Volume 8, Issue 5, May 2020 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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The addition of Lime (CaO) into pellet mix is proposed as a potential solution to overcome the insufficient compressive strengths of preheated and fired pellets produced using Ajabanoko Iron ore. Lime (Cao) was tested as an alternative binder to bentonite on magnetite pellets produced from Ajabanoko Iron ore. The performances of the tested binder on pellet qualities: balling drop number, Drop resistance, Green compressive strength at 100°C, Dry compressive strength test at 600°C , Indurating compressive strength test at 1200°C, Moisture content per pellet, tumbler index test, Abrasion index test and Micro porosity of pellets have been compared with the performances of reference bentonite binder. The results of the tests showed that the qualities of pellets are insufficient when 0%, 2% and 6% lime addition were used as binders. While, at 4% addition showed sufficient pellet quality compared with that obtained when bentonite was used as an ISO standard. The former (0 and 2% lime) failed to provide sufficient pre - heated and fired pellet drop numbers and strengths, the latter (6% lime) failed in terms of wet and dry pellet quality due to over binded strength which prevent reduction of iron ore pellet in the smelting furnace. However, good quality wet, dry, preheated and fired pellets could be produced with 4% CaO as binders. In addition, stronger pellets could be produced at lower firing temperatures like 1373 K; thanks to addition of 4% Lime. The bonding mechanism of 4% Lime containing pellets was compared with 4% bentonite (ISO Standard). It was found that the improved preheated and fired compression strengths of 4% lime -added pellets were due to the physical melting of lime at the contact point of magnetite grains during thermal treatment.


This research was carried out at the Nusantara Fisheries Port in Palabuhanratu, Sukabumi, West Java. Held in August - December 2019. The research on fishing vessel queuing patterns is conducted to identify fishing ves-sel queuing patterns in PPN Palabuhanratu, analyze the utilization of catching unloading facilities at PPN Palabuhanratu, and calculate the time of unloading fish and the factors that influence it. The studied samples were 6 units of hand line fishing vessels with a size of 6-10 Gross Ton. The port facilities analyzed were the loading dock, port pond and Fish Auction Place. The research method was a case study of the pattern of fishing vessel queues, utilization of facilities, and the duration of unloading fish. The analysis was carried out descriptively, described the queue pattern, queuing discipline, and the stages of unloading catches. The results of the queuing pattern that occurred at PPN Palabuhanratu are single-phase single service lines by means of tether-ing the ship extends in the direction of the dock length. The utilization rate of the dock is 74%, the port pond is 38%, and the TPI building is 101% and the average speed of unloading fishing vessels size 6 Gross Ton is 29.6 kg / minute and 3.78 kg / ABK / minute.

Temperature and Humidity affect on the virus infectivity []

COVID -19 is the most infections disease (Coronavirus disease) caused by a recently discovered virus. Air exchange rate, outdoor climate, weather conditions, and occupant behavior are the factors affect indoor air quality and spread of virus increasing according to many researches. On surfaces requires data on survival of this virus on environmental surfaces and on how survival is affected by environmental variables, such as air temperature (AT) and relative humidity (RH). And as a cool dry environment is being the most favorable condition for its transmission and either warm or humid conditions being unfavorable. Other environmental factors should be considered wind velocity, daily sunlight, and air pressure, had shown to be associated with SARS epidemic. Keywords: COVID-19, virus, temperature, humidity, environmental factors.

Weight and Temperature Trends of Sprague Dawley Albino Rats Injected B. bacteriovorus (ATCC® 15364™) and Pathogenic Bacteria []

To investigate effects on the physiology of mammals, 144 Sprague Dawley rats, were used as models to monitor changes in average weights and temperatures over a 168 hour period. These were sub- divided into 11 groups, each composed of 12 rats each. Five groups (n=12 per group) were injected with each of E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, P. multocida and P. vulgaris. Another 5 groups (n=12 rats per group) were each injected with the bacterial pathogens outlined, but also injected with a suspension of one ml of 1 x 108 B. bacteriovorus (ATCC® 15364™). A group, (n=12), rats, un-injected with neither pathogen(s) nor B. bacteriovorus, served as control. Temperatures and weights were taken on a daily basis and the averages obtained. Results showed that all rats groups, before pathogen injection had higher average weights compared with lower weights observed post injection with pathogens. Similarly, average temperatures in rats were higher pre-pathogens injection, compared with lower values post-injection. On comparison of groups injected with pathogens with groups injected with both pathogens and B. bacteriovorus, there was no significant difference in temperatures, though the latter group showed lower average temperatures. B. bacteriovorus (ATCC® 15364™) injected into rats showed no significant changes in weights nor temperatures between them and the control group. It is concluded B. bacteriovorus has no apparent effect on temperature and weight of rats when injected into them and so may be safely used in infection control in animals.

Culturally Significant Edible Plants in Ovia area of Edo State-Nigeria []

Abstract This paper is an inventory of culturally significant edible plants in Ovia area of Edo state. To achieve this objective, the study adopted a descriptive survey type of research design. Data required for the study were obtained from both primary and secondary sources. The method used for the primary data collection comprises of the personal interview and research questionnaire. Data collected were summarized and presented in a table. Result of the analysis shows that there were 39 culturally significant edible plants commonly exploited in the area for multiple uses. To sustain this trend, the need for active community participation in forest resource management was suggested for the benefit of all in this century. Keywords: Culturally Significant, Edible Plants, Conservation, Community Participation


Belitung Regency is one area that has a large potential for fisheries and captures fisheries production is increasing every year. The research objective is the identification and composition of catches of gill nets fishermen. The research method uses descriptive quantitative research methods. The method of determining the location of sampling is using purposive sampling, wherein the sampling is based on the catches of fishermen using gillnet fishing gear. Secondary data in the form of data obtained from interviews with fishermen and based on literature. Data collection techniques using survey research designs. Sampling for 6 (times) for 1 month. Sampling is done by following the fishermen with the aim of catching in the Fishing Ground area. The results obtained identification of catches of 7 species of gill net catchments dominated by Mackerel Tuna species (Ethynnuss sp) as much as 493.5 kg with a percentage of 40,1% and Narrow-barred Spanish Mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson) as much as 475 kg with a percentage of 38.6% . The composition of the catch of the gill net fishermen is dominated by tuna and mackerel of 968.5 kg with the main catch percentage of 78.7%

Review on Effect of Topo sequence on Soil Physico chemical Properties []

Abstract Reviewing the effect of toposequence on soil properties are essential for addressing the proper land use and land management. In view of this, it was conducted to review the effect of different topographic position and slope level on the selected physicochemical properties of soils. Four differen slope level, such as upper slop, middle slope, foot slope, and lower slope were considered. Not only the slope level direction of the slope faces important when slope is > than 10 %.Noticeable in South east mountain. North Slope colder soils, Less evaporation, more leaching thus more soil development, whereas South Slope warmer soils, more evaporation, less leaching thus less soil development. The results of the review, shows that cation exchange capacity, soil organic matter, soil Organic carbon content, total nitrogen, copper, total porosity, bulk density, infiltration rate of the shoulder slope level was lower than the upper slope level and the middle slope. In the other case, soil reaction, cation exchange capacity, Micronutrient, total nitrogen, and available phosphorous is high depend on organic carbon, organic matter, and the clay particle. Bulk density, total porosity, infiltration, and hydraulic conductivity depend on soil particle distribution. This review finally, concluded that the soil properties were maintained relatively under upper slope, and back slope, whereas under the shoulder due to steepness of the slope, and under the foot slope due to the deposition of materials from upslope may be near water table or may have greatest leaching due to water from upslope and rainfall were negative impact on the soils. This indicating that a need for application of integrated natural resource management in sustainable manner to optimize and maintain the soil physicochemical properties. Key words: Tope sequence, middle slope, upper slop, foot slope

Revitalization of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria for sustainable development in agriculture []

PGPR are those bacteria occurring as natural colonizers of soil which had gained worldwide importance in the field of agricultural enhancement. They had been observed in essential requirements to increase the productivity of soil by regaining fertility. Advancement of life in all systems has been nowadays not only reliant on farming but diet safety play a chief role in satisfying the growing population basic needs. The viability of soil environment serve as a source of a non-stop manifestation of soil bacteria. There are even other aspects of soil which play conservatory role in soil fertility; including of plants in synergistic co-evolution, soil microbes and bio-mineralization. The growth of population globally has put pressure on farming thus demanding chemical fertilizer high yield. Meanwhile with the application of peats and insect killer in the farming area have ruined the soil worth and richness, resulting in contraction of farming acreage having productive soil, therefore the consideration of scientists and researchers has moved towards harmless and fruitful sources of farming carry out. (PGPR) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria has been effective by co-evolution between plants and microbes. Bacteriological revival had been attained by plant growth promoters activated by direct and indirect tactics such as disease resistance, rhizoremediation, bio-fertilization, invigorating root growth, etc. The sort of unpredictability existed in the working of PGPR because of several ecological influences that effect their progression and propagation in plants. Due to existent limitations playing its role in agronomy PGPR applications were not improving. These restrictions could be overcome by usage of present methodologies and practices such as Micro-encapsulation and Nano-encapsulation. The introduction of new coming and modern research techniques are supporting their applications with the help of fields such as chemical engineering, biotechnology, agro biotechnology, nanotechnology, and material science by bringing together different environmental and practical living approaches to arrange new designs and prospects of huge prospective.Keywords: Agriculture Biofertilization Nano-encapsulation PGPR Revitalization Sustainable development


Milk has been consumed since time immemorial because of its unique nutritional properties and produced almost 816 million tonnes in the year of 2016. Due to its highly perishable characteristic, milk is processed into more stable milk products such as cheese, yogurt, butter, and milk powder. Therefore, it is widely used in many food products such as ice cream, bakery products, and usages. Milk is an important nutrition for infants and kids aged 1 to 6 years old. It is important for child development in terms of brain development, bone formation, and others. Milk is processed into powder form. The Milk Powder is produced by various companies using numerous names and brands with approval of the relevant authorities. In this paper, the contents of the nine main brands of infant milk powder namely “ Friso Gold”, “S-26 Promise”, “Anmum Essential”, “Enfagrow A+”,“Sustagen Kid 3+”, “Pediasure”, “Similac”, “Lactokid”, and “Nankid”, used in Malaysia been analyzed and presented the outcoming in term of comparison. The method used by performing a comparison between these nine brands to determine which of these brands is most suitable for daily consumption in terms of its advantages with minerals and vitamin content for children’s health and development. From the analysis by comparing each mineral and vitamin by brand, Pediasure milk powder is proven to be better when compared with other eight brands for daily minerals and vitamin consumption for infants till 3 years of child growth. This is followed by Similac, Lacktokid, Nankid, and Sustagen Kid 3+ brand. The finding and outcome recommended by this paper will be useful for a consumer in choosing suitable milk powder by minerals and vitamins needed as supplementary for daily in a child growth concerning age limit.

Suitability of Gross Tonnage of Fishing Vessel by Kementerian Kelautan dan Perikanan Based in Sukabumi Regency []

The great potential of fisheries in Sukabumi Regency must be supported by the presence of an adequate fishing vessel to increase the production of catches in Sukabumi Regency, therefore Kementerian Kelautan dan Perikanan (KKP) is rolling out a program that is a grant fishing vessel aid for fishermen in Sukabumi Regency who are members of the Business Group Together (Ind : KUB). Gross Tonnage (GT) is closely related to capturing fisheries management. Therefore good GT vessel size data is absolutely needed by the government so that the government is right in making decisions in conducting capture fisheries management activities. This research aims to determine the suitability of the gross tonnage size of grant fishing vessel and compare it to vessel certificate. The research was conducted in August 2019 and January 2020 in 4 coastal sub-districts in Sukabumi Regency, namely Cisolok Sub-District, Palabuhanratu Sub-District, Ciemas Sub-District, and Ciracap Sub-District. The method used is a survey method with two stages, the first is the stage of data collection through primary data collection by directly measuring the vessel and the second stage is descriptive analysis. The results showed that the grant fishing vessels have varying gross tonnage sizes with an average of 2,48 GT and 12,24 GT, the size does not match on the vessel certifcate.

Entrepreneurial orientation and profitability of selected water packaging company in Lagos state Nigeria []

Entrepreneurial orientation (EO) is a key component required for organisational profitability and overall performance. The poor adoption of EO dimensions made water packaging companies not to be competitive enough to achieve set target for profitability. This explained why many of the organisations could only survive for a limited number of years before going into extinction. The study therefore examined entrepreneurial orientation and profitability of selected water packaging companies in Lagos State, Nigeria. Cross-sectional survey research design was employed in this study. The population of the study comprised water packaging companies from the three senatorial zones of Lagos State, Nigeria. Sampling unit for the study consisted of five hundred and fifty-four (554) employee. Stratified, proportionate and random sampling techniques were adopted in the study. The adapted questionnaire was validated and administered to the respondents to collect primary data. A reliability test of the questionnaire was achieved with Cronbach Alpha values between 0.651 and 0.940. Descriptive and inferential statistics (simple and multiple regression analysis) were used to analyze the data and test the hypothesis. Findings from the study revealed that there was a positive and significant effect of entrepreneurial orientation dimensions on profitability of selected water packaging companies in Lagos State Nigeria (R2 = 0.165; F(5,510)= 21.339, p< 0.05). This study concluded that entrepreneurial orientation dimensions affected profitability of selected water packaging companies in Lagos State Nigeria. The study therefore recommended that adequate attention be given to the implementation of entrepreneurial orientation dimensions of innovativeness, proactiveness, risk-taking, autonomy and competitive aggressiveness. Key words: Entrepreneurial orientation, Innovativeness, Autonomy, Competitive aggressiveness, Proactiveness, Risk-taking, Profitability. Word Count: 249

Effect of Autoclaving on some mechanical properties of dental machined zirconia for crown restorations []

Yttrium-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) has been introduced into the field of dentistry as dental crowns and implant prosthesis due to superior strength and toughness compared to other dental ceramic systems, by using computer programs for design and manufacture. Before implantation, the use of autoclave is mandatory for sterilization and so is the study of its effect on the mechanical properties. PURPOSE: The objective was to study the effect of autoclaving on the mechanical properties of dental monolithic zirconia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Y-TZP blocks of Metoxit Z-CAD® HTL (Meoxit AG, Thayngen, Switzerland) were used in this study. The partially sintered blocks were cut into discs with the size of 10 mm (diameter) × 2 mm (thickness), then fully sintered at 1550℃ according to a cycle recommended by the manufacturer in a sintering furnace (Luoyang, China), for 5 hours. Specimens were sterilized in an autoclave at a temperature of 134 oC for 10 hours. The specimens were divided into two groups; sintered as the control group and autoclaved. The mechanical properties of both groups were measured; hardness by using Vickers hardness tester (MVK-H2, China), Surface roughness measurement by using surface profilometer (Surfcom 130A, Tokyo Seimitsu, Tokyo, Japan), Surface topography analysis by using scanning electron microscope and surface chemistry analysis by using Energy dispersive spectroscope (JSM-6360, JEOL, Tokyo, Japan), X-ray diffraction analysis by using diffractometer (DMAX 2500; Rigaku, Tokyo, Japan), Fracture resistance test by manufacturing crowns and using Instron(Nikon, Tokyo, Japan), The statistical analysis was done using(IBM SPSS Statistics 26). RESULTS: The control group hardness is higher than the autoclave group, XRD test shows that tetragonal phase is stable. Crown Fracture testing showed that the fracture resistance of the monolithic zirconia crowns increased (mean rank=24.00) when subjected to autoclaving treatment of 134 o C for 10h,than that of the control group (mean rank=8.5)

Green Synthesis of Silver Nano size particles with Pine Leaf []

A green, low-cost, and replicate Pine leaf–negotiated synthesis of silver Nanosized particles is reported. X-ray and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses are performed to ascertain the formation of Ag nano size particles. Nanosize particles almost cylindrical in shape having the size of 1-2 nm are found. Reveal analysis of the X-ray data (XRD) indicated that Ag Nano-size particles have an FCC unit cell structure. Ultraviolet (UV)-visible study revealed the surface Plasmon resonance at 449 nm. With the purpose of understanding the possible involved mechanism for the biosynthesis of Ag Nano size particles. The present procedure offers the benefit of eco-friendliness and agreeability for large-scale production through scaling up. Synthesis of metallic and/or oxide Nano sized particle staking support of plant extracts has attained an upsurge in the immediate past. Although s a lot of works have been done in biologically assisted synthesis of metal and oxide.


Abstract Youth unemployment remains a basic challenge in the democratization efforts of nations all over the world. Africa has an acute problem of youth unemployment that requires a multi-pronged strategy to raise employment and support inclusion and social cohesion. High youth unemployment indicates that young people are not acquiring the skills or experience needed to drive the economy forward. This inhibits the country’s economic development and imposes a larger burden on the state to provide social assistance. The loss in GDP attributed to youth unemployment combined with the cost of mitigating the impact of criminality associated with unemployment reinforced the need to address the issue. Consequently, the identification of effective interventions as well as adequate resource allocation is crucial. Resource constraints should not deter the Nigerian policy makers from refocusing public expenditure towards young people. Increased funding to raise the educational and health status of young people should be seen as a way of prioritizing allocation within the social sector. This paper therefore considers the challenge of youth unemployment in Africa, with particular reference to Nigeria and its implication on the democratization effort. A conceptual framework on unemployment and democratization is given, the various causes of unemployment are examined and, implications identified. Well-thought solutions are provided. The policy option proposed among others is a drastic shift in policy from the present incremental curriculum to scientific and technical subjects that promote student-centered learning. The Nigerian government as well as governments of other African nations must be more proactive in the continuous training of the youth and creating more jobs for them in order to ensure a safer, secured and developed Africa. Keywords-Challenge, Youth Unemployment, Implication, democratization, Policy, Development, entrepreneurial skill.

Effect of Mangrove Vegetation Density on Macrozoobenthos Abundance in the Mangrove Region of Pramuka Island []

The purpose of this study was to describe the environmental conditions contained in mangrove vegetation, and establish the relationship between the density of mangrove vegetation and the abundance of macrozoobenthos in the mangrove ecosystem in Pramuka Island. The study was conducted in July-August 2019. The research location is divided into four stations based on mangrove density. Station 1 is mangrove with high density, station 2 mangrove with medium density, station 3 mangrove with low density, and station 4 without overgrown mangroves. The method in this study uses a survey method, by making direct observations to the research location. The results showed that in the mangrove ecosystem in Pramuka Island, only one species mangrove was found, namely Rhizophora stylosa. The highest mangrove density is 105 stands. The greatest abundance of macrozoobenthos is at station 1, which is 187 ind / m2. The highest abundance of macrozoobenthos species is the Cerithium kobeltu. The total species composition of species found at the study site were 20 species. The highest diversity index is found at station 2 with a value of 2,9. The highest uniformity index is found at station 2 with a value of 0,8. The relationship between the density of mangrove vegetation on macrozoobenthos abundance is 0,96 and has a very strong relationship.


The researchers observed that many secondary schools in the study area do not have available ICT materials to teach physical and health education. Also it was observed that many of the students do not have access to the use of ICT, they are not stimulated toward learning of the subject and as such lack the necessary learning experiences they ought to have gained. This may be due to the non availability and poor access to ICT in the teaching and learning of the subject in most cases. Therefore, the study investigated impediments to Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the teaching and learning of physical and health education in secondary schools in Ado Local Government Area of Ekiti State. The researchers used survey design of the descriptive type of research for the study. The research instrument used for this study was a self–structured close ended questionnaire designed by the researchers. The sample size of three hundred and fifty (350) respondents was used for the study. Simple random sampling technique was used to select the respondents used for the study. The face and content validity of the instrument was ensured by given draft copies to experts for vetting. The reliability of the instrument was ensured by using the split half method and a coefficient of 0.98 was obtained. Inferential statistics of Chi-square (x2) was used to test the hypotheses postulated at 0.05 level of significance. From the findings of the study, the researchers concluded that ICT influence teaching of physical and health education. That students’ access rate to ICT influence their understanding of physical and health education. The researchers recommended that School administrators should compel the teachers to use ICT materials while teaching. In order to improve the effectiveness of teaching. Also, students should be given opportunity to have easy and frequent access to the ICT devices, in order to enhance their understanding and to enrich the students’ knowledge of information received while learning.


This study aims to determine the optimum dosage of SNCBLS shrimp shell bioprocess products in artificial feed that could increase the growth and survival of catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fingerlings. SNCBLS is a biological shrimp shell treatment using Bacillus licheniformis, Lactobacillus sp., and yeast in the form of Saccharomyces cereviseae. (Abun et al 2018). The method used was an experimental method using a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 4 treatments and 4 replications. Treatment A was without administration (SNCBLS) (control), treatment B (2%/100 grams of feed), treatment C (4%/100 grams of feed), and treatment D (6%/100 grams of feed). The parameters measured were growth rate, survival, feed efficiency and water quality. The results showed that giving 2% of the SNCBLS upon the feed was able to provide effective and efficient results that could increase feed efficiency by 34.14 ± 6.65%. in addition treatment C increased gave increased daily growth rate by 2.01 ± 0.05%, and survival rate as much as 93 ± 5%.


Provision of hand-pumped borehole water has been a way to ameliorate the hardship experienced due to the scarcity of portable Water in Ede and her environs. The awareness of the presence of radon, a carcinogenic radioactive gas in borehole is near zero in the study area. It is imperative to measure the concentration of the radon in the samples of water collected from the hand-pumped borehole water collected in Ede and her environs. The cancer risks associated with the ingestion of water from hand-pumped boreholes in the study area was estimated using radiation hazards indices and compares the measured values with the recommended unit by International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICPR) and World Health Organization (WHO). Water samples were collected from fifteen hand-pumped operated boreholes and assayed for the radon concentration using RAD7, an active electronic radon detector manufactured by Durridge Company, USA. The concentration of the radon in the water samples translated to the radiological indices for quantifying the cancer risk. The result showed that the radon concentration ranged between 28Bq/L and 598B/L, which was higher than (WHO) recommended value of 11.1Bq/L. The annual effective dose equivalent ranged between 102.2µsvy-1, and 1467.3 µsvy-1, annual gonadal effective dose ranged from 63.88 µsvy-1 to 1364 µsvy-1 while Excess Life Time Cancer risk (ELCR) ranged between 0.25x 10-3 and 5.44x10-3. However, large number of water samples assayed presented a risk value higher than the limit of 0.29x10-3 recommended by (ICRP). Keywords: Radon concentration, Annual effective dose equivalent, Gonadal effective dose, excess lifetime cancer risk and Radon.

Prevalence of Anxiety, Depression and Their Associated Risk Factors among Cancer Patients in Butaro Cancer Center, Rwanda []

Background: Cancer and psychological disorders such as depression and anxiety are likely to interact and management of one without the other is unlikely to produce satisfactory results Objective: To determine the prevalence and risk factors of anxiety and depression among cancer patients under cancer treatment at Butaro Cancer Centre. Methods: A sample of 86 adult cancer patients under treatment within the study period was recruited in the study. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADs) were used to assess the anxiety and depression among the patients Findings: of 86 patients who participated in the study, 27(31.4%) were aged 50 and above, 26(30.2%) had breast cancer. The prevalence of anxiety was 48.8% with symptomatic cases while it was on 54.7% for symptomatic depression cases. Married patients demonstrated lower risk of anxiety [AOR: 0.168 with CI: 0.059-0.476] compared to single patients. Male patients had higher risk of depression [AOR: 4.433 and CI: 1.429-13.749] compared to female patients. Level of cancer was statistically associated with depression where patients in level three/four had higher risk of depression compared to those in level one. Conclusion: The findings of the present study highlight the importance screening for anxiety and depression among patients with cancer receiving anti-cancer treatment and much attention should be oriented to female, married and patients at the terminal stage of cancer. Keywords: Anxiety, Depression, Cancer, HADs

Evaluation of pollen viability and in vitro pollen germination compared at different maturity stages of Cola nitida flowers. []

Abstract Successful fruit set and production depends largely on the ability of a flower to produce functional and fertile pollen grains. Pollen quality and germination capacity were among the procedure used in determining pollen quality. Flowers at different maturity stages (anthesis, pre- anthesis and post-anthesis) were collected in the morning between 8:30 – 9:30am, after which pollen grains were squeeze out for viability test and in vitro germination. Aniline blue and pollen germination medium were used to determine viability test and in vitro germination. Pollen grains from freshly open flowers (anthesis) were superior in terms of viable pollen grains (33.00), percentage pollen viability (35.40), pollen germination (4.67) and percentage pollen germination (9.15) among other flowers types. Low pollen germination (3.08) was recorded at post-anthesis, while no pollen germination (0.00) occurs at pre-anthesis. This implies that freshly open flowers were ideal for evaluating pollen quality and in vitro germination and for successful hybridization program.

Application of blockchain in an Indian banking sector []

The objective of the research paper is to conduct a research on an impact of blockchain on banking sector through cryptocurrency. The object of research is technology advancement and its economic exploitation. In order to figure out the platform, the initial point of this research is an analysis of how the technology operates and functions after that the benefit for business and economic transaction are analysed and afterwards the research deals with an impact of new technology on banking, above all on financial functions. The hypothesis is that blockchain has achieved a great impact on banking sector, also it has the potential to thoroughly modify only the financial and banking sector but also the way we buy and sell our interaction with the authorities as a way of authenticating the holding from the authorship. Using the available data and hypothesis of knowledge from the fields of technology, economics, finance, and politics, 4 scenarios were set up for the future of basic technology. The scenario combined with trend analysis in order to prove the starting hypothesis with high reliability, authenticated and accuracy. Banking progressively detect the power of this technology to exploit the benefits of the Fourth Technological Revolution. The research conclusion shows that the technology being checked already has a deep impact on the banking sector, that it is in the starting phase of modifying many industries, with the possibility that they will change them automatically in the next five to ten years.


Abstract The study examined the effect of exchange rate depreciation on import demand in Nigeria from 1981 to 2016. Toda-Yamamoto approach to Granger Causality test was employed in the analysis. Data obtained from the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) statistical bulletin on total imports (TIMP), exchange rate (EXCR), gross domestic product (GDP), consumer price index (CPI) and foreign direct investment (FDI) were analyzed in the study. The results showed that EXCR, GDP, and FDI have significant effects on TIMP in Nigeria while CPI has an insignificant effect on TIMP. These suggest that any economic policy that is able to increase the values of EXCR, GDP, and FDI by 1% will lead to a significant change in the import demand in Nigeria. Thus, the study recommends that government should as a matter of fact, intensify efforts in its pursuit of import substitution policies through inward-looking; and imbibe export promotion strategies via economic diversification with the view to promoting exports and reducing the level of imports. The exchange rate depreciation/devaluation policy is yet to bring about the desired reduction in the import demand in Nigeria. The depreciation, if well-utilized leads to increased exports and hence, improved economic growth and development of the nation.