions and interviews were the major sources of data collection. A total of 200 questionnaires were distributed during the study to food crop cultivators. This provided information on how climatic factors of rainfall have influenced food crop production in the area. On the other hand, the non-climatic factors were carefully observed in the field. Data gotten from the archives of the Nkambe Urban Council especially the map of the study area and the Ministry of Agriculture and MINEPIA constitute secondary sources of data collection. The data were analysed in both qualitative and quantitative terms. Inferential statistics were used to show the correlation between climatic and non-climatic factors and their influence on crop production in the region. The relationship between crop and cattle production with rainfall, temperatures and relative humidity in Ndu was established using the regression analysis technique. From this study, non-climatic factors require careful attention when attempting to predict the biotic consequences of climate variability and change. The study concluded that in as much as climate variability is affecting food crop production, the non-climatic factors should be given a careful thought as they also impact negatively on food crop production. Key Words: Comparative analysis, Climatic and Non-climatic factors, Implications, Food Crop Production.

Morbidity and mortality of newborns born to mothers with or without diabetes at EHS " Nouar Fadela " in Oran,ALGERIA []

Introduction: Maternal diabetes is one of the factors that influences birth weight. However, there are few data on complications in neonates from diabetic mothers. The objective of this work is to compare the morbidity and mortality of newborns of mothers with and without diabetes. Material and methods: This is a retrospective and analytical study of all term newborns born to mothers with or without diabetes from April 15, 2015 to March 15, 2017 inclusive. We identified the maternal characteristics, the existence of an old diabetes. With regard to neonatal characteristics: birth weight, birth status, presence of traumatic lesions or other perinatal complications and become immediate. The data were analyzed using the chi (2) test and Fisher's exact test. Logistic regression analysis was also performed. Results: 889 mother-newborn couples were included in the study (147 newborns of diabetic mothers (NMD) and 742 newborns of non-diabetic mothers (NMND). Maternal characteristics: mean age was 30 , 4 ± 6.1 years, diabetes was 19%, of which 15.3% gestational diabetes. Newborn characteristics: mean NMD weight was 3974 ± 578 and 3664.27 ± 512 gr in NMND ( p < 0.0001) .The incidence of hypoglycemia was 31.97% in NMD versus 11.3% NMND (p < 0.0001). Hypocalcemia was 4.8% and 2%, respectively. , 2% NMD and NMND (p < 0.05), 2% brachial plexus paralysis in NMD versus 0.9% NMND and macrosomia 66.7% vs. 44.1% (p. < 0.0001) Conclusion: Our results suggest that newborns of diabetic mothers are at increased risk for hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia and macrosomia in the early neonatal period.

Identification of risk factors for neonatal macrosomia at EHS Nouar Fadela -oran (Algeria) []

Introduction : A newborn is said macrosome if the birth weight is higher than the 90th percentile according to the reference curves. It is a population at risk exposed to neonatal complications that can compromise the vital prognosis and / or functional.Objective : to estimate the hospital prevalence of macrosomia and to identify the risk factors for its occurrence.Patients and methods : this is a cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study ; carried out at the neonatology department " Nouar Fadela ".Results : during the period from April 15, 2015 to March 15, 2017, 6741 deliveries were made. We collected 889 newborns in this study including 425 mothers-newborns macrosomes, a hospital prevalence of 6.3%. For maternal characteristics: on average, mothers were 30 ± 5.70 years old and had a BMI of 27.4 ± 4.9 kg / m 2 . The high way was the main outcome of delivery of newborns macrosomes. For the characteristics of the newborns: the birth weight (PN) varied between 4000gr and 5900gr with an average PN of: 4172 ± 339 gr. Neonatal morbidity in macrosomes is dominated by: hypoglycemia in 19.3% versus 10.6% in eutrophic patients; deep hematomas in 3.8% vs 1.9% and brachial plexus palsy (PPB) in 2.1% versus 0.2 in eutrophic patients. Lethality was noted in 0.9% of cases compared to 0.6% in eutrophic patients. A number of epidemiological elements have been found in the genesis of macrosomia: obesity, weight gain, history of macrosomia, diabetes and the advanced term. Conclusion : Macrosomia remains a risky situation, which is worrying because of its morbidity and neonatal mortality.


ABSTRACTCooking increases the safety of food by inhibiting the growth of harmful microbes and increasing shelf-life. However, the type of heat a product is subjected to have a profound effect on the final product both chemically and physically. Suya is boneless meat of animals usually from beef that is stacked on sticks, sauced and oiled and then grilled over a glowing fire which is usually charcoal. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of different sources of heat on the nutritional and keeping qualities of suya.A total of twenty-four Semitendinosus muscle was harvested from the carcasses of twelve fattened Balami rams; these were sliced into thin sheets and stacked into Suya stick. The weight of each stick before and after the meat was stacked was recorded. A total of 120 sticks of meat were prepared, randomly allotted to the two sources of heat. The final products were labeled Gas Suya (GS) and Charcoal Suya (CS), respectively. The average weight of the meat and stick together were between 14-17g. The raw meat with sauce and oil, GS and CS were subjected to analysis. The laboratory analysis includes cooking loss (CL), water holding capacity (WHC), product yield (PY) and chemical composition (CC) using AOAC methods, microbiological counts (log 102cfu/g cm2) using the total aerobic count (TAC) method.The results showed that CL (27.58±2.69%), was significantly higher (P=0.05) in CS, while WHC (87.53±6.90%) and PY (78.96±5.47) were significantly (P<0.05) higher in GS. The ash content (8.52±0.47%) of CS, the moisture (23.03±0.41%) and cholesterol (53.08±3.96%) contents of GS were significantly higher (P=0.05). The TAC (2.83±0.20) of CS was higher (P=0.05) than 1.30±0.20 of GS. The chemical and physical composition of GS are better than those of CS Suya, therefore, using gas in the grilling of Suya will be a great advantage to the producer and the consumer. Keywords: Suya, heat, microbiological counts, gas, charcoal, cooking loss, water holding capacity, aerobic counts


The Nigeria police force which is an organised security agency today was not always in that manner, the existence of security agencies can be traced as far back as the pre-colonial traditional society and colonial era. (Ojukwu, 2016) “It is known that both in ancient and contemporary times, nation states, cities and villages, organised, and still organise structures and services to keep their environments and people from attack and threats of attack.” In the traditional Nigeria society i.e before the arrival of the colonial masters the people were guarded and guided through a system of native laws, customs and sanctions gotten from traditional religion. The organised body which carried out the functions during that period was the age-grade system; the kwav was the age-grade that performed the function among the Tiv people, ilari in Oyo, Odi in Ijebu, amongst others. The importance of security agencies cannot be over-emphasised as enforcing of law, maintenance of law and order, prevention and detection of crime is done by them. They are numerous security offices saddled with the obligation of Nigeria's National security be it interior or outer, they are; the Army, Air Force, Navy, the Nigeria Police Force, and so on.


The project titled reconfigurable leather cutting machine is designed to include functions such as; integrability, modularity, customizability, convertibility, and diagnosability in the design of a leather cutting machine. This machine is reconfigurable to suit the purpose for which it employed. The project also includes various material selection for the most favorable design of the device as well as the results obtained from the software test of the machine. SOLIDWORKS software was employed in the design and analysis of the components of the leather cutting machine. The cutting pattern was successfully determined, and it was observed that various cutting patterns could be obtained depending on the positions of the main carriage, cross carriage, and shaft movement per time.


ABSTRACT Mechanical technology education as a branch of Technical Vocational Education and Training is geared towards preparing youths for work. It is a suitable means of tackling the socio- economic challenges currently faced by the nation with respect to dwindling revenue, social unrest and increase in unemployment rate. This work reviews the factors that determine the economic growth of any nation and the relationship between economic growth and development of people and of nations at large. It highlights mechanical technology education as a potential tool that can provide the much needed knowledge and skills for manpower development for the teeming unemployed and unemployable Nigerian youths translating to viable economic activities, less dependency on foreign expertise ,imported technologies, goods and services. This paper also considers modern practices in the field of mechanical technology, it also reviews the challenges faced by institutions in the delivery of mechanical technology education in Nigeria. Finally, summary and suggestions for effective delivery of this important field of study was made. KEYWORDS: Mechanical Technology Education, Economic Growth, Development, Socio-Economic Challenges. Unemployment rate.


This research work investigated the effect of the application of rock phosphate (RP)and different rates of cow dung fertilizer on the heavy metals uptake in Amaranthus viridis collected from experimental and control sites in Ile -Ife, Nigeria. The residual concentrations of the elements lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and arsenic (As) in the crop following the fertilizer treatments were calculated as the transfer factor (TF). A total of 18 subplots containing the crops were treated with the fertilizers and the treatments consisted of RP alone; RP + 1.0 tha- 1 ; ; RP + 2.0 tha- 1 ; RP + 3.0 tha- 1 RP + 4.0 tha- 1 and minus RP and cow dung as the control. The experimental design used was the Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) which consisted of a control and the ttreatments had PR added singly and in a combination with different levels of cow dung.

Urban Growth Assessment and Its Impact on Deforestation in Kwali Area Council, Abuja Nigeria Using Geo-spatial Technology []

Abstract The level of Urbanization in Kwali Area Council in last thirty (31) years has resulted to the degradation of vegetal cover. This study assessed the impact of urban growth on vegetation cover between 1987 and 2018 using geospatial technology. The images of different epochs (1987, 2001 and 2018) were classified into built-up area, farmland, grassland, forestland and bare land. This was carried out using ARC GIS 10.1 and Idrisi Selva software’s. The result indicates that built-up area and bare land increased between 1987 and 2018 while vegetation cover decreased. This shows a rapid increase in built-up area (urban growth) and rapid decrease in forest (deforestation), which may be attributed to lack of improper environmental protection strategy . The study demonstrates the potentialities of remote sensing and GIS in assessing urban growth and its impacts on deforestation. The outcome of the study can serve as input into a relationship model for predicting the impact of urban growth on deforestation. The study further recommend the urgent need to carry out the Master Plan Review to secure the vegetative land cover, particularly the forest lands which have been greatly encroached by urbanization. The government should encourage environmental sustainable programmes that will foster forest development, urban agriculture and other urban expansion processes in Kwali Area Council

Effect of Fiber Content and Chemical Modification on Sound Absorption of Bagasse Fiber-Filled Polyurethane Composite []

Sugarcane (Saccharum Officinarum) residue from Savanna Sugar Company in Numan local government area, Adamawa State, Nigeria was used as reinforcing filler in the preparation of natural fiber reinforced polymer composites for sound absorption application with polyurethane as the matrix. In order to determine the effect of fiber content and chemical modification of the natural fiber on sound absorption of the polymer composite, the prepared fiber was divided into three (3) portions, the crude (raw), mercerized and acetylated parts. 5% w/v of NaOH was used for mercerization process while mercerized fiber was further treated with 10% w/v of acetic acid and 14% w/v of acetic anhydride for acetylating. Four (4) fiber loading compositions of 5, 10, 15 & 20 wt% for the crude, mercerized and acetylated fibers were utilized while 100% pure matrix was used as control. The matrix and fiber were compounded using open molding casting technique (free rising foaming method) after magnetic and mechanical stirrers were used to attain homogenous mixture. Samples of the pure matrix, crude and treated composites were subjected to sound absorption coefficient measurement within the frequency range of 50-1600 Hz according to ASTM E1050-10. The results obtained revealed that both the Alkali and acetylating treatments carried out were successful in modification of the fiber. The crude fiber composite with 20wt% fiber loading has the best sound absorption coefficient of 0.925 which can be compared with materials in sound absorption class A, while mercerized and acetylated composites recorded low sound absorption coefficients in the range of 0.068-0.386 and fall in class D, E & F. The newly developed composite materials in class A and D have better sound absorption coefficient than the pure matrix and can be used for sound absorption applications in buildings.

Experimental study on the impact of clay particles in coarse aggregate on concrete compressive strength []

Coarse aggregates often contain a layer of small particles bounded strongly or weakly to the aggregate surface (a surface coating). This experimental study evaluates the impact of clay particles in the coarse aggregates on compressive strength of concrete. The tests were conducted on the most used concrete constituents in Addis Ababa city in Mafcon Engineering and construction (PLC) laboratory. Tests for compressive strength of concretes are carried out by six cubes of size 15cm*15cm*15cm. All test specimens are prepared in accordance to the ACI mix-design. The concrete is poured in the mould and tempered properly so as not to have any voids. After 24-hours these moulds are removed and test specimens are put in potable water for curing. For all concrete strengths studied in this research the specimens are tested by compression testing machine after 7 days curing and 28 days curing. The clay quantity in the coarse aggregates used for this study are 0%,2.5%,5%,7.5% ,10%and 15% by weight. For all those percentage of clay quantities, the type of water, quantity of sand and quantity cement have not been changed and the all results were compared to the properties of concrete which does not contain clay particles in coarse aggregates. Also additional two tests were performed having a more contaminate or high clay particles (dust particles) in the coarse aggregates and high crushed values of coarse aggregate on production from different locations of supplied aggregates. From this study it was found that the concrete compressive strength is inversely proportional to the quantity of clay particles contained in coarse aggregates.


This paper examined inventory of landuse activities in riparian area of a stream, a case study of Ogangan stream in Igede-Ekiti with the major aim of determining the land use activities existing in the immediate riparian area of the stream. The study was carried out in 2019 and employed the collection of data from both primary and secondary sources. Primary sources of data for this study were mainly observation. The outcome of the study revealed that there are various classfications of landuse within Ogagan River riparian corrridor, which ranges from Agricultural, residential, industrial landuse. The study concluded that riparian zone is one of the most degraded ecosystems in the world with agricultural land use considered the broadest stressors and therefore recommended that there should be enforcement of the watershed management regulation for protection of 150m from the sides of rivers..


The construction industry in Ethiopia is booming sector because of increased public investment on development projects and private investments. So in this wide industry, Failure of concrete structures leading to collapse of buildings has initiated various researches on the quality of construction materials. Sand, as one of the most accessible natural resources, has been used mostly as a construction material since the earliest days of civilization. It is defined as continuously graded unconsolidated material (sediment) present on the earth's surface as a result of the natural disintegration of rock. The sand is an inert element essential in the composition of concrete; its use ensures granular continuity between the cement and gravel for better cohesion of concrete. In Ethiopia, rivers sands are transported kilometers away from Addis Ababa. So Supplying of natural sand from the quarry site is exposed for so many irregularities which affect the Compressive property of concrete. Natural sand should be free from impurities which are intentionally added. Visit to the two different sites has been made by means of high way transportation to collect the sand sample. To achieve the research objective, Quarried &Supplied sand samples for laboratory investigation were collected from Ziway and Gorro (Addis Ababa).This experimental study has been under taken to investigate the compressive Strength of concrete using the quarried and supplied sand from the same source by conducting Tests. The Experimental Test results have displayed that there is compressive test result difference between the quarried and the supplied sand with the same mix proportion. KeyWords Quarried sand, Supplied sand, Irregularity, Impurities, Compressive strength, Durability


This research aims to analyze the optimum use of low temperature (12 °C, 16 °C, 20 °C and control temperature (24°C) at the begun of handled the survival rate of Swordtail (Xiphophorus helleri) size ± 3 cm with a density of 20 X.helleri / 2 liters of water transported using closed system water media for 5, 7 and 9 hours in the afternoon at 15:00 WIB. This research used an experimental method factorial randomized block design (RBD), which consists of two factors, namely a four-level temperature factor and a three-time time factor and repeated three times. The parameters observed were fish survival, water quality, duration of stunning, duration of burial and post-transportation maintenance. The results showed the effect of low temperature and length of time of transportation significantly affected the survival of Swordtail (X.helleri) in closed wet system transportation. The optimum temperature and length of time for transporting Swordtail Fish (X. helleri) is a temperature of 20oC and along transportation time of 5 hours, obtained survival of 100%.

Economic Valuation of Mangrove Forest in Pabean Ilir, Indramayu, Indonesia []

This research aims to determine the total economic value of mangrove forests in Paben Ilir Village, and determine the factors - factors that affect the value of willingness to pay (WTP) the existence of mangrove forest in Pabean Ilir. The research was conducted in Pabean Ilir, Pasekan Sub-district, Indramayu district, West Java in March 2019 with the number of respondents 98 people. The method of data used by accidental sampling by collecting data through interviews and questionnaires with respondents. The results showed that the total economic value of mangrove forests in Pabean Ilir is IDR 32.1 billion per year, consisting of direct use value (market value) amounted to IDR 26.7 billion per year and the value of existence mangrove (non – market value) IDR 5.3 billion per year. The value of direct use is a more contribution than the value of existence mangrove. The direct use of mangroves in Pabean Ilir analyzed are seeds, fishing and catch shrimp, while the value of existence mangroves in Pabean Ilir analyzed based on the value of the public's willingness to pay to the existence of mangrove forest in Pabean Ilir using contingent valuation method. The factors that influence people's willingness to pay for the existence of mangrove forest was analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis with the results of factors - factors that affect the value of WTP is the type of job and income.


ABSTRACT Parent child interaction or relationship plays an important role in child’s language development. The communication between parents and children helps children in socializing, creates a family communication environment and to enhances the relationship values and skills. Parents are the primary people engaging and interacting with infants on a consistent basis. Positive quality of parent child interactions and increased responsiveness are essential in shaping a child’s literacy environment and language development (Rasha Farouk Safwat ,2014). Language development is the backbone to academic as well as social and vocational success. Thus this study aims at evaluating the awareness of parents of the role of parent-child interaction in facilitating the speech and language skills in the child. Objective of this study is to find out the awareness in parents on the importance of parent child interaction for language development. The study included 59 parents whose children were ranging between 1 to 5 years. The study was conducted using a questionnaire to find out the awareness on parent-child interaction. The result showed that majority of the parents had excellent awareness with respect to parent-child interaction and its implications on speech and language development. Also it has been highlighted that 42.37% of parents have adequate awareness, whereas about 5.09% of parents fall short on awareness regarding the importance of parent child interaction for the development of language. This study helps in estimating the level of awareness in parents regarding the importance of parent-child interaction and provides an idea on training the children in a well stimulable environment. It is very helpful for the parent who requires additional help and support in order to provide adequate stimulation to the child during the critical age. This variable helps in giving information about the intervention services to the parents whose children show delay in speech and language development.


This study assesses the influence of institutional factor to the sustainability of informal solid waste collection livelihood. It is motivated by the fact that there is a wide spread of informal solid waste collection service filling the gap created by the inability of effective municipal waste collection services. However, very little is known about the institutional challenges facing informal solid waste collection livelihood. This study was conducted in Kijitonyama, Sinza and Tandale Ward. The study guided by four elements; organization set up, policies, rules and regulations, actors and stakeholders, formal and informal rules, and norms. The methodology involved a randomly sampled population of 15 informal waste collectors from the 3 Wards. Questionnaire interviews, observations, in-depth interviews and documentary review formed the research data collection techniques. The study used descriptive analysis to analyse variables. The findings show that informal waste collection has the potential of providing an income more than government minimum wage. However, the income gained found to be less than the available potential since they are poorly organized, informal solid waste collection treated as illegal activity by the authority, lack of technical and financial support from various stakeholders.

Effects Of Employee Competencies On Employee Job Performance In Humanitarian Organizations; A Case Study Of The World Food Programme, Kenya []

Employee performance has an effect on organizational performance. Therefore, every organization wants its employees to perform well. This study sought to investigate the effects of employee competencies on employee job performance in the World Food Programme, Kenya. Specifically, the study looked at the effect of leadership competencies, academic competencies, communication competencies and problem-solving competencies on employee job performance in World Food Programme, Kenya. The study was guided by Talent DNA Model theory, The Human Capital Theory and Model of Effective Job Performance Theory. The study employed a descriptive research design. The target population was 400 staff from which a sample of 196 was picked. The study applied stratified random sampling and simple random sampling methods in generating the sample. Primary data was used. The data was collected using self-administered questionnaires and analyzed using inferential statistics. The study adopted binomial logistic regression model to assess the effect of the independent variables on employee performance. From the findings of this study, possession of academic competencies is 3.202 times more likely to improve employee performance while having leadership competencies is 0.176 times less likely to improve employee performance. Communication competencies and problem-solving competencies will likely improve employee job performance 10.339 and 3.842 times over respectively. There is an overall significant positive effect of competencies on employee job performance at 50.2%. It was concluded that possession of leadership, academic, communication, and problem-solving competencies has a positive effect on employee job performance. Relative to the other three competencies examined in this study, having leadership competencies contributes least in improving employees job performance while possession of communication competencies contributed most.


This research review recently published research about Developing Affective Brand Commitment through Social Media. Five factors affecting Consumer-Brand Relationship are identified: (i) Affective commitment, (ii) Self-connection, (iii) Brand intimacy, (iv) Purchase loyalty, and (v) Digital Piracy. This research was conducted to purposely show how the consumer-brand relationship works. The brand (music artist) established its social identity to build its image in the social media and directly affect its consumer buy setting its objective to influenced consumer attachment and connection to the brand. The consumer also builds their feelings as to how they view and think about the brand. In this case, the brand also has to establish a great communication between its consumers.

Availability and Microbiological Quality of Drinking Water in the Kafubu Health Area in the City of Lubumbashi -DRC []

The study of the availability and quality of drinking water in the Kafubu health zone consisted of a survey of 422 households and microbiological analyzes of 20 water samples over two seasons during the period from January to April 2018 for the rainy season and from June to September 2018 for the dry season. It is a rural area with a population estimated at 107,734 inhabitants in 2018 and consuming the following types of water: drilling water, well water, spring water, river water. From the cross-sectional descriptive study carried out, drilling water is the main source of water (32.9%) during the rainy season and during the dry season the main source is the river (30.8%). During the rainy season 56.6% of households use 20 to 30 liters per day and per person for all uses and 64.2% travel less than 20 meters to reach the source of water supply. Microbiological analyzes indicated that 25% of the samples were not drinkable during the rainy season compared to 40% during the dry season.

Development and Validation of Task Instructional Sheet in Electrical Installation for Problem-Based Learning Environments in Technical Colleges []

The study developed and validated a task instructional sheet in electrical installation and maintenance for assisting technical teachers seeking to implement problem-based learning in technical colleges. Instrumentation research design was employed in the study. The area of the study was South-South zone of Nigeria. The population of the study is 68 technical teachers with specialization in electrical installation and maintenance works in all the 20 public technical colleges in south-south, Nigeria. The entire 68 technical teachers were used in the study for the purpose of validating the electrical installation task instructional sheet. No sampling was done because the number was small and manageable. The instrument developed in this study is “Electrical Installation Task Instructional Sheet” (ESTIS). The instrument went through a multi validation process to establish the validity of the instrument. The reliability of the task instructional sheet was determined using a pilot test of 20 students from a school in the study population. A standard test of internal consistency of Cronbach Alpha was used for determining the reliability coefficient. This yielded a value of 0.84, indicating a high reliability index. The data generated was analysed using Mean, standard deviation to answer research the question while content validity of the process (psychomotor) component of the task instructional sheet was determined using Lawshe’s content validity index (CVI). Based on the findings of the study, it is concluded that the developed task instructional sheet in electrical installation and maintenance are valid and reliable to be used by technical teachers for implementing Problem-Based Learning environments in technical education programmes. It is recommended that Technical teachers should adopt the developed task instructional sheet and apply them in technical training institutions.

Network Security, network attacks and Possible Security Mechanisms []

The technology of today is more advanced and computer network is one of the world sector developing rapidly, and the internet technology is developing generally quickly, people are using internet on high level. People are knowing the importance of the network security as it is more useful in different ways of their daily life. The big problem of computing is based on computer network security as there are many types of attacks. The multiple attacks are appearing day to day. To protect computers and network security are the issues to be taken into account seriously. The malicious nodes affect the performance of service in the network usage and deny the service. In this paper we describe the attacks of computer network in world of rapid technology.

Review of a Web-Based Mathematics Tutor for Nigeria Undergraduate []

This work reports on the Web-based undergraduate mathematics tutor developed by the author for use by the undergraduates of Computer science department in higher educational institution. It briefly analyses the traditional method of teaching undergraduates mathematics and uses ideas so gathered to design a new one. The new method allows students to learn mathematics interactively, and at their own pace via technologically-based system. Their understanding in mathematics will increase as they learn interactively on their own, and consequently improve their performance in mathematics. The system was designed using top-down design methodology

Financial Performance Analysis of Selected Ethiopian Micro-Finance Companies- A Camel Model Approach []

Abstract The microfinance sector in Ethiopia is one of the fast growing sectors and considered as an integral part of the economy. Hence, monitoring, supervision and continuous performance evaluation of the microfinance institution sector is compulsory to ensure the financial stability of the economy since the banking sector is becoming more complex than before. The present study is an attempt to evaluate and compare the performance of the microfinance institution sector in Ethiopia. One of the most effective supervisory techniques, CAMELS rating system (basically a quantitative technique) has been used to rank the microfinance based on their performances. In this study, eighteen microfinance institutions have been chosen as samples to meet the purpose of the study. Data for analysis has been collected from the microfinance annual reports for the period (2014-2018). The result from this comparative analysis shows that PEACE micro-financing institution has stood at the top position among all the selected microfinance based on CAMEL rating system. Keywords: CAMEL, capital, Microfinance, Performance and Ethiopia.