Volume 8, Issue 5, May 2020 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Study the Effect of Climate Change in Nigeria Using Mathematical Models []

ABSTRACT The study work focused on the effect of climate change in Nigeria using mathematical modeling. Climate change is a global problem that different field of studies are trying to handle it, so mathematician use many models and techniques such as "The Green House Gas Model, Energy Balance Equation, Ice Sheet Models " etc in order to find the best methods to describe and solve these problems, to reduce its harm to human being and all other living things, also providing scientific information towards decision maker in sequence to protect our Planet. Finally, the results obtained in this project help us to see that from the last few decades the global temperature has increased far above its normal rise based on the increase of human activities and industrial release of excess CO2. Graphs are also displayed to show average rainfall, minimum temperature, maximum temperature and solar radiation. The graphs gave a clear view of the rise and fall of the temperature and solar radiation depending on season and monthly rainfall in a year.

application of avocado pear leaf extract in inhibiting corrosion of mild-steel in 1.5M Hydrochloric acid as the corrodent []

Corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 1.5M HCl solution by extract from avocado pear leaf was in-vestigated using weight loss method. It has been found that the extract acts as an effective corro-sion inhibitor of mild-steel in hydrochloric acid as a corrodent. The inhibition process is attributed to the formation of an adsorbed film of inhibition on the metal surface which protects the metal against corrosion. The inhibition efficiency and surface coverage (Ɵ) of extract from avocado pear leaf increased with increase in inhibitor concentration, but decreased with increasing temperature. The adsorption of extract of avocado pear leaf on mild steel surface was found to obey Langmuir’s adsorption isotherm. The negative free energy value (-∆Gads) indicates that the adsorption of in-hibitor molecule was of physical adsorption and the reaction was spontaneous extract from avo-cado pear leaf could serve as an excellent corrosion inhibitor owing to the fact that it is eco-friendly, cheap, biodegradable and highly acceptable by environmental regulation. Keywords: Hydrochloric acid, mild steel, extract, weight loss, concentration etc.


The information design of traditional fishing vessels in Indonesia is still lacking. This happens because the construction is still using tradi-tional methods. It was also allegedly able to provide a discrepancy with the characteristics of fishing vessels. Therefore, identification of the main dimensions of fishing vessels is needed as a database of development and preliminary review of fishing vessel performance. The study was conducted on cantrang fishing vessels at PPP Mayangan, Probolinggo. The results of the ratio of the main dimensions of the fishing vessel will be compared with the results of previous studies to assess the design characteristics. Besides, the main dimension data can be processed into cubic number values. The results showed the value of L/B of the fishing vessel ranged from 2.20 - 3.68, L/D 7.31 - 13.74, and B/D 2.55 - 4.57. Based on the reference value, the value is following the value of the type of towed gear fishing vessel in Indo-nesia. These results indicate that cantrang fishing vessels at PPP Mayangan have a greater resistance and worse elongation strength. Based on the CUNO that has been valued obtained, 67.15 - 150.67 m3 of raw materials are needed to build a cantrang fishing vessels at PPP Mayangan.

Molecular Characterization of Escherichia coli with Ciprof-loxacin and Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporins Co-resistance from Patients Attending Tertiary Hospitals in Nasarawa State, Nigeria []

Antibiotic treatment of urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli remain the mainstay of its control. Molecular characterization of E. coli with ciprofloxacin and extended-spectrum cephalosporins co-resistance from patients attending tertiary hospitals in Nasarawa State, Nigeria was investigated. Thirty-five isolates, 13 from Dalhatu Araf Specialist Hospital Lafia (DASHL) and 22 from Federal Medical Centre, Keffi (FMCK), were obtained from previous studies. Phenotypic detection of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production was by double disc synergy test. Genes for ESBL and plasmid-mediated quinolones resistance (PMQR) were detected using polymerase chain reaction. Molecular diversity of the isolates was analyzed using Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP). Out of 35 isolates, 18 (54.5%) were ESBL producers, with higher occurrence in DASHL (54.5%) than FMCK (46.2%). The ESBL genes blaSHV, blaCTX-M and blaTEM were detected in both hospitals, with highest occur-rence of 83.3% each for blaSHV and blaCTX-M in FMCK; and 66.7% for blaTEM in DASHL. The PMQR genes acc (6′)-Ib-cr oqxAB, qnrB and qnrS were pre-sent in FCMK; but only qnrS was absent in DASHL. Occurrence of acc (6′)-Ib-cr was highest (100.0%) in FMCK; while qnrB was highest (75.0%) in DASHL. The occurrence of strain A type isolates was higher in FMCK (100.0) than DASHL (83.33%), while no strain B type isolate in FCMK. The ESBL (blaSHV, blaCTX-M and blaTEM) and PMQR (acc (6′)-Ib-cr oqxAB, qnrB and qnrS) genes were detected in the isolates. The most common circulating strain in both DASHL and FMCK was strain A, with no strain B in FCMK.

Effect of total quality management and just-in-time on operational performance of flour mills companies in Lagos state, Nigeria []

In the manufacturing industry, the food and beverage manufacturing sector are one of the important sectors which helps in boosting of the Nigeria economy. Due to the prevailing issues such as crime, tax rates, access to finance, business licensing, political instability, competitions, the food and beverage manufacturing firms around the globe are facing some challenges such as waste, low productivity and reduction in profit which in return affect the entire performance level. Hence, this study investigated the interaction effect between Total Quality Management (TQM), Just-In-Time (JIT) and operational performance of selected flour mills companies in Lagos State, Nigeria. The study adopted cross-sectional survey research design. The research was carried out using three leading food and beverage companies under flour mill production in Nigeria, which is also listed on the Nigeria stock exchange market. Date were obtained through primary sources using self-structured and validated questionnaire. The total population was 2246 and multistage sampling technique was used for the study. The sample size was 428 calculated with Raosoft sample size calculator. The Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficient for the constructs ranges from 0.71 and 0.89 while the overall reliability coefficient was 0.914. The response rate was 78.7% and data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings of the study revealed that there was a statistically significant effect of TQM and operational performance of selected food and beverages manufacturing companies in Lagos State (F (1,335) = 80.742, R2= 0.194 p< 0.05) and significant effect of JIT and operational performance of selected food and beverages manufacturing companies in Lagos State (F (1,335) = 35.953, R2= 0.097, p< 0.05. The result also shows that there was a statistically significant effect of TQM, JIT on operational performance. The study concluded that TQM, JIT have a positive and significant effect on operational performance of selected food and beverages manufacturing companies in Lagos State, Nigeria. The study recommended that the Nigerian food and beverages industry should employ strategies to properly implement TQM and JIT practices in order to ensure that customers are satisfies; cost is reduced therefore increasing productivity and profitability.

Network Reconfiguration for Electric Power Loss Reduction in a Distribution Network []

In this paper work, an IEEE 33 bus radial distribution system has been chosen as the test system. Reconfiguration of this system is done by changing the status of normally closed sectionalizing switches and normally open tie-switches. Initially, power loss for original network is obtained and the same is checked for the reconfigured network and a comparative study has been done of the feeder system on the basis of power loss and other constraints including voltage regulation, capacity limit and power balance. The topology complexity of real distribution networks requires searching through many possible configurations. The paper presents two different methods of loop cutting technique for reconfiguration. The first method is minimum branch current based reduction which gives a power loss of 0.1296MW with a 38.60% reduction with respect to the power loss in the original network of 0.211MW, the second method being the minimum voltage difference based reduction with a power loss of 0.1265MW with a 40.05% also with respect to the power loss in the original network of 0.211MW. A comparison has been done for power loss reduction and voltage profile in these. Also, the applicability of BIBC has been discussed for weakly meshed radial distribution networks.


ABSTRACT The environmental air pollution is mainly due to Agricultural activities, industrial activities, commercial activities, transport sectors and domestics activity. this review study intended that the levels and trends of principal pollutants linked with climatology and sectors activities. The focused outcomes of the study were assessing and reviewed the gaseous and particle pollution concentration of the city, assessed the climatology effects on air pollution, assessed sectors process that were important to enhanced the air pollution, Identified the resent air pollution related respiratory cases recorded in Addis Ababa health centers and funded and forwarded possible advice to solve the air quality problems. The main inputs of the study were article reviews from trusted online journal, reports of sectors activities and secondary data from NMA, US embassy, Ethiopian Athletics Federations and Addis Air. Therefore, through study reviewing and analyzed result showed that in average the levels of PM2.5, PM10, CO and O3 pollutants were exceeded both WHO and US EPA AQG. The review linked with climatology was during dry and wet seasons and temperature inversions showed that the pollution levels and trends was increased. The pollution causes in rural areas of Ethiopia, mainly through change in the trends of pollutants was agricultural sectors and domestic activities. However, in Addis Ababa city mainly through transport sectors. And also the analyzed showed that highest particle pollution PM2.5 and PM10 was observed over central parts of Addis Ababa city than the side parts of the city. Among each basic gaseous pollutants NO2 sensor was detected highest concentrations. Finally, in this study advised that improving air quality, air pollution services and scheduled adaptation protective plan in all sectors are direct indications of achievements to the maintainable and equitable future in the sectors of health, energy, transport, agricultural, environmental and domestics. Keywords: Particulate pollution, Gaseous pollution, Climatology and Sector activities


Opportunity International, a private financial institution, provides support to cocoa farmers in Ghana through the input credit scheme, the main aim of which is to enhance access to inputs to improve the productivity of farmers. The primary objective of the study was to determine whether access to inputs improves productivity of smallholder cocoa farmers in Ghana. Two districts in the Western region, as well as the communities of interest within the selected districts were selected purposively for this study. Three communities in the Amenfi West and two communities in the Prestea-Huni Valley districts were selected due to the high level of participation of farmers in the scheme. A total of 88 participants and 169 non-participants across the five communities were selected randomly for the study. Factors influencing farmers’ participation in the scheme were assessed using a Probit regression model. The PSM method was used to determine the effect of credit on productivity, and a three-point likert scale employed to measure the severity of constraints faced by participant and non-participant farmers in their farming activities. Results from the Probit regression identified farm size, farmers’ awareness of financial institution, membership to FBO, access to extension agent and age of farmer as having a significant influence on a farmer’s participation in the scheme. PSM estimations revealed that the credit scheme intervention has a significant positive effect on farm productivity, increasing the average output of participants by 449.9 kg/Ha/season. Fertilizer and agrochemical-use had also increased by 84.31 kg/Ha and 9.95 Litres/Ha respectively. The cocoa farmers also identified some common constraints faced by them in their line of work, the most pressing including very low producer prices and unfavourable weather conditions. In light of the achievements of Opportunity International’s input credit scheme, the government of Ghana and other stakeholders like the Ministry of Food and Agriculture need to provide the necessary incentives to support private credit schemes for cocoa production.

Information technology (IT) in the construction project management []

This study explores the benefits of utilizing Information technology (IT) in the construction projects, the obstacles hindering the reasonable adoption (IT), and set some recommendations to overcome these obstacles as well to get the most benefit of IT. The need for IT to manage construction projects’ processes is necessary to enhance projects’ output. However, the construction industry has not yet been able to gain the expected benefits from IT implementation. The focus of the study is on presenting the applying of IT in the three constrains areas in construction projects; cost, time, and scope which shape the quality of any project during execution. Also, In the world of Big Data, data visualization tools and technologies are essential to analyze massive amounts of information and make data-driven decisions, therefore this subject has been highlighted in this article. Furthermore, the obstacles to IT adoption in the construction projects will be identified and some proposed suggestions to overcome these obstacles as well as how to expand the use of IT in the construction industry.


This article addressed an extrajudicial settlement negotiation case in Brazil, aiming at improving the negotiation skills of lawyers through a two-party role-play simulation. Therefore, this work sheds more light on the distributive negotiations and presents a complete set of teaching materials, useful for scholars, instructors, managers, lawyers, and other practitioners. The subject was chosen because of replicability in business and lawyering scenarios. This case was designed mainly to prevent the conflict escalation that generally ends in the Court of law. Key findings pointed out the necessity of improving negotiation skills, such as understanding the other party's underlying interests, value creation, and joint fact-finding to achieve mutual benefit deals. Further implications suggest that the current teaching case may be useful for developing negotiation skills, which can also end in Court. Discussion and future research recommendations comprise the present investigation.

Economic Development through Rice and Cashew Production: Insight Towards Sustainable Development of Cashew in The Gambia. The 16th Executive Council of Economics and Management Sciences Students Association of The University of The Gambia []

Agriculture is the key backbone for broad-based economic growth, poverty reduction, and food security in Sub-Saharan Africa. Additionally, the Sub-Saharan Africa has good agro-climatic conditions that have the potential for remarkable agricultural production of diverse crops. Thus, the aim of this study is to explore how to achieve Economic Development in The Gambia through crop diversification such as rice and cashew production. Qualitative analysis procedure was adopted, using case study analysis techniques. The findings reveal that to attain sustainable development in the cashew sector, there should be crop diversification, efficient utilization of co- products of cashew, standard spacing between Cashew trees, improvement of crop productivity and production by using high-yield and high quality varieties. Additionally, the findings further reveal that for rice production, there is lack of human labour due to migration and the issue of land tenure system for Investment. Thus, we recommended policies that could be used by stakeholders to encourage farmers to diversify crops. Keywords: Sustainable Production, Cashew, Rice, Agro-ecosystem, Pest and diseases, Tree Spacing, Marketing, Comparative Analysis, The Gambia, Guinea Bissau


1.1 BACKGROUND: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remains a significant concern to Clinicians in sub-Saharan Africa to date. Interestingly, the impact of the HIV pandemic on surgical out-comes in the continent is yet to be fully documented in the literature worldwide. The study aimed to critically review existing literature to determine the current level of impact of HIV infection on surgical disease burden in sub-Saharan Africa and to propose the way forward in alleviating the burden. 1.2 METHODS: We identified relevant articles to date using a manual library search, journal publications on the subject; our searches also include Medline, Embase, and Google site. Consequently, information relating to the epidemiology, pathophysiology, investigations, management, and prevention was extracted from the materials and analyzed. 1.3 RESULTS: Data retrieved point out that HIV infection throughout the last two decades has highly increased the number of African common surgical disease burden, mainly in Sub-African countries. This burden is on all categories of surgical diseases: injuries, congenital abnormalities, tumors, surgical in-flammations, and infections. These prevalence levels have affected four critical areas of surgical practice, namely patient care, the clinical practice, pathologies, the clinician, and, lately, prevention. Our surgical patients in Africa, in general, are more likely to be HIV positive than elsewhere in the world. Therefore, HIV has affected the surgical disease pattern by altering disease presentation, diagnosis, management, and outcomes. 1.4 CONCLUSION: Surgery for HIV patients can be safely conducted with a low complication rate for the diagnostic and other entities that comprise the vast majority of surgery in HIV/AIDS patients. Medical treatment for patients with HIV/AIDS has developed dramatically over the last two decades. Besides, it resulted in a massive and varied workload for general surgeons, who invariably had to deal with the challenging spectrum of this disease.

Effect of Gypsum Amount in Cement on Fresh and Hardened Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete []

This study was conducted to assess the potential of gypsum powder as a replacement for cement in the production of self-compacting concrete (SCC). It was found that, up to 15% replacement, the fresh properties of SCC are satisfied. The twenty-eighth-day compressive strength of SCC mixes with 5%, 10%, and 15% replacement showed a reduced strength having 72.18%, 58.12% and 60.56% of the control, 0% replacement, with a grade of 40MPa. Each replacement of gypsum showed an accelerating effect on the setting time of cement. Initial setting times of more than five hours are found due to the usage of superplasticizer in SCC.

Cavendish Banana Value Chain Analysis: A typical case of Ca Mau Province, Vietnam []

The study aims to analyze the value chain of Cavendish Banana products grown in Ca Mau Province, Vietnam. Based on the value chain approach developed by Kaplinsky and Morris (2001) and ValueLinks theory built by GTZ (2007), the study surveyed 180 participants within the chain including farm households, exporters, traders, wholesalers and supporters. The results show that the Cavendish Banana value chain was operated through four main distribution channels including two domestic channels and two export channels, in which export value chains dominate in terms of both profits and income with 30 times higher compared to domestic ones. Besides, there was a disparity in profit distribution between farm households and export companies, which was mainly due to variation in sales volume and price. Finally, strategic recommendations on improving the economic value of the Cavendish Banana value chain in Ca Mau were proposed. Keyword: Value chain, Cavendish banana, Ca Mau Province, GTZ ValueLinks.


The improvement of environtmentally sustainable aquaculture using Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS) requires a total comprehen-sion of the biological and technological component with wastewater treatment. This part discussed about the utilization of type nutrient removal and biofilter from microorganisms. This integration at least has one requirement from the following criteria; high technology, en-vironmentally friendly, disease-free, etc. thorough the knowledge of wastewater treatment and has recently been focus on the maintaining the nutrient aspect. Concentration of nitrogen compounds in aquaculture to low level or non-toxic level is a key requirement of Recirculating Aquaculture Sys-tem (RAS). This review aims to summarize the potential ways and sources of nutrient removal in Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS).

Assessing the Conflict Perspectives and Acceptability of Genetically Modified Foods (GMOs) for African Agriculture []

Genetically Modified Food means any food containing or derived from genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Genetically modified foods as a need in Africa has been generating polarizing debates among stakeholders. Africa is confronted with the motivations and concerns of GMOs. Some African countries had adopted genetically modified foods (GMOs) with a view to improving and increasing productivity in the agricultural sector. The expectation is to improve the socio-economic status of African farmers; enhanced national and continental economic prosperity, and achieve foreign investments and earnings from safe modern biotechnology sector. However, there are concerns among the public that the adoption of genetically modified food in Africa may be harmful to man’s health and the environment. This paper discusses the motivational factors for GMOs into the agricultural sector in Africa. The paper also identifies prospective environmental and health concerns raised against the introduction of GMOs in Africa. The paper concludes with suggestions that will enable the continent explore the potentials of biotechnology and douse the attendant apprehensions.


This study was undertaken to survey the Prevalence of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in raw meat sold in Markudi, Benue state. The study was conducted on the Four (4) major markets in Makurdi namely: Wurukum, North bank, High-level and Modern markets. Forty (40) samples of meat swabs were analyzed for the presence of E. coli and S. aureus. The organisms were isolated by cultural methods using Nutrient aga, Eosine methylene Blue Agar and Cystine Lactose Electrolyte Deficient Agar. Twenty six (26) sam-ples (65%) tested positive for Escherichia coli, while twenty one (21) samples (52.5%) had Staphylococcus aureus. Wurukum market had the highest prevalence of both E. coli and S. aureus to be 34.60% and 33.30% respectively. North bank, High-level and Modern markets had prevalence of E. coli to be 19.23%, 30.76%, and 15.38% respectively. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was low-est in samples from North bank market with 14.28%. High-level and Modern markets had prevalence of S. aureus to be 23.80% and 28.57% respectively. These results have shown the heavy contamination of meat (beef), with Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aure-us sold in makurdi markets and this could result in severe health problems to consumers. The study recommends education of meat vendors, on proper and more hygienic methods of meat production.


These days almost everyone is using Internet and its applications for communication and transferring data from one point to the other to fulfill their day to day activities whether it is personal or business related. Due to the rapid growth of the technology, Internet is so advantageous and it has become the flexible medium for everyone for their personal and business related matters. Information transfer over the Internet is inherently insecure due to its basic underlying model. The vulnerabilities that exist in the Internet are exploited by security threats to carry out attack on our valuable information thereby compromising their Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability. Hence the need for Information protection against security threats in an insecure environment using cryptography and steganography. Cryptography distorts the message and steganography hides the existence of the message. Combining the strengths of these methods yields an enhanced method of information protection which will help secure vital, valuable and confidential information communication over the Internet from security threats such as malware, eavesdropping, packet sniffing, information tempering, hackers, unauthorized access etc. We combined Triple DES Cryptography algorithm and the F5 DCT Steganography algorithm in implementing this system using Java (jdk-8u11-windows-x64) programming language and NetBeans IDE8.0 to achieve the enhanced Information Security system.


An all-encompassing and long-standing economic growth has become an apprehension for several policymakers for decades, and government spending has been deliberated whether it can speed up economic growth. The study employed panel data, which encompasses a combination of time series and horizontal section data. In the study, the impact of government expenditure on economic growth in Nigeria was examined for the period 1985-2015. The data set taken from the World Bank and consists of economic growth and government expenditure between 1985-2015. The ordinary least square (OLS) method was used to test the influence of government expenditure on economic growth in Nigeria, and the findings of the study reveal that there is a positive relationship between recurrent expenditure and economic growth. The study also found a positive relationship between capital expenditure and economic growth. The study, therefore, concludes that based on the empirical evidence deposited by the current investigation this study concludes that government expenditures significantly and positively influence economic growth in Nigeria, and recommends amongst others that government should ensure that capital expenditures and recurrent expenditures are properly managed in a manner that it will raise the nation’s production capacity to reflect positive economic growth in Nigeria.


This study examines how a working environment causing exhaustion affects the job stress of childcare teachers. 250 childcare teachers working in daycare centers in Seoul were the subjects of the study. The scale of Jayaratne & Chess (1981) was used to measure the nursery teacher's working environment. To measure job stress, the scale of D'Arienzo, Maracco & Krajewski (1982) were used. The collected data were analyzed using the SPSS 23.0 program. The research results are as follows: (1) there was a significant positive correlation between working environment and job stress, and (2) the working environment causing exhaustion was found to have a significant static effect on job stress. Based on these results, the study outlines measures on how to lower the job stress of childcare teachers.