Volume 8, Issue 5, May 2020 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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This research involves the design, calculation and analysis of crack length of an offshore jacket platform and the simulation to determine the safety of the platform with given material properties and diameters. From the calculation, a model of the platform was developed with Ansys software. The simulation was ran with certain loads such as gravity load, wind force and wave force to ensure its efficiency to withstand the given loads and to establish the safety of the platform. During the simulation, cracks were observed on the T-joint, and welded joint between the chord and the brace. This type of crack is mostly instigated by the presence of residual stress and the rigidity of the joint, as a result of the metal inability to expand or contract. It was also established, the variance between the calculated crack length and the simulated crack length, its location, type of crack and the safety of the platform. A calculated crack length of 0.129inch and to failure was achieved while a simulated crack length of 0.133inch was also established, which is located at the T-joint, the weld between the chord and the brace, a semi-elliptical crack. However, both the calculated crack length and the simulated crack length are approximately the same value. Thus; the platform is safe and it will take for the crack to propagate. Thereafter, measures to mitigate the propagation of crack must be considered


A variation (sometimes referred to as a variation order or change order) is a change to the scope of operation in a building contract in the form of an extension, substitution or omission from the original scope of works. The construction industry in the world and particularly in Nigeria, where construction projects suffer from variation orders, has been supported for a long time by changing orders. Such targets are usually not achieved in building projects, which hinder customer satisfaction according to Fatoye (2012). The aim of this research is to ascertain variation orders and it causes in building construction industry from Nigerian perspective, to achieve the aim of this research many objectives exists, these objectives can be summarized as (1) to investigate the factors causing variation order from the literature, (2) to extract real causes of variation order in building industry in Nigeria through literature content analysis of Nigerian origin. This study is based on a content analysis carried out on 8 major studies of Nigerian background in the subject matter. The justification for the 8 is because they represent core expectation of this study which borders on Nigerian perspective. The contents were analyzed using a benchmark of 4 to arrive at decision. This decision rule is based on the obvious that the mean of 8 is 4 which is 8/2 =4. Since we have 8 works, any factor or item that is captured by four (4) of the 8 major studies will adjudged significant, any factor below four is not significant. The study observed that out of the 12 identified owner related causes or factors of variation order from the 8 major studies of Nigerian perspective, five (5) are the core owner related causes of variation order in Nigerian building industry. They are namely in their order of significance: change of plans or scope by owner, change of schedule by owner, owner’s financial problems, inadequate project objectives and replacement of materials or resources respectively.


Cancer they say is the chief of all maladies, following cardiovascular disease, cancer is the second leading cause of death in most affluent countries. There are about 13.3 million new cases of cancer in 2010 which is predicted to cost US$ 290 billion, but the total costs is expected to increases to US$ 458 billion in the year 2030 on basis of World Economic Forum in 2011. More than half of all cancer cases and deaths worldwide are considered preventable. From its inception, the disease control priorities series has focused attention on delivering efficacious health interventions that can result in intense reductions in mortality and disability at relatively modest cost. Common cancers include prostate cancer, breast cancer, bladder cancer, colorectal cancer, and skin cancers. Treatment of cancer is very expensive, hence the need to prevent the condition primarily, or even secondarily. Foods, like chemicals, have cumulative effects and contain substances both essential and non-essential which have been shown to be healthy. This led to acclamation and acceptance of certain foods as providing health benefits functional foods. Functional foods and nutraceuticals are chemopreventive to cancers as evidenced by different researches conducted over the years. This review, presents the complex patterns of cancer incidence and death around the world and evidence on effective and cost-effective ways to control cancers using functional foods. The evaluation of cancer will indicate where cancer treatment is ineffective and wasteful, and offer alternative cancer care packages that are cost-effective and suited to low-resource settings. This review aims to discuss some of these foods and the chemoprotective compounds therein to aid further clinical studies. Foods investigated for their role in cancer risks and included in this review are: grapes, tomatoes, red peppers, berries, chestnut, ginseng, Rhodiola, green tea, soy, garlic, and cruciferous vegetables. This review also considered the so-called antioxidant nutrients – selenium, vitamins A, B, C, D and E. Others include glucosamine, chondroitin, melatonin, MSM, which were taken as supplements. In the aspresent review cancer prevention by use of functional foods is reviewed and the possible mechanisms of action are described for futuristic developed into viable nutraceuticals that will be available worldwide for cancer patients worldwide.

Different Architectural Styles and Temple History []

Temple architecture of very high standards were developed in almost all regions during ancient India. The distinct architectural style of temple construction in different regions of India was a result of geographical, climatic, ethnic, racial, historical and linguistic diversities. Ancient Indian temples are classified in three broad types based on different architectural styles, employed in the construction of the temples. Three main style of temple architecture were the Nagara or the Northern style, the Dravida or the Southern style and the Vesara or Mixed style, eventhough there are also some regional styles of Bengal, Kerala and the Himalayan areas. This paper dwells on the salient features of each style of temple architecture and general description of a temple


ABSTRACT Platycerium andinum an epiphyte growing on plants found around generator houses was used to examine the presence and concentration of heavy metals in the substrata and plant body obtained from three sites in University of Port Harcourt (two polluted sites and a control site). The study was carried out to assess the presence of heavy metals accumulation used in aerobiological studies as bio-indicators and biomonitoring species. P. andinum and its substratum were collected from the sample areas and analyzed. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer method was used to determine the presence of heavy metals in the samples. Results from the study show that Copper was present in all samples (substrata and plant bodies) found in all sites; Cadmium was only present in the substrata of the polluted sites. Lead and Nickel were not detected in any of the samples. These results are discussed in the light of efforts towards monitoring and controlling increasing air pollution in the environment. The presence of these heavy metals in the epiphyte confirms that they are bio-accumulators and thus can serve as bio-indicators and bio-monitors. Therefore, the study recommends the use of epiphytes and their substratum for atmospheric air pollution monitoring.

The Effects of Styrene-Butadiene (SBR), Polyethylene Bag (PEB) on the Properties of Bitumen []

This study investigates the use of Styrene-butadiene (SBR) and Polyethylene Bags (PEB) as modifiers on properties of bitumen. Bitumen modifier (SBR, PEB and SBR/PEB) at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15% by weight of 500g hot bitumen were used. The bitumen and percentages of SBR, PEB, and SBR/PEB were heated until the PEB, SBR, and SBR/PEB added was melted, thereby stirred thoroughly with each other in each container of the specimen. The modified bitumen (i.e. bitumen with the additives at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15%) and unmodified bitumen (control bitumen) were allowed to cool to a temperature of 85oC. The modified and unmodified bitumen were subjected to penetration, ductility, softening point of bitumen, and flash and fire point of bitumen tests. The results obtained in each test shows that using SBR/PEB as modifier on the properties of bitumen would not only increase the lifespan of the road pavement but also serves as the means of managing the waste menace.Utilization of these waste (SBR and PEB) in bitumen proved that it would enhance the properties of the bituminous mix in addition to solve disposal problem. Keywords: Bitumen, Styrene-butadiene, polyethylene bag, physical properties

Nurses’ Related Factors Determining Compliance of nurses to National Neonatal Resuscitation Guidelines among Nurses at Pumwani Maternity Hospital, Kenya. []

ABSTRACT The current study sought to assess nurses related factors determining compliance to National Neonatal Resuscitation Guidelines among nurses at Pumwani Maternity Hospital. A cross-sectional survey design was adopted. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Descriptive statistics and chi-square tests were use to analyze data with the help of SPSS. The study found that that 8(54.9%) of the respondents had high compliance to the National Neonatal Resuscitation. The vast majority 84(84.8%) of the respondents were female. The mean age of respondents was 36 years. On education, the findings show that slightly above half 59(59.6%) of the respondents had acquired a diploma. The findings show that 27(27.3%) of the respondents had working experience of between 16 and 20 years as a nurse. Findings showed that 51.5%(51) of the respondents had good knowledge on neonatal resuscitation. There was a statistically significant relationship (χ2=11.601, df=3, p=0.009) between level of education and compliance. Lowly educated nurses were found to be non-complaint to resuscitation guidelines. Knowledge was found to be wanting and this influenced compliance to National Neonatal Resuscitation Guidelines. The study therefore recommended that Pumwani Maternity Hospital needs to introduce a training program on neonatal resuscitation where nurses are subjected to continuous education on neonatal resuscitation. Keywords: Neonatal Resuscitation, National Neonatal Resuscitation Guidelines, knowledge, neonatal nursing.


Microfinance emerged as the provision of financial services to clients outside the mainstream financial system. it provides small-scale financial services to marginalized clients and also serves as an effective tool for financing microentrepreneurs through group lending, progressive lending, regular repayment schedules and collateral substitutes. However, this sector faces a huge challenge that threatened its core asset and survival. For instance, more than 438 Microfinance Banks (MFBs) license has been revoked by the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) since 2010 due to the considerable changes in competitive conditions during the last two decades which have made the markets more dynamic, more competitive and, above all, more complex. Companies now compete not only through products and services, but through the business model. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of Business Model Dimensions on Portfolio Quality of MFBs in Oyo state, Nigeria. An Ex Post Facto research design was adopted for the study. The population comprised of 23 licensed MFBs in Oyo state as at February 2018 which had been in operations since 2010. The sample size (5 MFBs) was determined by Krejcie and Morgan’s formula. Secondary data which were sourced from the annual reports of the MFBs for the period 2011 to 2017 was used for this study. Data were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics (simple and multiple regression analysis). Findings revealed that Business Model Dimensions had joint significant effect (F(3, 26) = 3.523033, p<0.05) on Portfolio at Risk of MFBs in Oyo state, Nigeria. The study recommends that the management of MFBs should initiate policies, program and procedures aimed at enhancing appropriate model alignment, innovation and analysis so as to improve performance through improved portfolio quality.

The Challenges and Relevance of Natural and Anthropogenic Resources in International Relations []

This study examined the nexus between the challenges and relevance of natural and anthropogenic resources in international relations. Thus, resources are material and non-material things that gives man satisfaction, while international relations is the process of interaction with members of a group regarding these resources as they affect member nations. This study was essentially a library research. Qualitative method was therefore employed in the analysis and presentation of the information collected. Results from this study revealed that the survival and the ultimate success of any nation depends on an acceptable control of resources and functions among member nations, so that efficiency in the use of scarce resources is encouraged, while reducing inequality in the treatment of individuals and among different states. This study therefore recommends that the overriding resource and political interest should be the interest of the State. Thus, it is, indeed, all about justice, all about social inclusion and all about giving every citizen and nation, her due right at all times.

Development of Bombay Stock Exchange in post reform in India []

BSE popularly known as Bombay Stock Exchange has a great history it was established 1875 as first organized and Asia’s first stock exchange. Over the last 143 years, the Fastest Stock Exchange in world with the speed of 6 micro seconds and one of India's leading exchange groups. , BSE has facilitated the growth of the Indian corporate sector by providing it an efficient capital-raising platform. In 2017 BSE become the 1st listed stock exchange of India. BSE is a corporatized and demutualized entity, with a broad shareholder-base which includes two leading global exchanges, Deutsche Bourse and Singapore Exchange as strategic partners. BSE provides an efficient and transparent market for trading in equity, debt instruments, derivatives, mutual funds. It also has a platform for trading in equities of small-and-medium enterprises (SME). Total 5352 companies are listed on BSE, making it world's No. 1 exchange in terms of listed members. Bombay stock exchange though is one of the oldest stock exchange did not expand rapidly. Even after the independence the market capitalization of companies registered in the BSE raised from 5 per cent of GDP in 1980 to 13 per cent in 1990. However the stock market also remained primitive and poorly regulated. BSE is the world's 10th largest stock exchange with an overall market capitalization was 1, 46, 87,010 crore as on 2019-20. BSE also provides a host of other services to capital market participants including risk management, clearing, settlement, market data services and education.

Prevalence and risk factors of child sexual abuse and commercial sexual exploitation of children in South Asian countries:A literature review. []

Child Sexual Abuse is include range of sexual acts like intercourse, child prostitution, inviting a child to touch sexually, exhibitionism, child pornography and online child luring by cyber-predators. Protection of children from sexual abuse is a global concern. Child sexual abuse can have multiple adverse consequences on physical and psychological health of children which can extend to adult life. South Asia is southern region of the Asian continent which consists of 8 countries consists of 19 billion population. This paper describes the prevalence and risk factors for child sexual abuse and commercial sexual exploitation in South Asia region. There is wide range of prevalence in child sexual abuse in different countries of South Asia as well as studies done within countries. Exposure and perpetration of child sexual abuse is a multi-factorial phenomenon based on interplay between individual, family, community, and societal factors .Commercial sexual exploitation of children is one of the most serious problems seen in South Asia. Multiple etiological factors have been identified as predisposing, precipitating and perpetuating factors throughout the region. It is evident that identification, management and prevention of child sexual abuse and commercial sexual exploitation in South Asia is still at very primitive level and still only the tip of the iceberg is visualized.

Antibacterial Activity of Ethanolic Leaves Extracts of Cassia Siamea against Some Bacterial Isolates from Infantile Diarrhoeal Attending General Hospital Damaturu []

The study was aimed to investigate the antibacterial activity of Cassia siamea leaves extracts against some bacterial isolates from infantile diarrhoeal samples. The ethanolic extracts of Senna siamea leaves were prepared, screened for phytochemical analysis and tested for its antibacterial activity against 3 pathogenic bacteria (Shigella spp, Escherichia coli, and staphylococcus aurous) recovered from infant diarrhoeal samples of patients attending General Sani Abacha Specialist Hospital Damaturu. Phytochemical constituents found in Cassia siamea leaves extract include; alkaloids, saponins, tannins, steroids and flavonoids as well as the Anthraquinones and phenols were absent. Based on the susceptibility of the organisms to the extracts, staphylococcus aureus was found to be the highest susceptible organisms with average zone of inhibition of 15. 00 (40gm/ml) followed Escherichia coli 15.00 (50gm/ml), and Shigella14.00 (30gm/ml). The MIC of the extracts ranged from 4.125 to 50mg/ml. There was no significant difference on the susceptibility of the organisms against the extracts. The results of the present study have supported the therapeutic potential of Senna siamea and its use as medicinal plant.


Bandung District is one district in the province of West Java, which has the potential in the field of aquaculture, particularly in the field of freshwater fish farming the development of the fisheries sector in Bandung directed in District Cimenyan, Cileungkang, Margaasih, Cileunyi, Kutawaringin, Margahayu, Dayeuh Kolot, Bojongsoang, Rancaekek, Cicalengka, Soreang, Ketapang, Pamangpeuk, Baleendah, Ciparay, Majalaya, Cikancung, Nagreg, Cangkuang , Banjaran, Arjasari, solokan Oranges, Paseh, Ciwidey, Cimaung, Pacet, Ibun, Rancabali, Pasirjambu, Pangalengan, and Kertasari. The regions mentioned above is the location of the development of the commodity hatchery, nursery, or jetted tub. The purpose of this study is to determine government policy analysis in the development of aquaculture in Bandung regency method used in this research is descriptive method on the basis of case studies.


For the quickly growth of population electrical and electronics equipment (EEE) waste are generated 20 to 50 million tones in world-wide. Half a tonne of e-waste generate by the resident of advanced country in every year. E-waste contains many types of toxic substances including metals, plastics and mercury etc which are hazardous or risky for the environment and human health so that E-waste management is an essential. Hence, this review are outline the global status of e-waste and its current progress on management of E waste (Electronics scraps) at worldwide level. An comprehensive survey of literature was made on the latest technological approaches in base metals recovery and so many technologies from waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) of EEE. An emphasis was given to review the most important features of existing industrial ways associated with the metal recovery systems from PCBs. The discussions of green technologies as alternatives of conventional approaches to obtain precious metals from e-waste were overviewed. The application of tin stripping method and recycling of E-waste approaches in the extraction metals from e-waste was highlighted.

Impact of Supervision Style on the Workflow: An Empirical Study from Bahrain []

The objective of this research effort is to examine the impact of supervision style on the workflow (perceived organizational support, decision-making & job satisfaction) at the Ministry of Labor and Social Development in Bahrain. Two hundred employees were surveyed through a comprehensive inventory method. The analysis depended on the outcomes of the questionnaire survey that was given to the sample members of employees of the ministry. The researchers hypothesized that there is a positive significant relationship between supervision style and workflow (perceived organizational support, decision-making & job satisfaction) of employees at the Ministry of Labor and Social Development in the Kingdom of Bahrain. The findings reveal that there is a positive significant relationship between supervision style and the workflow (perceived organizational support, decision-making & job satisfaction) at Ministry of Labor and Social Development in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Moreover, the results indicate that there is no significant relationship between supervision style and workflow (perceived organizational support, decision-making & job satisfaction) at the Ministry of Labor and Social Development in the Kingdom of Bahrain due to the demographics (gender, age, qualification and years of experience).

Impact of Covid-19 on the Indian Economy with emphasis on the Agricultural and Food Sector []

Covid-19 has compelled leaders to prepare for new challenges that will emerge in the business environment. This calls for an informed and measured response from policy makers. To assist governments to do, it is imperative that objective research be conducted in the field of not only the natural sciences but also in commercial and economic spheres. In the light of this background, this paper aims at estimating the possible short-term economic impacts of Covid – 19 on the Indian economy, with emphasis on the agricultural and food sectors. As the agricultural and food sectors have been listed in the essential category, it is assumed that the impact on them would not be very significant. This paper aims at verifying this assumption along with an examination of the impact on the food processing sector as state governments have allowed fruits and vegetables to move during the lockdown. The paper would probe into the impact of shortage of migratory agricultural labourers on the supply of rabi crops (mainly wheat) as well as the status of India’s food exports to USA, China and some of the European countries. From the findings of the above investigations, the paper would then suggest various policies that the governments (both Union and State) can promulgate to ease the situation in the agricultural and food sectors. The policies would cover the financial as well as the labour aspects of the agricultural and food sectors.

The Anticipated explanation for Sudden deaths due to Stroke of young people infected with SARS-CoV-2 []

The SARS-CoV-2 virus attacks several organs in the human body but mainly targets three—the brain, lungs, and gastrointestinal tract—whichever is first infected. This determines the incubation period, symptoms, severity of the injury, and the course of the injury inside the body. This explains why, with the use of anticoagulants and respirators, treatment can fail and a stroke may develop.


Rice Husk Ash (RHA) is the one of the most common agricultural wastes in Sri Lanka, which comprises higher percentage of silica. This silica can be obtained by burning the rice husk at high temperature; will significantly reduce the cost of production. The objective of this research is to investigate the physical properties of RHA and lime added clay bricks. The maximum strength and durability of the clay bricks will be determining by the percentage addition of lime with RHA. Eight different series of brick samples, which contains three units each, were manufactured to measure the compressive strength, density and water absorption. Each series consists seven brick samples of RHA ratio from 0 to 14 % and the lime ratio from 0 to 15% of the total weight of mixture. These brick were fired in the traditional brick kiln. Water absorption, compressive strength and density of the manufactured bricks were then analyzed and estimated according to Sri Lankan Standards (SLS) and compared with the commercially available brick made entirely from clay. Each analysis was performed for three brick samples in each series. Experimental evidence reveals a remarkable increment in the physical properties. However, the density and water absorption are lower than the market bricks. Maximum compressive strength was 4.9 N.mm-2 at 12.5% lime and 12.5% RHA combination. Physical properties of the new bricks are obviously higher than the bricks available in the local markets.

Role of Glutathione S-transferase Polymorphism in Susceptibility to Breast Cancer in Sudanese Women []

Background: Glutathione S-transferase (GST) encoded by the polymorphic GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene is one of the major enzymes in human breast tissue that have been associated with several drug-induced toxicities and cancer in various tissue. The study was aimed to evaluate the association between GSTM1 and GSTT1 variants and breast cancer (BC) risk in Sudanese women.Subjects and Methods: 118 patients and 100 controls were recruited in this study. 5 ml of the blood sample were collected from each participant. DNA was extracted and GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene polymorphisms were genotyped by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR).Results: Significant differences for the risk factors between cases and controls were observed, such as menopausal status (P= 0.001), age at menarche (P= 0,036), marital status (P= 0.013), and parity (P= 0.023). GSTT1 null genotype had an increased risk factor of (BC) <0.0001, OR 7.24, and 95%CI (2.9067-18.0688). GSTM1 genotypes were not significantly associated with (BC) (P = 0.251). Also, the combination of GSTT1 null and GSTM1 present via GSTT1 present and GSTM1present genotypes had an increased susceptibility to (BC) 14.67 times (OR= 14.67, 95%CI= 5.22-41.19, p> 0.0001). Conclusion and Recommendation: In conclusion, the GSTT1 gene was associated significantly with (BC); thus the use of the GSTT1 gene may be useful for screening of the earlier investigation for (BC) should be recommended.

Android Based 5 DOF Roboruka for industrial applications []

Today technology is developing in the same direction in line with rapidly increasing human needs. The work done to meet these needs makes life easier every day, and these studies are concentrated in robotic arm studies. Robot arms work with an outside user or by performing predetermined commands. Nowadays the most developed field of robot arms in every field is the industrial and medicine sector. Designed and realized in the project, robot arm has the ability to move in four axis directions with five servo motors we can take the desired materials from one place and carry it to another place, and also mix it with the material from one place and carry it to another place, and also mix it with the material it receives. While doing this, robot control is provided by connecting to the android application via bluetooth module connected to arduino DUE arm microcontroller.

Benefits of Online Teaching (E-Learning) in School during Lockdown in India []

The coronavirus pandemic has upended our world. The coronavirus crisis has changed the world completely in the last few months. All of us have been locked into our homes, learning activity has come to a near standstill. Everyone has been impacted. The academic calendar all over the world has been disturbed. Many School conducted Faculty development programs online to gear up the positivity among faculty during the crisis. Faculty feel there is no much difference between online and offline sessions as they can share PPT, play videos and use board and marker as regular classrooms. Teaching and learning are always in demand and when faculty heard about lockdown due to COVID-19, Challenge for faculty to look this as an opportunity to go for virtual classrooms, virtual learning and teaching.


Developing applications targeting mobile devices is a complex task involving numerous options, technologies and trade-offs, much so due to the proliferation and fragmentation of devices and platforms. With the rising demands of smart phones and tablets, mobile apps are becoming ubiquitous, hence developing applications for mobiles are getting quite challenging in terms of cost, effort and marketing. There are varieties of operating systems in the market that are unalike, which are an obstacle to developers when it comes to developing a single application for different operating system. The results of this work indicate that even though cross platform tools are not fully matured they show great potential and reduce the cost associated in developing native mobile applications. Hybrid mobile development is equally suitable for rapid development of high-fidelity prototypes of the mobile application as well as fairly complex, resource intensive mobile applications on its own right. As the upcoming future trends and the evolution of HTML5 continues to redefine the web, allowing its growth as a software platform, there remains great opportunities for cross-platform mobile development and hence provides an attractive alternative for the native mobile development.