Volume 8, Issue 5, May 2020 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Bioethanol can be derived from industrial waste processing that still contains lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses. Utilization of waste will reduce the impact of competition for food resources. The main components in waste seaweed (cellulose) can be converted into bioethanol. Ethanol that produced using cellulolytic activity, can be used as an alternative renewable fuel. One way to convert the cellulose to ethanol is using enzyme hydrolysis followed by fermentation. Hydrolysis and fermentation process are using poten-tial microbial activity as fungi and yeast. All this time, the terrestrial fungi are commonly used for bioetanol, while endophytic fun-gi from the marine is still rarely explored although marine fungi that have enzyme activities that can be developed in the manufac-ture of bioethanol so they have potential to degrade cellulose from seaweed waste. The fuels from commercial macroalgae, a priori-ty to identify microorganism that have a bioactive compund to metabolize major from carbohydrates or cellulose. There were some researchers have developed macroalgae specific enzymes to hydrolyze macroalgal carbohydrates/cellulose. Most of the microorgan-isms were originated from marine flora and fauna. Their enzymatic functions on macroalgae have been well reviewed in many stud-ies. Once those kinds of microorganisms and enzymes have been identified and developed, they can be applied to the Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) and Seperate Hydrolysis and Fermentation (SHF) method. Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) method has many advantages: low contamination, low initial osmotic stress of fermenting microorganisms, and high energyefficiency. It should be noted however, that applying various microorganisms to a fermentation condition as in Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) method could inhibit enzyme activity and extracellular enzyme secretion [22]. Also, various and complex carbohydrates of macroalgae can lead to low yield of bioethanol in the Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation methode. Therefore, it is very important to know the potential of endophytic marine fungi in in the manufacture of bioethanol.


The process of dehulling cowpea is tedious and time consuming. The removal of cotyledon from the hull is commonly done manually. A few machines which operate under the batch process have been developed by some researchers. These machines are found to consume much time and human effort during operation. As a result of this, prompted the need to develop a continuous mechanism for the dehulling process of cowpea. The improved wet cowpea dehuller was developed at the National Centre for Agricultural Mechanization (NCAM), Ilorin. The test performance carried out on the cowpea dehulling machine indicated that the continuous mechanism for dehulling was a success which led to higher output and ease of operation. The highest and lowest dehulling efficiencies obtained for the developed cowpea dehulling machine during testing was 92.11% and 87.86%, respectively. The cleaning efficiency obtained for the developed cowpea dehulling machine was 88.43%; while the average output capacity obtained for the developed cowpea dehulling machine was 66kg/h.

Proven Treatments for Viral Diseases: Basis to Finding Cure for COVID-19 Pandemic []

Abstract: The unprecedented rise of cases of Coronavirus Disease (CoVid-19) with around 5 Million confirmed cases across the globe and 348,000 deaths (as of May 16 data from the World Health Organization) since its first occurrence in December 2019 at Wuhan, China, is quite alarming because comparing it to other beta-coronaviruses like Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) and other human infec-ting viruses, this novel corona virus spreads rapidly. The reason for its rapid outbreak as stated by the different journals we reviewed could be genetic recombination event at spike protein (S) in the Receptor-Binding Domain (RBD) region that may have enhanced its transmission ability. This review presents current knowledge on the genetic characteristics of CoViD-19 in comparison to previous coronaviruses as it is of paramount importance to understand its genetic components and structure to study its pathogenicity for the production of drugs and vaccines because until now there has been no reported cure to treat this disease. We also presented updated clinical trials and on-going treatments conducted by numerous scientists all over the world who are exploring proven treatments and available therapeutic drugs which might have the potential cure to end this pandemic.


The control of inflation and unemployment in any economy is germane in the management of economic growth and development. The effective control of these macroeconomic variables is responsible for the economic stability experienced in some well managed economies. When they are ineffectively controlled, they could lead to economic woes which many nations pass through these days. Economic policy makers depend on the propositions of the Phillips curve theory to adjust inflation and unemployment in the economy depending on the desired direction of either of the two economic evils. In other words, a certain percentage of one variable could be tolerated at the expense of the other variable in order to achieve a desired economic goal at a time. Therefore, according to Phillips curve hypothesis, inverse relationship exists between inflation and unemployment. In some economies there exists positive and significant relationship between inflation rate and the rate of unemployment, causing stagflation, thereby invalidating the theory of Phillips curve. Therefore, this paper aims at examining the validity of Phillips curve theory in developing countries with particular reference to Nigeria from 1980 – 2018. The paper employs the Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) test for unit root to test the stationarity or otherwise of the time series data obtained from the Central Bank of Nigeria, the National Bureau of Statistics, the World Bank, etc. We also deployed the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bounds testing technique to examine the long run relationship among the variables in the model. In addition, we employed the error correction technique for the correction of disequilibrium and to determine the speed of adjustment in the long run. The result shows that unemployment has a negative effect on inflation, though statistically insignificant. This confirms the existence of Phillips curve postulations in Nigeria within the period of the study (1980 – 2018). This paper therefore recommends that economic policy makers in Nigeria should diversify the economy by de-emphasising overdependence on oil, promote agriculture, create more jobs, create conducive economic environment for business to thrive, fight corruption and poverty, boost investment, improve ease of doing business, and promote small scale businesses. Furthermore, fighting all forms of insurgency is germane for the economy to grow.


The article explores pre-Sabean Oromo settlement of east Sudan, Eritrea and northern Ethiopia which was under the control of Meroetic kings in the classics. This article also examines the collective administrative system known as Gabala or Gadda along the harbor of Gabala where Meroe’s eastern trade route peters out in to the Red Sea via the port town of Adola. The purpose of this article is to investigate economic and administrative involvement of Oromo in Meroe’s ancient civilization. In order to validate the new argument, primary evidences were collected together with oral sources recorded from purposively selected five informants, has been referred. Finally, based on place names like Ona Libanos, linguistic evidences, comparative analysis of gender based authority of Meroe- Oromo, archaeological, sources, and living culture of the people of Oromo, the researcher had confirmed the people of Oromo, whose indigenous knowledge had been crucial in transforming socio-economic and political life of the emergent mercantile kingdom of Aksum, was part of the classical Meroe civilization. Gradually, the new comers had snatched not only Oromo’s agricultural wisdom, land and trade route that radiates from the harbor of Gabala, but also cut off Oromo’s contact with ancient Meroe pushing them aside in to the barren lands of south eastern Ethiopia and northern Kenya. Key Words: Meroe, Oromo, Sabean colonization, Cushitic dispersal


Legume Nodulating Bacteria (LNB) play a significant role in agriculture, thanks to theircapacity to improve plant growth. The main objective of this study is to isolate common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) nodulating bacteria from root nodules and select the best isolate of rhizobia with beneficial traits. After isolation on YEMA-CR medium, eight isolates were confirmed as LNB by re-nodulating Macroptilium atropurpureum. A study of the morphological, physiological, biochemical and phytopathological characteristics of the isolates was done. The results obtained were analyzed statistically by ANOVA using GraphPad Prism 5.0 and SPSS 16.0. The isolates were different morphologically. Most isolates were able to grow at a pH of 4.5 with an optimum growth ranging between 5.5 and 6.5. The isolates tolerated high concentrations (7%) of NaCl. At 100 µg/ml, 12.5 % ofthe isolates were very resistant to penicillin, chloramphenicol and gentamicin but were all sensitive to ampicillin, erythromycin and amoxicillin. Isolate PvNj8 showed the highest IAA production (20.9 µg/ml) in YEM supplemented with 0.1mg/ml of L-tryptophan. The capacity of the isolates to solubilize inorganic phosphates varies with the origin of phosphate used in the medium. The solubilization index varied from 1.08 to 2.14 for the Senegalese inorganic phosphate. No solubilization was observed for the Cameroonian inorganic phosphate. In liquid medium, the Cameroonian inorganic phosphate wassolubilize by 6 isolates among 8. The highest value of solubilization was found into PvNj2 which is not significantly different from PvNj4 and PvNj5 but significantly different from the other isolates. For the Algeria inorganic phosphate, PvNj6 was found to be the best solubilizer but not significantly different comparatively to PvNj3, PvNj8 and PvNj9. The isolates of this study assimilated various carbon sources with a preference for mannitol. All the isolates inhibited the development of the plant-pathogens fungus Phytophtora megakarya and Phytophtora colocasiae. Several selected bacteria nodulating bean can be recommended for the production of biofertilizers.

ASVP-ESD: A dataset and its benchmark for emotion recognition using both speech and non-speech utterances []

In the field of human-computer interaction, speech emotion recognition has become a very challenging topic in the past decade. Emotion recognition has made great progress with the advancement of deep learning. It is worth noting that non-speech also contains rich emotions, current research mainly focused on the effectiveness of emotional features of the speech, implementing on public data set where basically most are speech based data set instead of considering non-speech emotional data. To deal with this challenge, this paper presents a realistic data set called ASVP-ESD(Audio,Speech and Vision Processing Lab Emotional Sound database), which contains six categories of emotions in speech and non-speech respectively, including 5105 samples with about 5 seconds length average collected from online videos. Several approach that achieved a STOA results on IEMOCAP and Berlin EmoDB data sets were implemented as reference for the new challenge. In order to improve the recognition performance, a method based on Convolution Neural Network- Bidirectional Long Short Term Memory(CNN-BLSTM) was proposed as the benchmark of this new data set achieving a recognition accuracy of 69.68\%, which is 2\% more higher than published method. Meanwhile a two-stage recognition strategy for this ASVP-ESD recognition task were proposed, as it can improve the recognition accuracy rate to 5\%$\sim$6\% base on above published method.

Development of Fishmeal from De-boned Stunted Tilapia Using a Fishmeal Processing Plant []

Globally the demand for and use of fishmeal has increased rapidly, especially in some of the emerging aquaculture countries in Africa and Asia. In this study, stunted tilapia was processed into de-boned fishmeal. 40kg of freshly harvested stunted tilapia was processed into coarse fishmeal using a compact fishmeal plant (Denmark type: FR-100). The product was further decalcified by sieving out bones and scales and then pulverized. The ratio of fresh weight to finished de-boned weight was 8:1. The de-boned/scaled tilapia fishmeal contained 76% crude protein, 8.0% moisture and 14.0% ash. Stunted Tilapia provides a nutritional and socio-economic resource of great potential benefit that can be brought into the food security chain through a process of using fish as a natural feed for fish.


ESTABLISHING ISLAMIC BANKING AND FINANCING (IBF) IN GHANA: ISSUES CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS AbstractThe Republic of Ghanas financial system and banking reform decided the adoption and establishment of a new banking system known as Islamic Banking & Finance in 2013 as another banking strategy. However, the issues of the implementation of this new banking which is interest - free banking has brought many issues and debates because Ghana is not an Islamic state and the foundations of IBF are based on Islamic principles and laws-sharia.This article briefly reviews the introduction, concepts, issues, challenges, and prospects of IBF practiced in other countries. It relied on secondary sources by reviewing and analyzing works on the subject matter. The Islamic Banking is for all and looking at the populations of people who are not banking in the country, there exist more prospects for IBF and Ghana can be another center for Islamic financing in Africa. Notwithstanding, several challenges and issues are surrounding the introduction and development of IBF in the country. Among the potential challenges are lack of knowledge, legal and regulatory framework, policies, lack of awareness about IBF. Furthermore, the prospects of IBF include worldwide growth, corporate social responsibility, mainstreaming the unbanked, promotion of financial inclusion, attracting foreign & local investors. The researchers recommend that there should be awareness creation to the public and proper education on the terminologies and benefits of IBF. Conclusively, the introduction of a new banking system in Ghana will bring a lot of development and transformation to all sectors of the economy through employment creation.Keywords: Islamic Banking System, Islamic Finance, Non-Interest Banking, Ghana.

Greenhouse gas fluxes and accounting vis-à-vis feedback to climate change in forest ecosystems []

Forest ecosystems are complex ecosystems with various species of trees, shrubs, animals, and microbial lives. Forest ecosystems play a key role in climate change mitigation by absorbing large amounts of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), one of the major greenhouse gases (GHGs) responsible for global warming and subsequent climate change. Because of the accumulation of gaseous carbon (C) over considerable long time, these areas are amongst potent terrestrial C pools on Earth. Due to their substantial contribution to the global C balance, forests are an integral part of the C cycle and forest ecosystems worldwide are gaining more and more importance with regard to climate change research. But their role as net source / sink of other major GHGs viz. methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) including CO2 is yet to be well defined, which itself is a researchable issue under changing climatic scenario. Due to the complex associations of several environmental factors over forests, GHGs fluxes have been uncertain. Moreover, the characterization of ecosystem level C, nitrogen (N) biogeochemistry, nutrient (element) cycling, water and energy flux dynamics, their spatio-temporal variability and quantification of net C sequestration potential is still limited in different forest ecologies worldwide with relation to biometric components and bio-physical variables under changing climatic scenario and anomalous climate events. Moreover, land use may impact watershed hydrology and regional climate by altering the land-atmosphere exchanges of trace gases, energy and water cycling. Thus the investigation of the processes and the mechanisms involved in gaseous C and N exchanges (viz. CO2, CH4 and N2O) between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere and their driving / governing factors are essential in context of global warming and changed climate. The Impact of GHGs on climatic conditions and the influence of such climatic change on (forest) productivity is reality, although there is a need to assess the extent of such influences. The holistic studies of GHG fluxes, their quantification from different forest ecologies, major controlling factors for such fluxes and their mitigation are still limited in forest ecosystems.


God is the common name of Allah, Jesus, Krishna etc. The name gives the shape, size ,quality and quantity of a thing , So name is everything. God is the Universe and Universe is made of Energy and matter .Matter is converted to energy and vice versa. The conversion is the eternal process of the changes in the Universe . God is the thought of human mind .God is the master as well as the ruler of the Universe . Man is created from the Earth by the influence of the Universe .Every celestial body is created from the Universe and destroyed in the Universe . Likewise Earth is created from the Universe and it will be destroyed in the Universe in the far future . GOD DIRECTS EVERY ORGANISM TO GO ON HIS FIXED DISTANCE OF LIFE AND DO HIS ASSIGNED DUTY , AS GO AND DO ARE DERIVED FROM THE WORD GOD. GOD IS GOOD FOR EVERY LIVING BEING . GOD IS GOER AND GOD IS DOER . DO IS DERIVED FROM THE WORD GOD . DUTY IS DERIVED FROM THE WORD DO , SO DUTY IS DERIVED FROM GOD. HENCE DUTY IS GOD . THE DUTY OF A MAN IS TO DO LOVE , DO SERVE , DO HELP AND DO FORGIVE TO THE HUMAN BEINGS . The ancestors of the human beings are about 6 million years old in the Earth. The modern form of humans are evolved about 2 lac years ago .The humans’ civilization is only 6 thousand years old .There is no evidence of any word meaning God in any language earlier to the human civilization .Gradually the man began to contemplate the reasons of any happening in the Universe as well as in the human civilization .Koran states that , The first thing created was reason. Allah hath not created anything better than reason . The benefit which Allah giveth are on account of it and understanding is by it . Allah’s displeasure is caused by it, any by it are rewards and punishments . Union and Separation is the law of the Universe .Universe is made of energy as well as matter. Matter is converted to Energy and Energy is transformed to Matter , It is the Go of the Universe . Changing is the eternal process of the Universe . So nobody knows what will happen to him in when, where and how .Man can not know the mysteries of the Universe and also he can not prevent the dangers, which come to him .So this situation compels the man to believe in the supreme universal power God, who is worshipped by the Christianity, Islam, Hinduism and Judaism as the creator ,ruler and saviour of the human society. Man believes in God in the humans civilization to avert his dangers and to fulfill his desires . So man prays to God to prevent himself from the dangers and to fulfill his aims . Man is created in the Earth by the influence of the Universe .The man is made from the Earth in such a process that his faith in God makes him strong in mind and body. If he fears something then his mind and body becomes weak as a result he can not face any problem . Man can not know what is going to happen in his life in the future, as he is unable to know the rules and the regulations of the Universe . Life of a man is uncertain in this Earth, So he also believes in Luck.

compare the efficacy of Analgesia in Subtenon and Peribulbar Anesthesia in phacoemulsification with an intraocular lens []

The provision of ophthalmic regional anesthesia varies worldwide. peribulbar techniques using sharp needles are still accepted and widely practiced. Since the first introduction of the peribulbar block in 1986 by Davis and Mandel, many modifications of the techniques are observed.


This research is solely devoted to a more or less exhaustive analysis of the factors of adoption and acceptability of distance education in the higher and university education sector in the DRC. The main aim of this research is to identify the relevance and the feasibility of a possible cooptation of a distance training program in the DRC, based, on the one hand, on the analysis of existing and public needs target (teachers and learners) and, on the other hand, on an in-depth examination of other factors involved in the success of such a program (education officials, teaching technologies, teacher trainers, teaching methods learning, etc.) identifying, at the same time, the regulatory, didactic and technical solutions for implementing distance learning in an exclusively Congolese context, for liberalization, democratization and improving the quality of higher and university education in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Keywords: Adoption, Factors, E-learning, distance education, Higher and university education, training, liberalized, democratized, DRC…


Computer Sciences and the Internet in particular are becoming an increasingly essential means, almost usable in all fields (communications, commerce, social relations, etc.). The large mass of information circulating on the Internet greatly favors the collection of data without the knowledge of the user, its disclosure to third parties and the crossing of this data constitutes a fruitful possibility for potential invasions of the privacy of users. . This article deals with the subject of the protection of personal data in its relations with ICT in Congolese society. The purpose of this study is the construction of a critical and communicational approach relating to a suitable legal framework subject, on the one hand, to technical developments and, on the other hand, to the necessary reconciliation between status and the use of this personal data by Congolese internet users. This construction is based on investigations of scientific work already carried out or in progress, involving apparent and hidden risks due to the extraordinary development of computer techniques. Keywords: Legal framework, Protection, Privacy, Personal data, NICT, Internet, Congolese Internet user, DRC…

Study the Concentrations of Radon indoor in Axum Town, Tigray, Ethiopia. []

Long term indoor radon concentration in dwellings in Axum town, randomly selected, were performed by SSNTD (LR-115 films) track etch detectors during a year 2017/2018 for a period of 4 months. Results of preliminary investigation presented in this paper show that radon activities vary from 39 Bq.m−3 to 116 Bq.m−3 with mean concentration 76.3Bq.m−3 and standard deviation of 22.5Bq.m−3 while the inhalation dose rate varies from 0.35 mSv.y−1 to1.04 mSv.y−1 with an average of 0.69 mSv.y−1 and standard deviation of 0.21mSv.y−1. In all the dwellings the concentration of radon and inhalation dose is found less than the lower limit recommended by ICRP. Risk of lung cancer related to radon is expected to be negligible in these dwellings.


With the emergence of software industry in recent times, more people are interested in learningprogramming languages. But nowadays there are more than 250 programming languages available, only a few of them can be applied comparatively widely. In this paper, the research in programming language was conducted. Four of the most popular programming languages C, C++, C# and Java are chosen to be the objects to study. The technical features of these four programming languages were summarized and compared with each other. To know the actual performance of these four chosen programming languages, an experiment was carried out by implementing the benchmark for each programming language. The result from the experiment was recorded and analyzed. The research concluded the most suitable application fields for these four of the most popular programming languages according to the technical features and the result from the experiment. C is suitable for systems-programming applications, hardware related applications, embedded device, chip designing, and industrial automation products. C++ is appropriate for the software development such as application software, device drivers and high-performance server. C# is proper for application development and the development of web application. Java has three different forms, Java2 Standard Edition (J2SE), Java2 Micro Edition (J2ME), and Java2 Enterprise Edition (J2EE). J2SE is suitable for the desktop applications. J2ME is proper for embedded systems development for mobile phones, wireless application and PDA programming. Finally, J2EE is appropriate for the development of server programming


Web-based academic advising system was designed to facilitate more accurate advising sessions on campus, as well as provide a complete history of past advising sessions. Advisors may select which courses they wish a student to register in, up to several semesters in to the future, as well as leave comments for the student and other campus staff. The system was designed and developed using Relational Data Model (RDM) and Data Flow Diagram (DFD) and was implemented using PHP and MySQL programming languages. The researchers have developed an interactive web-based information system that can help Nigerian universities to facilitate more accurate advising sessions on campus and make important decisions. The developed System can handle errors, updates and modification of data more efficiently and can be accessed anywhere and anytime than the manual methods of academic advising system. This paper describes an Advisement System designed to mitigate the issues of an out- of-the-box implementation in Nigerian university to help improve retention and graduation. A successful implementation of this research study would enable the main objective of this system to assist Nigerian universities orientation camp in solving the problems associated with the manual method of academic advising system,

Antimicrobial Resistance profile of Escherichia coli from Urine of Patients in Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation Medical Services, Abuja, Nigeria []

Escherichia coli (E. coli) is among the most predominant organisms causing urinary tract infections (UTIs) in humans. Studies on antimicrobial resistance in E. coli from urine of patients in Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation Medical Services, Abuja, Nigeria was carried out. Exactly 362 urine samples of patients with suspected UTIs were collected and E. coli was isolated and identified using standard microbiological methods. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the isolates was carried out and interpreted in accord-ance with Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute protocol. Of the 362 urine samples, the occurrence of E. coli was 45(12.4%); highest age-related occurrence at 21-30yrs of 18(20.5%); and higher in female (15.6%) than male (7.6%). The 45 isolates had highest resistance to ampicillin 43(95.6%) and lowest resistance to gentamicin 13(28.9%). All the 45 isolates were multiple antibiotic resistant (MAR) isolates with MAR indices of > 0.2, and the commonest indices being 0.6 and 0.7 with 10(22.2%) and 8(17.8%) occur-rences respectively. The order of occurrence of categories of antibiotic resistance in the 45 isolates was: multi-drug resistance (66.7%) > extensive drug resistance (17.8%) > non-multi-drug resistance (13.3%) > pan drug resistance (2.2%). A further study on molecular diversity of the antimicrobial resistant E. coli from urine in the study location is ongoing.


Shark production in Karangsong tends to increase every year. The purpose of this study was to determine the pattern of shark trade land-ed in PPI Karangsong, Indramayu and perceptions of businesses man in responding to sharks as protected fish. The method used in this research is a questionnaire conducted on several shark business players, then deepening for each businessman. The results obtained from this study include the role of shark business players, including fishermen, collectors (wholesalers), large distributors, exporters, small trad-ers and shark bones and teeth collectors. The price of whole shark is different from wet shark fins or dry shark fins. The wider the size of the shark's fin, the higher the selling price of the shark's fin. Fishermen and traders do not know or do not understand about shark conservation.

Simulation of Modified Kicked Rotor Hamiltonian System []

In this paper, numerical simulation of Modified Kicked Rotor Hamiltonian System have been investigated and presented. The onset of chaos in both the unmodified and modified system is also investigated through numerical simulation. The results for the modified standard map are compared with that for the unmodified standard map. The shift in the onset of chaos and the existence of resonance trajectories in the modified standard map for large values of the kick strength are observed and discussed. We observed that the kicked rotor mapping is an interesting standard map from a fundamental point of view in physics because it’s a model of a conservative system that displays Hamiltonian chaos and many physical systems can be approximated by this model. The physical realization of the modified kicked rotor is also discussed.