Volume 9, Issue 11, November 2021 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Mechanization Level of Cassava Processing in Bayelsa State, Nigeria. []

Cassava is a crop that is of great importance in Nigeria. The Nigerian government of Buhari-Osinbajo has shown concerns in diversifying the country economy, which agriculture is one of the major sectors considered for the diversification of the economy. For this sole purpose in August 2019, A research exercise was carried out in Bayelsa State to ascertain the present level of agricultural mechanization obtainable for cassava processing, in order to identify areas in the processing operation of cassava roots into various products like garri and flour that needs urgent attention in the State. Snowball technique of data collection was used to identify active cassava processing centers and structured questionnaires were administered to the respondents in the study areas. Descriptive statistical analysis involving frequency counts and percentage in a Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyze the data obtained. Survey results indicated that only nine (9) cassava processing unit operations involved in the processing of cassava roots into various products was captured; cassava peeling, dewatering, garification and bagging unit operations were dominated by manual processing method with values of 76.00, 72.00, 72.00 and 80.00% in all the cassava processing units visited in the State. It was also observed that the sum of 37.33% was recorded for mechanical processing method for the nine (9) cassava processing unit operations such as grating and milling operations resulted into this figure. This 37.33% value obtained for mechanical involvement for the processing of cassava in the State calls for urgent attention of the Bayelsa State government to increase the percentage of cassava processing machines used for cassava roots processing for each of the unit operation in the State. It is therefore concluded that cassava processing mechanization in Bayelsa State of Nigeria as at the time of this study, is marginally lower than manual processing. Therefore; technological innovations through sustainable agricultural mechanization training to farmers will offer great potentials to enhance the cassava value chain through collaborations.

Business Agility - How enterprises worldwide adapt to COVID-19 and Walmart, Inc. case study []

The coursework will present the key factors of agile companies, with capabilities to sense and act appropriately to environmental changes (Overby, et al., 2005). Its context is COVID – 19, an unprecedented health crisis that upended organization and consumer behaviors (Bain & Company, 2020). While the whole economy suffered from the worst fallout since 1945 (The World Bank Group, 2020), agile organizations gain competitive advantages (Boston Consulting Group, 2020), (Accenture, 2020). The second part will analyze the operations of the services of Walmart, Inc., identify their agility factors, before evaluating Walmart’s adaptability given challenging circumstances like COVID – 19.


Previous studies have demonstrated the high performance of the concrete-filled fiber-reinforced polymer tubes technique (CFFTs) as confining material for concrete structures. However, the lack of several concerns related to the behavior of the CFFT as a protective jacket against harsh environmental effects has limited the full implement of this technique. The environmental effects such as freeze-thaw cycles may affect materials properties, which may affect the structural response of the CFFT members as well. This study presents the results of experimental and theoretical work to investigate the durability short and long-term behavior of CFFT members. Test variables include type and duration of the freeze-thaw exposure in (fresh water and). CFFT cylinders (150 x 300 mm) were exposed to 100 and 300 freeze-thaw cycles in saturation in fresh water. Then, uni-axial compression tests were conducted in order to evaluate the change of mechanical properties of the test cylinders due to the freeze-thaw exposure by comparing the stress-strain behavior and their ultimate load capacity. Test results indicated that the confinement using the CFFT technique significantly protect the concrete when subjected to freeze-thaw exposure. Environmental Reduction Factor was proposed to account for the environmental effects when predicting the confined compressive strength of CFFT cylinder.

Effects of the Covid-19 Pandemic on Under Five Visits and Implications at Chawama First Level Hospital []

The global under-five mortality rate declined by 59 per cent from 93 deaths per 1,000 live births in 1990 to 39 in 2018. Zambia has made great progress in reducing under-five mortality, such that they met their Millennium Developmental Goal-4 target of 64 deaths per 1000 in 2015. Accessibility to primary health care services, particularly those of under-five children, have been vital in attaining this milestone. This study was aimed to help understand and possibly quantify the impact of Covid-19 on the accessibility of health care for under-five children at Chawama first level hospital. Closed ended questionnaires were answered by 250 randomly selected care takers of under-five children as well as a critical review of their under-five attendance records. Analysis of data was done using excel spread sheets and SPSS statistical tool. Results from this study showed that there was a 4% reduction in the frequency of under-five healthcare visits before the onset of the pandemic as compared to during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study established that other than the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, other factors such lack of transport, fear of contracting the COVID-19 virus and lack of medical supplies contributed to the fall in access to under-five health care services at Chawama First Level Hospital. Therefore, access to health care may prove to be difficult in the wake of the Corona Virus 2019 pandemic which in turn will result in an increase in under-five child mortality and morbidity rates leading to a strain in Zambia’s strides to development in almost all sectors. An improved understanding of the importance of under-five health care visits by care givers will influence them to seek such services even in this pandemic while of course observing new health guidelines in order to avoid the spread of this disease. In doing so, disease burden will be reduced and very much needed resources may be redirected to combat against the Corona Virus and other activities aimed at improving development. Key Words: Under-five mortality, maternal and child health, Covid-19, Millennial Development Goals.


This article aims to examine the utilization of solid waste from the seaweed processing industry into products that have a selling value. Based on the results of the literature study, information on the utilization of solid waste from the seaweed processing industry can be used as particle board and liquid organic fertilizer. Making panel boards and liquid fertilizer from solid waste from the seaweed industry is very easy and simple. The manufacture of panel boards consists of seven stages, namely drying, size reduction, filtering, mixing, printing and drying followed by pressing. The manufacture of liquid fertilizer consists of 3 stages, namely size reduction, boiling/pulverization and fermentation.

Accounting Standards Adoption and Financial Reporting Quality of Nigerian Deposit Money Banks []

The recent occurrence in accounting landscape as occasioned by the paradigm shift from the application of local accounting standards to internationally recognized accounting standards has raised fundamental research question as to whether the change has brought about a much desired-quality in financial reporting particularly in the Nigerian Deposit Money Banks. Research findings in this area are not unique both in advanced and emerging economies. This study therefore investigated the difference in the perceptions of reporting accountants on the accounting standards adoption and financial reporting quality of listed Nigerian deposit money banks. Out of the 17 listed deposit money banks in Nigeria, 7 was judgmentally selected. The population of the preparers (reporting accountants) of the financial reports was 408 out of which 200 respondents were purposefully selected for the study. Survey research design was used and the primary data were obtained through a self-administered structured questionnaires from 130 preparers which were eventually used for the analysis. T-test statistical analysis was adopted to determine the difference in the perceptions of the preparers between the two accounting standards adoption regimes. The findings of the study revealed that there was difference in the perceptions when p-value=0.000 at 0.05 level of significance while the difference of the perceptions was 0.81% at 0.95% confidence interval confirming the validity of the result of the findings. The study concluded that the perceptions of the preparers of the financial reports differed between the two accounting standards regimes. It was therefore recommended that the Accounting Standards setting body should ensure strict compliance with the foundation of accounting standards as denoted by comparability, uniformity, reliability, verifiability, dependability and faithful representation of financial statements so as to achieve the desired quality of financial reports of Nigerian banking sector.


This paper aims to describe the manufacture of chitosan from shrimp shells and its use. Chitosan is a natural product, which is a derivative of the polysaccharide chitin. Chitosan has the chemical name poly D-glucosamine ( β (1-4) 2-amino-2-deoxy-D-glucose), a white amorphous solid form of chitosan with a fixed crystal structure from the initial form of pure chitin. Chitosan can be extracted by several methods, namely by chemical methods and biological methods (proteolytic enzymes). To produce chitosan, several processes are needed, namely demineralization (removal of minerals), deproteinization (removal of protein), and deacetylation. Chitosan is widely used in industries such as the food industry as a coating for fruits to inhibit respiration, purifying fruit juices, as a source of fiber and antimicrobial compounds.

Assessment of Insect side treated bed net/ITNs/ utilization and factor influencing the use of ITNs in east badewacho woreda, SNNPR, Ethiopia. []

Problem statement: The burden of malaria is still high in Ethiopia despite the interventions carried out by the government and non-governmental organizations. Despite the burden people in malarias area do not utilize insecticidal treated nets consistently. Objective: Assess utilization of ITNs and factor influencing the use of ITNs in urban and rural community in Hadiya zone, east Badewacho woreda, SNNPR Ethiopia. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among head of households (mother or father) in community of Hadiya Zone, SNNPR State. The samples of 615 House Holds were selected by multistage sampling technique and a quantitative questionnaire was prepared and administered. The data was double entered using openEpi-info and analyzed by using SPSS version 16 .The study used proportion and mean values to characterize the study subjects; bivariate and multivariate analysis to measure association factor of ITN utilization. Result: Total supplied ITN were 1055 for 610 household, of which 63.9% of household were reported currently used ITN in previous night. The study indicates, ratio of number of family members to number of ITNs supplied was 3.76 persons per a single ITN, So, household supplied with two and more than two bed net were 1.6time more likely to use their ITN when compared to those who have supplied less than two bed net after adjusted [AOR=1.567, 95%CI= 1.382-2.151]. Respondent who have good knowledge about malaria transmission were found to be 1.8 time more likely to use their ITN than those who were having poor knowledge even after controlling for the potential confounders [AOR=1.79, 95%CI= 1.21-2.097]. Household with the presence of corrugated iron sheet roof were almost 4.4 time more likely to use at least one their bed net compared to those who have thatched or plastic cover roof [AOR=4.395, 95%CI= 1.913-8.21] lead to associated of separate beds room were found to be two time more likely to use their net than those had not separate beds room [AOR=2.013, 95%CI=1.17-2.87]. Household access to buy or freely supply bed net were found to be 9.7 time more likely to use ITN when compared to those had not access to buy or freely supply after adjusting [AOR=9.724, 95%CI=3.965-14.845]. Conclusion: The study revealed that all of ITN supplied to household were not used for intended purpose. The reported utilization of supplied ITN by household were affected by type of house construction, unavailability of separate beds room, less number of ITN supplied to household based on family size, less perception of respondent about malaria transmission and none of access to buy or freely supply when replacement needed for those damaged bed net.

Population Status towards Ethiopian Wolf (Canis simensis) in Bale Mountains National Park, South Easter, Ethiopia []

Abstract The Ethiopian wolf is the most endangered carnivore scattered throughout the highlands, are in a dangerous situation on the verge of extinction. This study assessed the population status towards Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis) in Bale Mountains National Park in 2016. Total count method was used in the population census of Ethiopian Wolf. Data on local community perception have been collected through semi-structured interview and a total of one hundred eighty household samples were identified. Moreover, Focal group discussion was also used with local people. The result of the study indicated that total of 60 Ethiopian wolves during wet season whereas 110 during dry season. The estimated total population of Ethiopian wolf in Bale Mountains National Park has been decreasing in the last ten years. Majority of respondents (51.11%) had positive feelings whereas (34.44%) showed negative feelings. Most of uneducated individuals showed negative feelings towards the management and protection of Ethiopian wolf in Bale Mountains National Park. Livestock grazing, free movement of dogs and high number of new settlement in Bale Mountains National Park are the major problems. Therefore, active measures should implement to control the human impact and prevent towards the management and protection of Ethiopian wolf in Bale Mountains National Park. Keywords: Ethiopian wolf, population status, perception of community


This paper examined terrorism and Nigeria’s relations with her West African neighbours. For some time, Nigeria’s geographic and demographic superiority reinforced its stance as the big brother of other African states. With Nigeria’s foreign policy centred on Africa, Nigeria’s relations with her neighbours have been somewhat mutual – except for a few skirmishes. This dynamic changed with Nigeria’s domestic struggles against terrorism and the consequent rising insecurity. This paper argues that the realisation that joint collaboration in the West African sub-region is the best approach to combat the menace of terrorism. Key words: collective security, foreign policy, insecurity, terrorism, security.

Evaluation of Chick Pea (Cicer arietinum L.) Varieties for Yield and Yield Components under Irrigated Condition at lowland Area of South Omo Zone []

Chickpea is the most important food legume crop in Ethiopia. However, the yield of this crop is limited due to a shortage of improved varieties suited to specific areas and other discourage factors. This field experiment was conducted during the 2019/220 cropping season to evaluate chickpea varieties at Dasenech and Nyangatom in South Omo Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Five chick varieties which included: - Teketay, Mastewal, Minjar, Dalote, and Naatole were laid down in randomized complete block design with three replications. Data were collected on day to maturity, plant height, primer branch number per plant, pods per plant and grain yield, and hundred seed weight subjected to analysis of variance using SAS software program. The combined value analysis of variance of the current study the main factors of varieties showed a significant (P<0.05 or P<0.01) effect while the interaction of location and variety had a non-significant effect in all recorded traits. Combined mean values indicated that the highest (1162.1 kg ha-1) grain yield was recorded from Teketay variety, while the lowest (652.6kg ha-1) grain yield was recorded from Dalote variety at study area. Therefore, the use of Teketay variety can be recommended for chickpea producing farmers, investors, and agro-pastoral at Dasenech, Nyangatom, and its vicinity.

Impact of Commercial Banks’ Credit on Financing Agricultural Productivity in Nigeria, 1986-2020 []

Abstract: This study examined the impact of Commercial Bank’s credit on Financing Agricultural productivity in Nigeria from 1986 to 2020 using annual time series data from Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN)and Debt Management Office (DMO). Agricultural Gross Domestic Product was the proxy for Agricultural productivity was the dependent variable while Bank Prime Lending Rate and Commercial Agricultural Credit Scheme serves as the independent variables. Data were analyzed using trend analyses such as Augmented Dickey Fuller of unit root tests, co integration using ARDL bounds Test and ECM regression model. The result of analysis indicates that unit root test shows that all the variables were stationary at first order except interest rate. The cointegration test indicates the presence of long run relationship. ECM result shows that Bank Prime Lending Rate (BPLR) exerts positive and significant effects on the Agricultural Gross Domestic Product in Nigeria, Commercial Agricultural Credit scheme (CACS) positively and significantly impacted on Agricultural Gross Domestic Product. The study recommended that Federal Government should sustain the current tempo of credit to Agricultural programmes in Nigeria such as cooperative scheme. Famers should be encouraged to exploit the gains of establishing Commercial Agricultural Credit scheme to secure funds and enhance Agricultural productivity in Nigeria.


This paper looked at private cost of schooling by students of the Faculty of Education, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria. The study employed the descriptive survey based on ex-post facto research design. All the students in the Faculty of Education constituted the population of the study with exclusion of the Department of Library and Information Sciences. The purposive sampling technique was adopted in selecting 20 students from five departments in the faculty. Data on students’ private costs were obtained from the respondents through the use of checklist. The data obtained was analysed with percentages. The results showed that private cost of schooling by students of the Faculty of Education was high. It also showed that a difference exists in the private costs of faculty of education students based on residence. It was also shown that a difference exist in the private cost of male and female students and that the private cost borne by the male students is lower than that of the female students. Based on the findings, it was recommended that the government should reduce the students’ tuition fees by increasing its subvention to the institution to reduce the amount of private costs borne by students in their course of schooling and that special incentives be given to education students to encourage students’ enrolment and retention in the Faculty.


The study evaluated hazards and risk associated with the FPSO operation in Nigeria offshore environment with the aim of enabling proper management of risk peculiar to the environment. The study adopted a survey research design and structured questionnaires were used to obtain data from the study population, which comprised of three selected FPSOs (YF FPSO Front Puffin OML 113, FPSO Mystras NPDC OML 119 and FPSO Sendje Berge Okwori field OML 126). The study population was 377 and the sample size derived was 278, then 236 respondents provided the valid data used for the analysis. The findings revealed that 12 critical hazards occurring and each of them lead to different magnitude of impact on operations. In order to proffer possible solution to the identified hazards, the study recommend that Health, Safety and Environment (HSE) practice needs to be independently regulated in manner that regulatory agencies will be separated from revenue generation unit(s). Also, risk management processes and compliance should not be left alone in the hands of operating companies in Nigeria to pursue and implement, without government full participation in ensuring adherence to strict HSE code. Finally, there is need for accurate and timely incident and accident reporting and also establishing separate body for data collection for researchers.


ABSTRACT This study examined the rate at which International Financial Reporting Standards’ and the related disclosure requirements guaranteed performances of Manufacturing industries in the post compliance periods in the South – West Geo-political zone of Nigeria. Secondary data were extensively sourced and analyzed based on the year of mandatory compliance to Publication of financial statement in line with the prescriptions of IFRS of the selected listed companies which must have been in existence two years before 2012- the IFRS adoption ultimatum date in Nigeria. The result showed that IFRS specific template for manufacturing entities are followed in preparing and presenting annual financial reports. The compliance have a significant effect on manufacturing companies performances in the post compliance period as the P-value of disclosure requirements (p = 0.001) is greater than P-value of companies performance (P= 0.005) which indicates that the rate of compliance to IFRS disclosure requirement has improved the performance of most manufacturing entities via profitability, solvency and liquidity values improvements. The study also established that factors like inadequate re-trainings (70%), unqualified Account staff (65%) and lack of standard financial reporting templates (72%) were inhibiting factors of performance of the selected manufacturing companies in developing economy. Based on the above, the study concluded that IFRS have a significant impact on Performances of manufacturing companies in Nigeria during the studied period. Key words: IFRS, Due diligence, GAAP, ROCE, policy choice , IAS


This study is an attempt to determine the effect of tax audit outcome on business performance; a case of Iringa Municipality. Specifically, it examined the effect of Penalties and tax refund on business performance in Iringa Municipality. The study included a sample of 63 observations from 75 audited companies in Iringa Municipality. A case study was employed where simple random sampling technique was used to collect quantitative data. The data was analysed by linear regression model using ordinary least squares estimator. The findings show that penalties have a negative relationship with the business performance, while tax refund has a positive relationship with the business performance. The co-efficient of determination, the adjusted ̅R2 was to 0.861, which shows that the independent variables explain about 86.1% of the variation in the dependent variable. The study concludes that both two variables, that is, penalties and tax refund affect business performance as hypothesized in the model. The study recommends that penalties should be reduced to audited companies because they negatively affect business performances. Moreover, tax should be reasonably estimated from audited companies so as to avoid overpayments of tax by taxpayers. When collected taxes are more than the estimated amount, reimbursement to the company should be done effectively and on due date so as to trigger business performances of audited companies in Iringa Municipality.


The farming sub-sector of Sierra Leone is characterized by traditional rain fed and low techniques of production and thus, is prone to the recurrent natural calamity of drought, which leaves hunger and death in its wake. Today, farmers in Sierra Leone have difficulties in feeding their households on their increasingly fragmenting land, using traditional and backward techniques of production. Hence the drastic need to improve agricultural productivity and production through the adoption and adaptation of improved agro-chemicals and techniques is apparent. For modernize agriculture, a strong support system involving input supplies and other services like marketing, transport, storage, processing etc. are inevitable. This study is intended to analyze the impact of agricultural input of fertilizer on smallholder productivity including the demand –supply system of the study area; to map the actors and their linkages, knowledge and information flows, to identify influential factors for the smooth functioning of the system in Bombali Shebora Chiefdom Bombali District. A simple-random sampling technique was used to select four farmer Associations and 200 respondents. Structured interview schedule and questionnaires were used for collecting the essential quantitative and qualitative data. To generate qualitative data, field observations; informal interview with key informants; and discussions with separate focus groups were conducted. The quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistical tools. The major result of the study indicates that the system is highly characterized by relatively poor linkage and inefficient knowledge flow between actors and farmers in the study area., from the supply sector factors like organizational mandatory clarity, sufficient and irrigable seed farm, skilled man power, delay of temporary loan settlement by users, policy environment, storage facilities at grass root level, efficient marketing system, timely demand claims from users, clearly defined role and responsibilities of each partner, availability of improved seeds in terms of their germination, viability and adaptability, research centers cooperation and willingness to share resources including knowledge, farmers willingness to take risks and demand for improved crop varieties were some the of mentioned factors that influence the system positively and/or negatively.


Losses in power system are inevitable no matter how it is designed some electrical components will still dissipate an amount of heat-losses due to technical/non-technical scenarios particularly, in Nigerian electricity power supply demand scenario’s. That is the power demanded losses is far greater than the electricity supply. This obviously mean that transmission expansion planning is determined by peak energy demand. These activities have led to uncontrollable outages (black-out) in the study zone under investigation. Therefore, this dissertation is aimed to address this incessant power system loss on the view to improve power quality. The research work essentially adopted the application of B-factor technique (using matrix operations), in order to determine the losses in the network under review on the view to model the existing system case under investigation with simulink-block representation based technique in order to determine probable mitigation strategy for purpose of system reliability. The system configuration was modeled at different power factor of 0.8, 0.95 and 0.98 lagging with the aim to penetrate 0.3MVAR reactive power (capacitor bank) into the network. The result shows that at 0.8 power factor the losses reduction was 378.55KW giving voltage level of 380V, similary, for a power factor of 0.95 the losses reduced to 266.25KW with voltage level of 395V. 400V respectively. Evidently, with 0.9 power factor the losses reduced to 379.45KW with voltage level of 395V. having known that electricity power supply is the principal components for day to day activities particularly to derive the socio-economic scenario’s. Therefore, availability of electric power supply is a necessity for the sustenance of economic growth, this study has considered a loss-minimization scenario for the penetration for power electronic controllers (capacitor bank) as a mitigation strategy for reliable power supply.

Positive Sanctions on Children Social Development: An Analysis of The Influence of Rewards in Children Social Development in Kuria East Sub-County, Migori County, Kenya []

Abstract: Children social development is the foundation for holistic learning. Many countries including Kenya have adopted uptake of positive sanction methods in form of rewards to promote children social development as advocated for by the humanitarian laws. However, there is growing concern due to high number of children exposed to physical and emotional violence where 36.8% female and 40.5% male children in Kenya in 2018. This necessitated the need to assess the influence of rewards on children social development. Using Taro Yamane formula, a sample size of 391 Household heads were randomly sampled, and 4 key informants purposively selected. Questionnaire and Interview Schedule were used to collect data. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics involving Pearson correlation; while qualitative data were thematically analyzed. Findings revealed that rewards have moderate (r=.319, p<.05) positive influence on children social development. The study therefore, recommends positive compliments as opposed to monetary rewards. Key words: Positive sanctions, children, social development, rewards

Effect of Talent Development on Employees Performance; A case study of Benue State University, Makurdi []

This study examines effect of Talent development on employees performance. The study focus on Benue State University Makurdi. The study specifically examines the effect of career development, coaching and mentoring in Benue state University. The study adopted survey design and questionnaire was used as an instrument for data collection .The population of the study consists of 1,974 staff. Multiple regression was used as a technique of data analysis .Findings of the study revealed that, career development, coaching and mentoring significantly influenced employees performance at Benue state University .The study recommended that, Management of Benue State University Makurdi should ensured that programmes are designed for academic and non academic staff of the institution to enhanced staff career development and adequate measures should be implemented for coaching and mentoring of young talented academic and non academic staff of the institution.

Timing Optimization Technique’s for Controller’s Architecture []

Performance variation has become an increasingly critical design objective as VLSI technology scales into the nanometer domain wherein parametric variations are inevitably significant. The decrease in chip size and increase in chip density and complexity increase the difficulty in designing higher performance low power consuming system on a chip. It is very important to have better design approach and timing optimization methods with constraint physical verification. The IC’s designed today are complex and hence require a good Physical Design optimization and strategies. The primary objective of this project is to obtain a layout that is power efficient and meets timing and DRC requirements. Various timing optimization methods are used in Synthesis and Physical Design. Since performance and power consumption are inversely proportional, experiments are conducted to obtain an optimum value which satisfies both these requirements. Each stage on netlist synthesis and layout generation is analysed in order to find their impact on power and performance. Physical Design is carried out on the 28nm technology node. All the analysis has been done on a functional block which contains both macros and standard cells.


This article aims to examine the use of fish offal into flour for feed raw materials. The manufacturing process consists of steaming, drying, milling and filtering stages. The quality of the flour produced meets the standards as raw material for feed.


Ayurvedic remedies are frequently tailored to the needs of the individual. Ayurvedic Indian and traditional Chinese systems are live "great traditions" that play major roles in bio prospecting for new medications derived from medicinal plants, which are also high in antioxidants. Antioxidants are compounds that promote cell protection from free radical damage. Plants generate a significant quantity of antioxidants, making them an effective basis of antioxidant molecules. Compounds found in the body and a variety of foods can react with free radicals to quench or inactivate them, protecting them from harming cells. They have the ability to boost blood antioxidant capacity.  In response to increased human risk factors for a variety of deadly diseases, a consensus has evolved in favor of using natural compounds found in medicinal and food plants as therapeutic antioxidants. According to research, the consumption of antioxidant-rich foods and medicinal plants has an inverse correlation with the prevalence of human diseases. Many researches are looking at the various health usefulness of antioxidant supplements in functions such as stress, aging, pathogen infestation, reducing cell harmful effects, apoptosis, and free radical-related neurological illnesses. Certain secondary antioxidants, such as Glutathione reductase,  reduce oxidation, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), glutathione-s-transferase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, ubiquinone and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) as well, but they have been linked to human health risks. As a result, in recent years, research for non-toxic antioxidants has increased.


The fall of Muammar Gaddafi of Libya in 2011, the rise of Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria and its transformation into Islamic State West African Province (ISWAP), the Alshabab in Somalia and similar terror groups portend grave danger to African continent. The lack of security and unsafety is immensely affecting democratic governance on the continent. This paper however explored how democracy can be engendered on the continent using one of the asymmetric warfare tools – strategic communication. The paper is a conceptual paper that explored how Nigeria, the most populous black nation on earth was able to wither its numerous challenges using strategic communication and how other African nations can emulate the Nigerian experience to deepen democratic governance. The paper recommends the usage of non-kinetic approach to complement the military expeditions on the continent to foster safety and engender democracy


This research determined whether polytechnics academic staffs holding leadership positions are regarded as ethical leaders in Mai Idris Alooma Polytechnic Geidam. Currently, there is a lack of research concerning ethical leadership practices in business and non-business settings especially in institutions of higher learning. Kalshoven et al., (2011) ethical leadership at work (ELW) survey is one of the most valid and reliable research tools in the field of ethical leadership, which would be used to assess ethical leadership practices of managers based on followers’ perceptions. Since it is not possible to study the entire Population, a sample of 40 respondents was randomly selected and Administered questionnaires from the institution studied. The research is quantitative in nature and was conducted using a survey design. Sampling procedure of the study is stratified random sampling. The study revealed that There is ethical leadership Practices among academic staff of Mai Idris Alooma Polytechnic Geidam, Yobe state. The study also revealed that significant differences exist in the perceptions of members of staff toward ethical leadership based on differences in gender, rank, and experience. The study there for recommend that Government should provide friendly working environment in terms of adequate infrastructural facilities, good road network, efficient telecommunication system and uninterrupted power supply to encourage institutions of higher learning to float their businesses effectively.


The study was conducted to examine the influence of leadership personality traits on employee performance at TST Tourism & Trading Service Joint Stock Company. Employees receiving the survey were asked to rate the influence of the Big Five's leadership personality traits on their performance. The research results show that the factors of Pleasure, Sensitivity, Extroversion, Dedication, and Openness of leadership have an impact on the performance of TST Tourist employees in descending order. From there, the authors propose options to the Board of Directors to improve the working performance of employees in the company.


The study aimed to determine which perceptual learning style preference best influences students' motivation to achieve academically. This study utilized a descriptive correlational design and employed a survey method to attain the objective. Using the random sampling technique, the researcher has chosen the senior high school students of the cluster 6 schools in Davao City as the respondents. The researcher used pilot-tested and enhanced adapted questionnaires to determine the level of perceptual learning style preference and motivation to gather essential data academically. The story of perceptual learning style preferences and inspiration to academically attain the students obtained various mean scores based on the analysis results. Still, both belong to the descriptive level equivalent to very high. Meanwhile, when the expectations of the perceptual learning style were associated with the motivation of the students to achieve academically, Pearson-r research showed that a significant relationship existed. Further, regression analysis showed that perceptual learning style preferences significantly influence students' motivation to succeed academically. Remarkably, among perceptual learning style preferences, visual, tactile, and individual learning significantly influenced the motivation to achieve academically of the senior high school students. Lastly, the result indicated that perceptual learning style preferences in terms of visual best predict academic achievement among senior high school students.


Waste from shrimp processing includes shrimp heads. This waste can be used as meal for feed ingredients. The article aims to examine the process of making meal from shrimp heads and the quality of the meal it produces for feed raw materials. Based on the results of the study obtained information that the manufacture of meal from shrimp heads through the stages of washing, drying and milling. The quality of the meal obtained is highly dependent on the type of shrimp. In general, shrimp head meal contains about 40-62% crude protein, 3-8% ether extract, 4-13% crude fiber, 11-14% chitin, and 12-23% ash.

Distribution Frequency Of Natural Turtle Based On Vegetation Of Pandanus Tectorius East Sea-Son Period (July - September) Coastal Turtle Transformation []

This research aims to find out the location of hotspots for turtles to lay eggs or not to lay eggs in the Pangumbahan coastal area, Sukabumi Regency. Observation carried out for 35 days starting from July 26 to September 1, 2021. The observation area is located in the Pangumbahan Coastal Area, Sukabumi Regency with observation points totaling to as many as 6 observation stations The data taken is in the form of primary data which includes data on the location of turtle nests scattered along the coast and can be seen. The method used in this observation is descriptive qualitative through a survey approach. The survey approach is used because it is a way of working in an observation that uses a sample as a data collection tool. Based on the observations that have been made, it can be concluded that there are a total of 322 turtle nests during the period July – September 2021. The distribution of the coastline along the 2.3 KMpoints heatmap shows that the most distribution can be found in the Pos 2 area with 108 location points found. . This is related to the presence ofvegetation Pandanus tectorius, Terminalia catappa which is a spot for turtle nest habitat to carry out the spawning process.

Artikel Riview []

This article aims to examine the application of probiotics and noni fruit extract in an effort to increase growth and resistance to disease of vannamei shrimp (Litopenaes Vannamei) in intensive culture systems. Based on a literature study, information was obtained that the application of probiotics at a dose of 2-5 ml/L significantly increased the growth of vannamei shrimp at a dose of 2-5 ml/L very significantly increased the growth of vannamei shrimp in an intensive aquaculture system. The use of noni fruit extract at a dose of 0.5 m/L was effective in preventing disease in vannamei shrimp, especially those caused by the bacterium V. harveyi. The application of a combination of probiotics with noni fruit extract is highly recommended for the growth and endurance of vannamei shrimp.

Evaluation criteria on Review of Assessing the Social Networking []

Recently, the number of social networking is rapidly increasing, and the numbers of users joining are dramatically increasing as well. In today’s era online social networks are getting extensive popularity among internet users. People are using online social networks for different purposes like sharing information, chatting with friends, family and planning to hang out. It is then no surprise that online social network should be easy to use and easily understandable. Previously many researchers have evaluated different online social networks but there is no such study which addresses usability concerns about online social network with a general view. The main rationale behind this study is to find out efficiency of different usability testing techniques from social network’s point of view and issues related to usability. To conduct this research, we have adopted the combination of both qualitative and quantitative approach. Users from different countries participated in the study. Our findings are to evaluate social network based on four criteria (i.e. content and organization, navigation aid, user interface attraction, performance and effectiveness

Perceptual Learning Style Preferences And Motivation To Achieve Academically Among Senior High School Students []

The study aimed to determine which perceptual learning style preference best influences students motivation to achieve academically. This study utilized a descriptive correlational design and employed a survey method to attain the objective. Using the random sampling technique, the researcher has chosen the senior high school students of the cluster 6 schools in Davao City as the respondents. The researcher used pilot-tested and enhanced adapted questionnaires to determine the level of perceptual learning style preference and motivation to gather essential data academically. The story of perceptual learning style preferences and inspiration to academically attain the students obtained various mean scores based on the analysis results. Still, both belong to the descriptive level equivalent to very high. Meanwhile, when the expectations of the perceptual learning style were associated with the motivation of the students to achieve academically, Pearson-r research showed that a significant relationship existed. Further, regression analysis showed that perceptual learning style preferences significantly influence students motivation to succeed academically. Remarkably, among perceptual learning style preferences, visual, tactile, and individual learning significantly influenced the motivation to achieve academically of the senior high school students. Lastly, the result indicated that perceptual learning style preferences in terms of visual best predict academic achievement among senior high school students.