Volume 8, Issue 5, May 2020 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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In the present research a detailed effect of carbon-ions implantation in aluminum alloys (Al-Cu 2118 series) specimens at the room temperature by using a mathertype plasma focus device, operated with methane (a new process of plasma carburizing). Same treatment condition which has been reported in this study, fired at 15 kV giving a peak discharge current of about 150 kA over multiple focus shots. The results obtained indicates that the variation in focus shots has a significant impact on the surface hardness number of the Al-Cu 2118 series. The surface hardness number of the specimen increases continuously by increasing the ion content to 15 focus shots during the plasma carburizing process and reaches a maximum surface hardness number of 160 Kg.m-2, which is almost six times compared to the surface hardness number of Al-Cu 2118 series which is untreated. Enhanced surface hardness can be associated with the formation of Al4C3 and amorphous carbon phases. Based on this investigation, a plasma carburizing device was found to be an efficient device to obtain a harder aluminum alloy surface in a room temperature


This paper emphasizes on the opportunities of federalism which Nepal has recently undertaken after the promulgation of Constitution of Nepal, 2015 (2072) followed by formation of government at all three tiers viz. federal, provincial and local level and focusses on challenges it has to face walking through twists and turns. Nepal is an underdeveloped country with diverse geography, ethnic groups, linguistic groups and various political parties. Poverty, regional imbalance, improper infrastructure and unemployment remain Nepal’s major problems. The federalism with how relevantly it is associated to democracy has been explored in the paper simultaneously addressing how disparities caused by class, caste, ethnicity, language, religion, region and gender be attenuated. This paper tries to diagnose the impact of federalism, for which to fruitfully grow into a baby from zygote, Nepal needs to address upon. Keywords: federalism, opportunities, challenges, democracy, Nepal

Development Administration in Developing Country with Reference to Nepal: Dead or Alive? []

Literally, development is teleological, that is, goal-focused with a gradual process into more improved conditions than present. The concept of development can be categorically conceptualized into three aspects as: (i) definition (writer’s perspective) (ii) theoretical perspective (iii) dimensions of development. Different philosophers have varied views on this and among them, Fred Riggs has considered “diffraction” as the necessary and perhaps the sufficient condition for development, that is, for increased discretion. The “Development Administration” is concerned with the development of a country’s economics and society or, more rightly, with socioeconomic changes in a society. The concept of ‘development’ has been used in natural sciences, social sciences and physical sciences differently. Development is the center of politics of the so called Third World countries and governments play a key role in national development. Regarding the development shift, situating the concept of sustainable development within the broader context of development discussions, there has been a constant concern regarding the state of poverty especially in developing countries. Whereas, in case of developed countries, some of the key factors like high level of differentiation, professionalization, integration, motivated work force, participatory governance etc has been taken into account of. In case of Nepal, factors like diversity in political regime, bureaucratic polity, varying levels of economic and human development play a pivotal role. But, development administration has failed to achieve the benchmark in context of Nepal because of- (a) Shortages of skills and tools; (b) Difficulties of organization and structure; (c) Political difficulties and (d) Cultural and attitude barriers. Afno Manchhe (one’s own people), Chakari (Sycophancy), political influence, and bribery are deeply rooted in Nepalese bureaucracy to some extent. As an alternative solution of development administration in Nepal, both qualitative and quantitative changes are required in many aspects like man-power planning and management, decentralization, ameliorated bureaucracy, administrative reform etc. Nepal belongs to one of the least developed countries around the world with two third of the population depending on subsistence agriculture. Nepal, as a resourceful country, has the enormous capacity to develop itself, if it continues to initiate economic growth. Developed nations are decades and, in a few cases, centuries ahead of developing nations. Yet both of them have to evolve goal-oriented administrative systems. All administrative systems need to be change-oriented, goal-oriented, progressive, efficient, decentralized, responsive and motivated. Keywords: Development, Development Administration, Developed and Developing countries, Nepal.

Home Water Saving System Using Flowmeter with Application and Water Leak Detector. []

Arduino collects and receives data that can be connected to an interactive application that shows the values in real-time along with the standard values of a component that a crop requires. This paper proposes and demonstrates that a controlled flow water system centred in Arduino is economical and simple to use. A kind of smart water meter design scheme was introduced in this project based on the study of the current water meters. The modern reading method for manual meters was not only a waste of human and material resources but also a very uncomfortable method. The automatic reading system for cable meters was very fragile and requires a heavy workload for building wiring. This traditional way of managing water was obviously inefficient, especially in recent years with the advent of several high-rise residential buildings. Many of the existing methods of acoustic leak detection are based on external measurements of sound produced from the turbulent water flow of the pipes. Acoustic leak detection methods are proven to be effective and have been commonly used in water supply systems for many decades. Clear acoustic checks, a pipe has recently been discussed inside the flow as an important complementary technique for detecting leaks. After considering situational variables, the findings substantiate the importance of personal involvement and habit formation in explaining water usage, offering further guidance in environmental psychology to adjust and enhance repetitive behaviour models.

Optimal Design of Gas Pipeline Transmission Network []

This work is on the optimal design of gas flowline system. The study involves designing of an optimal configuration of a pipeline system with optimum pipeline size and optimum number of compressors. The pipeline system used as a case study consists of three pipelines (pipeline A, 1,6km, pipeline B, 2 km, and pipeline C, 2.4 km) to a field manifold and eventually to a central processing facility (CPF) via a bulk line which is 75 km to the CPF. The optimization techniques employed in this study were iterative estimation method and Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm method. Upheaval buckling analysis, on-bottom stability analysis and pipeline end expansion analysis were further performed on the flowline system to ensure that it is strong enough to contain and transport the Non-Associated Gas (NAG) the CPF while satisfying the life span requirement and at minimum cost of investment and operation. The results shows that the optimal pipe diameter for the three hook-up pipelines and the bulkline considered are 6”, 6”, 8”, and 20” respectively. The upheaval buckling analysis results show that the flowlines are not at risk from upheaval buckling at a burial depth of 1.2m with safety factors greater than1.5 for all imperfection heights. The on-bottom stability analysis results show that the flowlines are stable and the wall thicknesses are sufficient for the attainment of a negative buoyancy effect at the swamp sections and shall not require concrete coating. The optimal number of compressor stations analysis shows that 1 intermediate compressor is needed to effectively move the gas via the bulkline from the field manifold to the CPF. The analysis could be applied to other pipeline systems.

L’essentiel du débat autour du marketing mix : ce qu’il faudra retenir … Most of the debate around the marketing mix: what to remember ... []

Résumé Le présent article est de présenter d’une manière approfondie le concept du marketing mix, à travers ces véritables origines, ces évolutions passées, actuelles et les tendances futures. Quels sont les origines de ce concept clé en marketing, ses évolutions, ses limites et ambigüités ? Savoir s’il répond à l’exigence actuelle de l’environnement des organisations ? Existe-t-il des alternatives autres que le marketing mix ? Notre réflexion dans cet article sera basée sur une analyse conceptuelle du Marketing mix ou du plan de marchéage, en décrivant les objectifs, le contexte de la sa mise en œuvre, les étapes d’utilisation de cet outils ainsi que les précautions à prendre. Mots clés : marketing mix, marketing push et pull, plan de marchéage et fidélisation des clients Summary This article is to present and understand differently the concept of the marketing mix, through these true origins, also through these past, current and future developments. What are the limits and ambiguities of the marketing mix? Know if it meets the requirements of today's organizations environment? Are there alternatives other than the marketing mix? Our thinking in this article will be based on a conceptual analysis of the Marketing mix or the marketing plan, describing the objectives, the context of its implementation, the steps for using this tool as well as the precautions to be taken. Keywords: marketing mix, push and pull marketing, market plan and customer loyalty


Abstract When two kinds of variations are present in experimental designs that are either, due to the nature or arrangement of experimental units, the Latin Square is an effective design for partitioning those sources of variation from the experimental error. This paper aimed to investigate the effect of three price levels (A, Band C) on sales of an Alcoholic drink in Latin square design by controlling the influence of three types of stores (Small, Medium and Large) and three types of packaging labelled as Packaging I, II and III. The secondary data collected were based on three categories of information. This data are three types of stores (small, medium and large) operated by an Alcoholic drink dealer, three price levels (A, B and C) and three types of packaging labelled as Packaging I, II and III. Latin Square Design which involves arranging experiments units in rows and column using Latin letters in such a way that each letter did not repeat itself in either the row or column was adopted. The empirical result shows that the three price levels do not have the same effect on sale of the Alcoholic drink. Keywords: Latin Square Model, Randomised Complete Block Design (RCBD), ANOVA, Model Specification, ANOVA Table for Latin square.


Although protecting oral health is important, we may not always be able to take care of our oral health in our daily life. Due to this problem our aim is to produce an oral care tablet which is easy-to-use and effective. The experiment applied for the project has four stages. In the first stage, the plants were powdered and macerated with 100 ml ethanol for 3 days at room temperature. The formed solutions were placed in the evaporator and ethanol was removed. The remaining extract was filtered by adding DMSO and distilled water, and the extract was created. In the second step, S.aureus and E.coli disc diffusion method was applied to bacteria. The antibacterial properties of the extracts were compared by measuring the inhibition diameters in the containers. In the third stage, tablets were produced from a mixture of three plant extracts. In the last step, the antibacterial properties of the tablet was analyzed. After all, black mulberry, liquorice and cranberry It has been obtained that the active ingredients of the plants, glycyrrhizin,which increase the contamination of oral and dental health of alkaloid, flavonoids and carotenoids S.aureus and E.coli antibacterial effects in. E.coli And S.aureus was observed that the inhibition diameters formed when the extracts of the plants were combined in the bacteria were higher than the inhibition diameter formed by the plants. The inhibition diameter of the tablet formed with black mulberry, cranberry and liquorice extracts is lower than the triple plant extract; Although it is less, it has been determined that it gives the desired effect. Since we observe that the tablet produced has antibacterial effects on gram (+) and gram (-) bacteria, we think that it will give similar antiviral results on viruses. Accordingly, we recommend that the concentrations of the oral tablet or the concentrations of the extract be changed and the doses that can be used in the pharmaceutical industry should be discovered and the extracts of the plants we work with should be used as alternative and natural antibiotics. Keywords: plant, extraction, antibacterial, tablets, health


The level of manufacturing of a country or continent is an indication of the level of the development of the country or continent. This paper identifies the most important factors affecting the production of building materials using locally available raw materials in developing countries. Work that has been done in this area of the building industry was .looked at and the improvement provided by this work in areas of manufacturing method, raw materials and their sources are identified. Also, the locally available raw materials to manufacture the building materials were identified – fibre, waster paper, cement and water. This is followed with the analysis of test results. The products were tested to ascertain their reliability, porosity and impact the result showed that our products were very much better and cheaper than the conventional ones. Again a detailed cost analysis is included to establish the usefulness of this project. An example is included for comparison and finally comments were made and conclusions were drawn on the project. The final conclusion is that the project is feasible and very viable for the manufacture of building materials from locally sourced raw materials in Nigeria, so government and individuals of developing countries should invest in this research work to create jobs for young technologist for their respective countries.

Use of Correlation and Regression Analyses as Statistical Tools in Green Concrete Research []

Correlation and regression in this paper were employed as analytical tools to study the degree of relationship as well as the nature and strength of the relationship between green concrete properties and percentage replacement of cement with civil engineering materials. Pearson product-moment method and Spearman’s correlation coefficient were extensively used to show how correlation analysis can be practically applied in green concrete research. Least square regression line method for both linear relationship and non-linear relationship was also used to analyse the nature of the relationship between percentage replacement of cement with a pozzolana and green concrete properties like compressive strength and water absorption. The results of correlation analysis showed that Pearson product-moment is a better method for analysing green concrete properties when compared with Spearman’s correlation coefficient, since Pearson’s method takes cognizance of the actual data values unlike Spearman’s use of data positions. The results of regression analysis also revealed that, for data whose trendline is polynomial in shape with the highest power of its assumed equation higher than that of quadratic equation, it is better to analyse such data using least square regression line method for linear relationship than least square regression line method for non-linear relationship. This is supported by the substantial difference in the predicted values of 40.79MPa and 36.20MPa for linear and non-linear relationship respectively for 35% replacement of cement with rice husk ash along with fly ash.

Effect of chemically enhancing compressive strength of concrete using micro particle metal oxides []

Concrete has been used as a construction material for building roads and housing structures since early as 6500 BC. It has been modified from the volcanic ash compound used in the early ages to the compound using in the modern era a mixture with cement, aggregates, ad-ditives, accelerators and retarders. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of chemically modified concrete with titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) micro particles on compressive strength, tensile strength and workability. The particle sizes used are 0.22-0.23 µm titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles and 1-8 µm zinc oxide (ZnO). The ratios for M25 concrete is 1: 1: 2 the metal oxides are added in 1%, 2%, and 5% in respective to the cement weight to test its properties. Test cubes are casted to test the compressive strength from 7 days curing and 28 days curing. Experiments reveal that the compressive strength of the chemically enhanced M25 concrete is much higher than conventional M25 concrete is much higher than conventional M25 concrete. The highest strength for 7 days and 28 days is given by 2% TiO2 and 1% for ZnO.


In this study, aimed at studying the impact of meteorology might have on the seasonal magnitude and vibration of fine particulate matter in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, meteorological parameters such as air temperature, relative humidity, rainfall and wind speed. Two outcome measures were concerned, the first outcome was to study the effect of meteorological variable on Fine particulate matter and the second outcome was effects of seasonal change on fine particle. The monthly mass concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were measured along with the monthly unit of meteorological parameter from 2017 January to December 2019. after analyzing, found that the magnitude and variation of PM2.5 concentrations were highest in summer season than in dry and winter season. However, during winter season PM2.5 concentrations were higher than dry season. Keywords; pollution, fine particulate matter, meteorological parameter and season


This paper is an attempt to explore the possibility of a Christian witness among orthodox Muslim scholars given their Islamic idea of translatability of the Koran. The view holds that the Koran is not translatable due to the divine status of the Arabic language, the inadequacy of a translation preserving meaning, and the inability of a translation preserving the literary form. The study concludes that in sharing the Christian Gospel to orthodox Muslim scholars, one must consider their view of translatability of the Word of God. Knowing their version of and position on translatability of the Koran and clearly explaining to them the Christian view could provide a window for them to appreciate the Bible and through its testimony access the true Word of God, Jesus Christ. To do that effectively the Christian witness must make it clear that Koran is to the Muslims what Christ and not the Bible is to Christians and that the Bible as a written revelation of God’s word is critical as it points God’s people toward Jesus Christ, the express image of God.


This paper is an attempt to explore the possibility of a Christian witness among orthodox Muslim scholars given their Islamic idea of translatability of the Koran. The view holds that the Koran is not translatable due to the divine status of the Arabic language, the inadequacy of a translation preserving meaning, and the inability of a translation preserving the literary form. The study concludes that in sharing the Christian Gospel to orthodox Muslim scholars, one must consider their view of translatability of the Word of God. Knowing their version of and position on translatability of the Koran and clearly explaining to them the Christian view could provide a window for them to appreciate the Bible and through its testimony access the true Word of God, Jesus Christ. To do that effectively the Christian witness must make it clear that Koran is to the Muslims what Christ and not the Bible is to Christians and that the Bible as a written revelation of God’s word is critical as it points God’s people toward Jesus Christ, the express image of God.


The study assesses credit-use and its effect on profitability among smallholder maize farmers in the Bono region of Ghana. A multistage sampling technique involving the purposive, stratified and simple random sampling techniques was employed in the selection of the Bono region and two municipalities within the region as the study area, as well as the selection of 200 smallholder maize farmers respectively. The study considered both formal and informal sources of credit such as friends and relatives, susu (traditional thrift groups), farmer groups, trade creditors, rural banks, money lenders, and NGOs. The factors influencing the decision of a farmer to use credit, the determinants of farmers’ credit-use intensity and the indicators of profitability among smallholder farmers were investigated. The study employed the use of a binary probit model to estimate the factors influencing the decision of a farmer to use credit, and a Tobit regression model to estimate the intensity of credit-use by smallholder maize farmers. Indicators of profitability such as Gross margin, Net revenue and Return on Investment were used to estimate the profitability of the smallholder maize farmers. A mean test for significance was conducted to estimate the statistical differences among the maize farmers’ profitability. The probit regression results revealed that age, gender, experience in farming, farming objective, collateral, farm size, and membership to farmer associations significantly influence maize farmers’ decision to use credit. Results from the Tobit model revealed that landownership, educational level of farmer, production cost per hectare and interest rate had a significant impact on farmers’ credit-use intensity for maize production. The result from the Gross Margin analysis showed an average total revenue of GH¢ 1644.95 for credit users and GH¢ 975.31 for non-credit users, while the average net revenue among credit users and non-credit users were GH¢ 312.23 and GH¢ 192.42 respectively. The average return on investment for credit and non-credit users was GH¢ 0.2503 and GH¢ 0.1567 respectively. These results imply that the use of credit has a significantly positive effect on smallholder maize farmers’ gross margins, net revenue, returns on investment, and on their profitability in general. The paper recommends that stakeholders in agriculture include in their sensitization programmes ways of enhancing credit-use by especially smallholder maize farmers as this has positive implications for their profitability. Financial institutions must better facilitate access to credit by commercial farmers, and also develop innovative financing packages that favor farmers and better manage risk to these financial institutions.

Guillain–Barre´ syndrome in high tetraplegia following spinal cord lesion []

Study design: A case report of Guillain–Barre´ syndrome (GBS) variant presenting in a patient with high tetraplegia following cervical spinal cord lesion (C3-C6).Objective: To illustrate a clinical presentation of GBS in an individual with tetraplegia.Setting: Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.Methods/Results: A 55-year-old male with high spinal cord lesion at the level of C3-C6, following an emergency posterior cervical instrumentation and fusion with decompression of C3-C6 vertebral bodies under general anesthesia, developed urinary incontinence and weakness of the limbs, and was admitted to our facility for tetraplegia. Two months after admission, the patient had a sudden onset of fever (T40.0C) for which blood culture was done, and antibiotics were administered to subside the fever. A few days later, the patients previously noted weakness progressed. A nerve conduction study was performed, which revealed severe axonal polyneuropathy affecting motor and sensory nerve fibers, prompting a diagnosis of acute motor-sensory axonal neuropathy (a variant of Guillian–Barre´ syndrome). Electromyography (EMG) reports indicated abnormal spontaneous activity in all limb muscles. An emergency lumbar puncture (LP) was performed which revealed the classical sign of albumino-cytological disassociation of cerebrospinal fluid. GBS was diagnosed, but since the patient had pre-existing tetraplegia, autonomic dysfunction and was ventilated, the diagnosis was overshadowed and unfortunately delayed. Nevertheless, treatment modalities for both tetraplegia and GBS were initiated. There was a significant improvement in all extremities, but the bilateral decrease in the lower limbs muscle tone persisted. However, the patient refused to perform a repeat LP and was discharged three months later, under the requisite for regular follow-up.Conclusion: A careful neurological assessment prompted the diagnosis of acute polyradiculoneuropathy in a chronic patient with tetraplegia. It demonstrates how, in this population, an otherwise uncomplicated diagnosis of GBS can easily be missed. A deeper understanding of the cause and necessity for a subsequent therapeutic intervention in potentially life-threatening autonomic instability was understood via these signs.

Factors That Influence the Level of Banking BUMN Profitability Listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX) []

Abstract This study studies to analyze the factors that affect the profitability of state-owned banks listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange. Cash turnover (X1), Capital Adequacy required with a Capital Adequancy Ratio (X2), Liquidity obtained with an LDR ratio (X3), and Operating Risk with a BOPO ratio (X4) on bank profitability as a dependent variable (Y). To implement the objectives of this study an analysis technique was used using the SPSS application with the financial statement data of each bank for the 2015-2019 period. The results obtained by cash turnover (X1), capital adequacy (X2), and operating risk (X4) as an independent variable have a significant positive effect on profitability (Y) but, on variable X3, namely the ratio of loans to Deposit Ratio (LDR). positive but not significant to bank profitability. Keywords: Cash Turnover, Capital Adequacy (CAR), Liquidity (LDR), Operating Risk (BOPO) and Banking Profitability


The results of the present study are summarized as follows: • In the present reports on antibacterial activity against urinary tract pathogens viz., Pseudomonas sp, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus sp and Staphylococcus sp, by Cross Streak Assay and also biochemical tests were reported. • The endo heterotrophic bacteria have been isolated from sea grass species. 25strains were of which 15 strains were shown sensitivity against one or more chosen antibiotic resistant pathogenic bacteria. • The strain no ENC 8, have shown the MI • C value of 500µg against Pseudomonas sp. The ENC 8, showed MIC value of 1000µg against Escherichia coli sp. The ENC 1 showed MIC value of 250µg against Streptococcus sp. The ENC1 and ENC 5 showed the MIC value of 1000µg against Staphylococcus sp. • The ENC 1 showed MIC value was found lower by 250µg against Streptococcus sp.

Knoweldege representation and reasoning: A detailed study in AI. []

The following paper talks about artificial intelligence and the different types of its concepts in terms of how knowledge is being represented and reasoned. Moreover, the paper will talk about both concepts critically followed by a literature review that supports the study from different types of sources that were taken from online journals and other materials.

Comparative study of drinking water sources in Makurdi, Benue State Nigeria []

Water samples were collected from boreholes, hand dug wells, tap and the river side from four different locations within Makurdi Metropolis and were analyzed to compare their bacterial load using their coliform content. The most probable number method was used for the analysis of the water sources. A total heterotrophic count of bacteria was also conducted to confirm the coliform num-ber gotten from using the MPN method. The results obtained from the most probable number method show a high level of colifom presence in all the water samples examined which is an indication of faecal contamination. The highest number of organism isolated from each of the sample was Escherichia coli, the others include Enterobacter aerogens and Klebsiella pneumonia which are also en-teric bacteria, and suggest faecal. The average coliform count for well water samples was 546MPN/100ml, 416 MPN/100ml for bore-holes and tap water and river water with 266MPN/100ml. the results show gross contamination especially the most trusted water source, pipe-borne water; it points to lack of proper sanitation practice adopted by the people in these area of study and negligence on the part of the government to ensure potable water for her people.

Apport de l’uroscanner dans le diagnostic des pathologies urinaires chez l’adulte à l’hôpital régional de Garoua, Cameroun []

Les pathologies de l’appareil urinaire sont d’origines diverses ; traumatique, infectieuse, tumorale ou malformative et de découverte clinique ou alors fortuite. Le rôle de l’imagerie médicale reste très contributif et le choix de la modalité d’imagerie s’avère important pour le diagnostic précoce. Dans le but d’améliorer le diagnostic des pathologies urinaires, l’étude à partir de l’uroscanner a été ainsi menée. L’étude descriptive et rétrospective était basée sur l’analyse d’un questionnaire rempli à base des données des dossiers des patients ayant effectué un uroscanner. Les données recueillies étaient saisies et analysées avec les logiciels Sphinx V5 plus et Microsoft Excell 2016. 200 patients ont été retenus dont 114 hommes et 83 femmes et un âge moyen était de 25,12 ans avec des extrêmes de 18 et 86 ans. 122 étaient scanners étaient pathologiques soit 61%. 167 (83,5%) ont reçu une injection de produit de contraste. Les pathologies les plus retrouvées étaient : lithiasiques (34,25%), tumorales (16,04%), infectieuses (12,03%). La colique néphrétique (22,5%) était l’indication la plus retrouvée. L’imagerie médicale notamment l’uroscanner s’avère être d’un apport primordial et même incontournable pour ces pathologies habituellement à évolution lente, mais nécessitant un diagnostic précis. De plus, l’uroscanner, malgré qu’il n’ait pas été prescrit en première intention, a été d’un grand intérêt dans le diagnostic de façon fortuite ou non de ces pathologies de l’arbre urinaire. Il mérite de ce fait une bonne vulgarisation pour une grande accessibilité du malade et de la société. Mots clés : uroscanner, pathologies urinaires, diagnostic.


In our project, it is aimed to identify the bacteria species found in the environments in which students spend most of their time in school and to produce herbal disinfectant against these bacteria types. During the research phase, microorganism samples were taken from the school environment and some bacteria species that could threaten health were identified. In the school environment, as a result of the cultivation of microorganisms in the living spaces of the students (window handle, stair railing, classroom door handle, cabinet interior, handle, bottom of the desks, siphon, etc.), 5 different types of bacteria have been identified and a herbal antiseptic mixture has been created against these bacteria types. Bacteria samples were taken from the school environment with the swabs at the experimental stage of the project, inoculated in petri dishes and bacteria species were determined by Gram staining method. After detecting bacteria species, disinfectant material was obtained by extraction method from herbal substances showing antibacterial properties. Inhibition diameters of plant extracts on bacteria were observed by disc diffusion method. According to the findings; Gram (+) bacteria were detected on the bottom of the desk, classroom window handle, corridor handles, computer keyboard-mouse and classroom smartboard. S. pyogenes bacteria were detected on the bottom of the desk and S. epidermidis bacteria in other areas including window handle, handrail, computer mouse and keyboard, class smart board were detected. Extracts of chamomile, clove, cinnamon, tea tree, orange peel and rose plants, which have antibacterial properties, were applied to bacteria mediums. While both species of bacteria form the greatest inhibition diameters against clove and chamomile plants; they created a small amount of zones in the cinnamon and tea tree. No inhibition diameter was observed in rose and orange peel extracts. According to the overall results obtained from the project, we recommend to analyze the possibility of shifting the research area to different areas due to the capture of pathogenic features in bacteria in the environment, and since the extracts of chamomile and cloves are effective alone, they can also be effective in their combination.