Volume 9, Issue 11, November 2021 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Utilization of Shrimp Shell Waste for Glucosamine []

This article aims to examine the manufacture of glucosamine from shrimp shells as an effort to utilize waste from the shrimp freezing industry. Based on the literature study, information was obtained that the manufacture of glycosami can be carried out through chemical hydrolysis, enzymatic hydrolysis and pressurized hydrolysis methods. The stages of the process of making glycosamine are 1) shrimp shell is converted into chitin then further processed into glycosamine or 2) shrimp shell is converted into chitin, chitin becomes chitosan then further processed into glycosamine. Keywords : Hydrolysis, method, enzymatic, chemical, chitosan.

Review Article : Utilization bone Cuttlefish (Sepia sp) for flour []

Waste generated from the cuttlefish processing industry (Sepia ISP) includes cuttlefish bones. This article aims to review bone making Cuttlefish (Sepia sp) Becomes flour, the nutritional content of squid bone meal (Sepia sp) and its utilization. Based on the literature study, information was obtained that the making of cuttlefish bone meal consisted of washing, boiling, drying and milling. The nutritional content icontained iin flour ibone cuttlefish is protein Rough 5.44%, calcium36.77% and phosphorus 0.34%. The use of cuttlefish bone meal is used as raw material for bird feed, lotion making and biomaterials for making synthetic bones. Keywords: biomaterial, lotion, boiling, grinding.


ABSTRACT: Narrative skills, also known as storytelling skills, are an important part of communication, academic success, and healthy relationships. Individuals with poor narrative skills may jump all over the place, skip important details, go off on tangents, or go on and on about something. The spoken narrative uses the oral language which is mostly used in daily life to establish and maintain social relations while the written narrative employ s the written language which is used to decipher and transfer information. Narrative analysis seeks to find the link by analysing and evaluating various parts of the narrative. The aim of the present study is to compare the narrative skills in Native Malayalam speakers: Group I: Young adults (18-35 years), Group II: Middle aged adults (36-54) and Group III: Older adult (55 years and above ) And the study will be two folded:1)To investigate the narrative performance among young adults, middle aged adults and older adults for familiar and unfamiliar task.2)To compare narrative performance across group for familiar and unfamiliar task.Method:60 individuals, whose native language is Malayalam from Kerala and the individuals are divided into three groups.Obtained data of 5 minutes (hundred utterances were selected) were transcribed and analysed to study types of trouble sources such as phonological, morphological-syntactic, semantic, discourse and also repair strategies such as repetition, unrelated, elaboration, reduction and substitution along with the complexity and success of resolution like most successful, successful and unsuccessful and type token ratio using the systematic procedure. (Orange, Lubinski & Higginbotham, 1996).Results:The result of the present study indicates that the performance of older adults, middle aged adults and younger adult population can be distinguished from one another using narrative skill analysis which is in accordance with the studies in Malayalam language (Thomas & Subbarao,2009;Nebu et al, 2014; Sunny, et al, 2015) that Malayalam speaking geriatrics showed higher scores in the number of trouble sources ,repair strategies , type of resolution , types of resolutions and repair sequences .

Impact of face masks on communication in the D/deaf/Hard of Hearing (HOH) younger and middle adults during COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review []

Aim: The aim of the present study is to systematically review the impact of face masks on communication in the D/deaf/Hard of Hearing (HOH) younger adults (18-35 years old) and middle adults (36-64 years old) during COVID-19 pandemic.. Data sources and Search strategy: The relevant studies were identified through PubMed (MEDLINE) and Google Scholar. The search strategies were developed and tested through an iterative process. The search terms and the keywords were used. Method: According to PRISMA 2009 guidelines, all the studies regarding younger and middle adults with hearing loss and hearing disabilities, D/deaf/HOH communities/college students, Cochlear implant users, face masks and coverings, masked world, communication and COVID-19 related studies were all included. Results: A total of 2616 articles were identified and 1166 articles were screened on the basis of titles and abstracts. From these 1166 articles, 59 full-text articles met the eligibility criteria. Overall, the 6 articles were deemed eligible and so included in the qualitative synthesis. The results were depicted in a PRISMA-P flow diagram. Conclusions: Overall, this review finds that wearing both the face masks and the face shields have a greater and negative impact on communication for the D/deaf/HOH younger and middle adults during this COVID-19 pandemic.


Processed and food products from fisheries, agriculture, and animal husbandry are generally susceptible to quality degradation due to environmental, chemical, biochemical, and microbiological factors. The decline in quality can be accelerated in the presence of oxygen, water, light, and temperature. One way to prevent or slow down this phenomenon is with proper packaging. Packaging is a food packaging process and is very important to protect the quality of food. Alternatives to the use of packaging plastic one that is packaging Edible coatings. One of the edible coating materials is chitosan. This material was chosen because it has almost complete characteristics and is following the needs of biodegradable packaging, namely odorless, tasteless, flexible, and transparent In addition, chitosan is an alternative material because of its hydrophobic nature, plus its availability in nature is very abundant and is the second-largest number after cellulose. Chitosan can be used as an edible coating, which is a thin layer that can be eaten and formed to coat food. The article review method used is the literature review method. This method examines, summarizes, and interprets all problem findings on a research topic and answers research questions that have been previously determined. The literature review is carried out through electronic-based journals, namely database ProQuest, scholar, science direct, and Ebsco. The results of the review showed that chitosan edible coating with a mass of 5 grams was better in maintaining the quality of wet crackers for two days of storage than starch-chitosan edible coating and starch edible coat-ing against wet crackers. Based on the results of research that has been carried out, it can be concluded that Edible coating is capable of packaging many products ranging from agricultural, livestock, and processed fishery products, such as tuna fish balls, pempek, kurisi fish sausage, green grapes, tofu, beef, chicken meat, Mango fruit, sticky rice dodol, Betawi dodol, wet crackers, beef meatballs, nuggets, red snapper fillet, catfish meat. Sources of chitosan are widely available in nature such as shrimp and crab waste, gold snails, and other alternatives that are still underutilized, namely the Black Soldier Fly (BSF) pupa shell. Edible coatings made from chitosan can be modified by adding additional ingredients to make it more optimal in protecting the packaging inside, such as garlic, casein, ZnO nanoparticles, acetic acid, and starch from fruits or tubers. The edible coating of chitosan affects the shelf life of the product.


ABSTRACT As the business world increasingly emphasize the replacement of traditional management practices of work with flexible practices and systems, this change has served as a driver for companies to focus on their core competencies. These model changes include Flexible work schedule as a managerial drive for Industrial Harmony. This study aims at investigating the influence of Flexible work schedule on Industrial Harmony (employers, employees and Government) in the employment relationship. The study adopted a cross sectional design, the study population is 113. Purposive, simple random, systematic and stratified sampling techniques were variously employed to select the respondents. And inferential statistics were employed, and Pearson Product Moment Correlation technique was used, at 0.01 level of significance, with the aid of SPSS Our findings revealed that there is a positive, strong and significant relationship between the Flexible work schedule and measures of Industrial Harmony in the Nigerian Banking Industry. The study specifically revealed that Flexible work schedule correlate positively and significantly with the measures of industrial harmony in the area of study. The study arrives at the fact that, the effective conduciveness of Industrial Harmony in the Nigeria Banking industry is premised on effective implementation of Flexible work schedule strategy or policy. Based on this, relevant recommendations were made.

Review Article: Use of Vacuum Packaging In Smoked Fish Products []

Smoked fish is a fishery product that has good economic prospects in Indonesia, so smoked fish products must have good quality. One of the obstacles to smoked fish products is the ease of quality loss and short shelf life. The decrease in quality in smoked fish is caused by the decomposition of components by microbes, enzymes and fat oxidation during storage. One way to deal with this is to use vacuum packaging. Vacuum packaging is a vacuum packaging system by removing oxygen from the shelf life process. Vacuum packaging provides good benefits or effects on smoked fish products, including on storage length, organoleptic value, and TVB-N value on smoked fish products.


The purpose of the study was to assess the impact of fee-free education policy on public secondary education in Tanzania, a case of Njombe Town Council, specifically; to examine the effect of fee-free education policy on enrolment rate in secondary schools, the number of teachers and students’ performance in Njombe Town Council. The research employed a mixed research approach. A cross-sectional design was used to gather data to answer the research problem and summarize the results. 63 observations were used. Purposive and simple random sampling techniques were used for the selection of respondents. The study finds that there is an increase in students' enrolment in secondary schools in Njombe Town Council due to the fee-free education policy, while there is a shortage of teachers and teaching materials especially books. Moreover, students strive hard to maintain their performance. Conclusively the study acknowledges the importance of the fee-free education policy on secondary education in Tanzania because it helps all children to get access to education especially vulnerable children and those whose parents cannot afford school fees. The study recommends that the government should continue to allocate funds for free education on secondary education in Tanzania because it helps all children to get access to secondary education. Also, the government should employ new teachers all over the country and especially in Njombe secondary schools to cover the gap of not overwhelmed teachers by teaching many students at once. In addition, the government should strive to increase teaching materials especially books to secondary students that help them to increase their performances.


Finance literature suggests that CEO duality plays a critical role in determining the performance of a firm however there is a little research that has focused on the effects of CEO duality on firm performance especially on developing nations like Kenya. This study therefore sought to fill in this gap by determining the effects of CEO duality on firm’s financial performance in Nairobi securities exchange. The study was guided by upper echelon theory and agency theory. The study was carried out using explanatory research design. The target population for the study comprised all listed firms at Nairobi Securities Exchange, a survey of all 45 firms that have consistently been operating at the NSE for the past 5 years from 2011-2016 was conducted. Secondary data was obtained from companies annual reports. Descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, fixed effects and Random effects regression models was adopted. Hausman test was carried out and Random effect model was found to be the best model. The study findings indicate that CEO duality had a negative significant effect on firm performance (-0.9312, p=0.000), p<0.05). The study concludes that CEO duality affects the firm performance. The study recommends firms to put in measures that ensure that the roles for the CEO and board chairman are separated to enhance the effectiveness of the board in managing the firm Keywords: Nairobi Security Exchange, NSE, Chief Executive Officer, CEO Duality,

The Prevalence of depression, anxiety & stress among mothers of preterm infants in Omdurman Maternity Hospital, Khartoum state, Sudan []

Emotional distress among mothers of preterm infants is common due to events associated with their child's birth & health status, mothers of preterm infants frequently report increased symptoms of stress, depression, anxiety while their babies are admitted into the NICU. Mothers of premature children with a younger gestational age & lower birth weight often report increased psychological concerns. The experience of having a premature child can be particularly difficult for mothers. The emotional strain & stressors commonly associated with having a premature child may not only affect a mother's psychological well-being, but also the behaviours that mothers exhibit during interactions with their babies due to their expectations of having a physically healthy baby. Key words: NICU, DASS-21, preterm infants, emotional distress, anxiety, depression, stress

Speech Rhythmic differences in Kannada-English Bilinguals []

SPEECH RHYTHMIC DIFFERENCES IN KANNADA-ENGLISH BILINGUALS Salim Javed Masters in Audiology & Speech Language Pathology Dr. M.V Shetty College of Speech & Hearing Mangalore Vini Abhijith Gupta Assistant Professor/PhD Scholar Dept of Speech & Hearing Dr. M.V Shetty College of Speech & Hearing Mangalore INTRODUCTION: Rhythm is defined as a systematic pattern of sounds in terms of prominence, timing and grouping (Patel, 2008). Maintaining a rhythm in a speech makes the speech sound natural and fluent. Rhythm is produced by stressed and unstressed words in a sentence. Using only the stressed words in a sentence may make a speech sound dull and artificial. The listener may also not understand the intended emphasis or meaning in the speech. The importance of speech rhythm is however not restricted to word segmentation and recognition only but beyond the word level it is together with intonation the rhythm organizes speech interacting with different linguistic domains such as morphology, syntax and semantics creating prosodic constituents (Selkirk, 1978; Nespor & Vogel, 1986; Hayes, 1989; Inkelas, 1990). The rhythms of different languages around the world differ. Language, like music, has a hierarchical structure to it. All spoken languages include isochronous speech units, and all languages can be classed according to their rhythm. Kuriakose, Dhupkar, and Bharath (2019) looked into the rhythm of Goan Konkani speakers and found that the trend of a low normalised Pairwise Variability Index (nPVI) value and a high raw Pairwise Variability Index (rPVI) value is a fundamental feature of syllable-timed language. In their current analysis, they discovered a similar pattern, indicating that Konkani is a syllable-timed language. The rhythm of several Indian languages has been discovered by many scholars. English is a phonemic language acquired by 70% of bilinguals in India. However, limited researches on speech rhythm in Kannada as a first language and English as a second language have been conducted. Grasping the rhythm of each language specific to gender differences offers therapeutic benefits, in that rhythm may be used to treat a variety of ailments. Need of the study: Languages with distinct rhythms have long provided as a source of inspiration in phonetic study. The rhythm of several Indian languages has been discovered by many scholars. English is a phonemic language acquired by 70% of bilinguals in India. However limited cross linguistic researches on speech rhythm in Kannada as a first language and English as a second language have been conducted. Grasping the rhythm of each language specific to gender differences offers therapeutic benefits in that rhythm may be used to treat a variety of ailments. Individuals with language prosody impairments can be taught rhythm. Understanding the gender specific rhythms of each language has therapeutic benefits since the rhythms may be utilized to cure a number of illnesses. It is possible to teach rhythm to those who have difficulty with linguistic prosody. Aim of the Study: 1. To compare Rhythmic difference between the languages Kannada (L1) and English (L2) in bilinguals. 2. To find the influence of first language on the rhythm of second Language. 3. To analyze if there is a substantial variation in rhythm between female and male. METHODOLOGY: A group of 30 typical adults in the age range of 18-30 years (with mean age of 24 years) who were further divided into two groups i.e., 15 females (group 1) and 15 males (group 2) took part in the present study. The participants were native (L1) Kannada speakers and (L2) English speakers respectively with normal IQ, vision and voice quality. Individuals who had any history of neurological or cognitive impairment, hearing impairment and/or visual impairment were excluded from the study. The study was carried out in two phases: Phase I: Recording of data through a speech material (picture/passage) Phase II: Analysis of the recorded data through a speech analysis software. Procedure: Speech samples were collected from one person at a time. Instruction was given to see the picture provided and carefully describe it. A one minute speech sample in both English and their native language was elicited from both the groups. Speech samples were audio recorded using a digital voice recorder (Olympus-WS-100) at a sampling frequency of 16 kHz. The vocalic measure refers to the duration of vowel which was measured as the time duration from the onset of voicing to the offset of voicing of the vowels. Intervocalic measures refer to the duration between two vocalic segments. It was measured as the duration between the offset of the first vocalic segments and onset of the second vocalic segments. It was measured as the time duration between the offset of the first vocalic segment to the onset of the second vocalic segment. Analysis: The speech samples were analyzed using PRAAT 5.1.14 software (Boersma & Weenik, 2009) by eliminating the pauses. This was done in order to get an appropriate measure of the vocalic and intervocalic segments. The Vocalic (V) and Intervocalic (IV) segments were highlighted using a cursor and durations were measured. Vocalic measure refers to the duration of a vowel/semivowel/diphthong which was measured as the time difference between the onsets of voicing to the offset of voicing for that vowel/semivowel/diphthong. Intervocalic measure refers to the time difference between two vocalic segments. It was measured as the time difference between the offset of the first vocalic segment to the onset of the second vocalic segment. Pairwise Variability Index (PVI) was developed for rhythmic analysis. It is a quantitative measure of acoustic correlates of speech rhythm, and it calculates the patterning of successive vocalic and intervocalic (IV) intervals. The PVIs were calculated using the following formulae: Formula 1: nPVI (Normalized Pairwise Variability Index) Where “m” is number of intervals, Vocalic or Intervocalic, in the text and “d” is the duration of the Kth interval. Low used a normalized version of the PVI in their measurements on vowel durations. Normalization involves expressing each difference as a proportion of the average of the two units involved (e.g., their average duration). Formula 2: rPVI(Raw Pairwise Variability Index) Where “m” is number of items in an utterance and “d” is the duration of the kth item. rPVI equation shows that the nPVI is compiled by calculating the difference in duration between each pair of successive measurements, taking the absolute value of the difference and dividing it by the mean duration of the pair. nPVI and rPVI differs only in omitting the third step. The differences are then summed and divided by the number of differences. The output is multiplied by 100 because the normalization produces fractional values. PVIs were calculated using the above formulae in the Microsoft office excel program. Languages are classified as stress timed, syllable timed, mora timed or unclassified based on vocalic and intervocalic PVI values. The durational difference between successive vocalic and intervocalic segments were calculated and averaged to get Pair wise Variability Index (Low, Grabe and Nolan 2002). Comparison of PVIs of the above groups to find out the influence of native language rhythm type on second language was done. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The current study aimed to compare Rhythmic difference between the languages Kannada (L1) and English (L2) in bilinguals, the influence of first language Kannada (L1) on the rhythm of second Language (L2) and to uncover if there is a substantial variation in rhythm between females and males. The normalized Pairwise Variability Index (nPVI) and raw Pairwise Variability Index (rPVI) values were obtained using appropriate statistical methods. The results of the present study indicate that rPVI values of English show closer approximation to Kannada in both the genders. Result also shows that rhythm type of Kannada is closer to English as a second language which suggest a close proximity between both the languages as in a continuum in accordance with the findings. It shows that there is no significance in results with respect to gender differences. To conclude, we have seen that there has been no impact of first language (Kannada) over second language (English) and there was no significant difference observed between both the genders with respect to impact of first language over second language.

Effects Of Resource Planning Practices On Implementation Of Projects In Rwanda: A Case Of The Upgrade Of Kigali International Airport (UKIA) Project Of Civil Aviation Authority. []

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of resource planning practices on implementation of projects in Rwanda a case of the upgrade of Kigali international airport (UKIA) project of Rwanda civil aviation authority. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of resource planning practices on implementation of projects in Rwanda with reference to the upgrade of Kigali international airport. The specific objective was to determine the importance of planning on the implementation of projects in Rwanda, To determine the effects human resource planning practices on the implementation of projects in Rwanda, To analyze the effects of financial planning practices on the implementation of projects in Rwanda, To identify the effects of material and equipment planning practices on the implementation of projects in Rwanda. The study sought to determine the effect of resource planning practices on the implementation of UKIA project. Target population for the study was 82 project members within RCAA. A sample size of 68 participants was purposefully selected basing on the duration on the project. The position and authority of members were considered for inclusion into the study. Questionnaires were used to collect primary data, which was later analysed using SPSS. This study was descriptive and summarized the characteristics of the respondents; the descriptive statistics involved the use of mean, frequency, percentages and standard deviation about the variables of the study. The data of this study was also analyzed by using correlation and regression analysis: Human resource planning practices had a correlation of (=0.726, p<0.01) and regression results (β=. 409, t=8.142, p<0.001), financial resource had a correlation of (=0.616, p<0.01) and regression results (β=. 176, t=3.532, p<0.001), and finally material & equipment had a correlation of (r=0.714, p<0.05) and regression results (β=. 129, t=2.829, p<0.005). The regression line was Y=β1(.409)+ β2(.176)+β3(.129)+ e Since the findings revealed that resources availability has positive and significant correlation to the resource planning on implementation of projects in RCAA, thereafter researcher concluded that there is statistically significant relationship between human resource planning,financial resource, and material & equipments planning practices. The researcher recommended project managers to foster resource planning practices before initiation and implementaion of projects.

Assessment of Residents Perception of Public Water Supply in Port Harcourt Municipality, Rivers State,Nigeria []

Water is one of the physiological needs and constitutes essential ingredient for the survival of man. It is for this reason that the provision of potable water is often the priority of government of any society as a way of promoting the overall wellbeing of residents. The present study examined the state of public water infrastructure in Port Harcourt Municipality with a view to examine residents’ perception regarding public water supply in the city. The study leans on the constructivist research paradigm since it does not purport an object reality of the problem under investigation. The research design was the cross-sectional survey research design as the study sought to examine the perception of residents of Port Harcourt on the public provision of water as they exist without any recourse to their temporal dimension. The sample size comprises of 399 respondents who were randomly selected from five neighbourhoods in the study area. Our findings revealed that there is complete absence of public water supply within the Municipality. Further analysis revealed that public water supply was last witnessed between the year 1996 –2000 while on the average residents spend seven thousand naira (N7,000) per month to meet their water needs. Among the major issues militating against public water supply were dilapidated water mains (16.8%), and unplanned urban growth (15.2%).In view of the importance of water to the socio-economic development of man, there is need for public water supply agencies in Port Harcourt to redouble their efforts in the provision of water to residence in the area. This is the only waypublic water supply in the municipality can meet the universal water access target by 2030. Keywords: Perception, public water supply, urban growth, water need, socio-economic development


Fish crackers are a type of flour-based processed food with the addition of fish or shrimp as the main ingredient. One of the flaws of fish crackers is that they easily absorb moisture from the air around them, making them less crunchy during storage. As a result, the most critical com-ponent in maintaining the quality and shelf life of fish crackers is packaging. Packaging can help protect food from contamination and contamination, as well as physical disturbances like friction, collision, and vibration. Polypropylene is a plastic with high tensile strength, is leak-proof, gas and odor-resistant, and is unaffected by humidity fluctuations, making it ideal for snack and dry product packaging. The goal of this study is to find out what factors influence the shelf life or storage time of fish crackers packaged in polypropylene plastic. The findings revealed that many parameters such as the RH in the storage room and the thickness of the polypropylene plastic used influenced the shelf life of fish crackers. The shorter the shelf life, the higher the RH and also the thinner the plastic, and vice versa.


Working memory is a cognitive system with a finite capacity for temporarily storing information. Working memory is critical for reasoning, decision-making, and behavior guiding. Although working memory and short-term memory are often used interchangeably, some theorists believe the two types of memory are distinct, believing that working memory allows for the manipulation of stored information while short-term memory only allows for the storage of information for a short period of time. Working memory is a concept that is essential for cognitive psychology, neuropsychology, and neuroscience theory. The present study aims at investigating the differences in verbal working memory between two different age group children. The study objectives were the comparison of frequencies in verbal working memory tasks between two age groups. For the current study, a purposive sample of normal children of two different age groups are collected. The study includes total of 30 children. In which, Group 1 includes 15 children of the age 15years and Group 2 includes 15 children of the age 8 years. The language used for data collection is English. For the recording of verbal responses, Praatsoftware(Version: updated, 2013) will be used and analyzed using Goldwave Software. A stop watch id used for the scheduling of time. A time window of 60 seconds as response time is used in the study. Modified data analysis sheet was used for the purpose of analysis of various selected verbal fluency measures. To conclude the findings of the present study not only serves as a data for future studies on profiling the deviation of verbal working memory output among the different age groups, the study also provides an insight into the neuro-cognitive processes such as search, access and retrieval of information stored in the mental lexicon used by the participants. The results also revealed the factors which influenced their performance such as anxiety, culture, language and age. The findings show that the older children performed well, due to the development of the neural structures and their ability to sustain larger information. Hence, this study clearly gives an idea that Verbal Working Memory improves as a child grows, due to the development of the neural structures.

Exploration of Factors Contributing to Teachers' Turnover in private secondary schools: A case of Kilolo District []

Abstract: The purpose of the study was to explore factors contributing to teachers’ turnover in private secondary schools in Tanzania specifically; to examine employee factors causing teachers’ turnover in private secondary schools in Kilolo; to determine the influence of external factors on private secondary teachers’ turnover in Kilolo, and to investigate the effects of employer factors on the rate of teachers’ turnover in private secondary schools in Kilolo. The research employed mixed methods approach. A cross-sectional design was used to gather data to answer the research problem and summarize the results. The targeted population was 60 secondary teachers and head teachers where a sample size of 55 was drawn out of it where 50 secondary teachers used questionnaires and 5 head teachers applied interview. Simple random sampling and purposive sampling techniques were used for the selection of respondents. From the findings, the following results were obtained. In Kilolo District secondary schools, teachers’ turnover employee factors depend on the level of salary paid to teachers, working environment, working tools as well as employee satisfaction. Also private secondary schools in Kilolo District have quality infrastructures and a quality working environment that is suitable for teachers and students in teaching and learning, but teachers can seek other places to work due to external factors like economic conditions, family matters, or sickness. Moreover, private secondary schools in Kilolo lack motivation factors which lead to teachers’ turnover. The study concludes that from employee factors causing, teachers’ turnover has been influenced by low salary or delay in payments of salaries, poor working environment, lack of working tools, and teachers’ cooperation. In addition, external factors like economic condition, family matters, or sickness influences teachers’ turnover. Moreover, motivation is a crucial factor in reducing the rate of teachers’ turnover in private secondary schools in Kilolo District. The researcher recommends that it’s important to ensure that the employer motivates his/her employees to ensure the rate of employee turnover is reduced in private secondary schools in Kilolo District.


Abstract: School effectiveness and efficiency are associated and controlled by heads of schools’ leadership styles. On the other hand, it is not sure if heads of schools’ leadership styles directly affect teachers’ work commitment resulting in school performance. This study attempts to explore the contribution of heads of schools’ leadership styles towards teachers’ work commitment in Tanzania public secondary schools. The study employed a qualitative research approach. The study conducted in Morogoro region in Tanzania, a case study design was employed. The population of the study comprised a Municipal secondary Education officer, five heads of schools and teachers in selected secondary schools, purposive sampling technique employed. Findings revealed that there is a lack of teachers’ motivation, recognition, appreciation and promotions among teachers in Morogoro city public secondary schools. Although, teachers confirmed that democratic leadership style is dominated in their schools. It was recommended that public schools management use a suitable leadership style regarding the existing situation either autocratic or democratic leadership style in implementing school objectives and mitigating factors that hinder teachers’ commitments. Moreover, heads of schools should improve by making the recommendation for the teachers for every annual review to make a frequent evaluation and monitoring teachers ‘commitments


This article aims to examine the use of liquid waste from the surimi industry to make edible films. Based on the results of the literature study, information was obtained that there have been several researches that utilize the surimi industrial liquid waste for the manufacture of edible films. The liquid waste from the surimi industry is mixed with NaOH, glycerol, starch, elmusifier and vegetable oil then made into a suspension, after being dried in the oven, it becomes edible flim.


Gelatin is made from fish bones that has a good potential in Indonesia, in addition to be guaranteed halal, gelatin is made from fish bone meal. It is expected to overcome the problem of fishery waste which can have a negative impact on the environment. This article contains how to determine the processing and methodological of making fish bones into gelatin. Based on the literature study, there was an information that the manufacture or extraction of gelatin from fish bones consisted of 4 stages, namely preparation, demineralization, swelling and hydrolysis or extraction.


Abstract: This study examines the impact of fiscal policy instrument on unemployment in Nigeria using time series annual data from 1990- 2020 which constitutes 30 years observations. This study used secondary data obtained from the CBN annual statistical bulletin. Fiscal policy instrument was proxy government expenditure, government borrowing and Taxation. The data were analysed using ADF unit root test, co-integration test and ARDL Model. The study found that Government Borrowing has a positive and no significant effect on Unemployment in Nigeria, Taxation has a positive and no significant impact on Unemployment in Nigeria, Government Expenditure has a positive and no significant impact on Unemployment in Nigeria. The study recommends that Government should aggressively focus on investment, employment generation and economic growth that has mechanism to improve standard of living. Expansionary fiscal policy should be encouraged as it plays vital role in the development process of an economy. Key Words: Fiscal Policy, ARDL Model, Taxation, Government Borrowing and Government Expenditure.


Abstract In everyday life, especially in modern times we often come across the word bankruptcy, how a firm can go bankrupt or how we can avoid bankruptcy proceedings. There are differences of opinion about the bankruptcy procedure and the avoidance of bankruptcy through the Reorganization Plan. A good plan to reorganize the bankrupt debtor, before the opening of the bankruptcy procedure or during the opening can positively affect the bankrupt debtor can continue to exist, ie not be expelled from the business environment. However, reorganization versus liquidation is also a very good opportunity for creditors, because through reorganization creditors achieve maximum payment, versus liquidation and thus the bankrupt debtor continues to exist. The case study will be the bankruptcy procedure with a genuine reorganization plan, where during the bankruptcy procedure the legal entity is given a second opportunity to exist based on the Law and standards for the bankruptcy procedure in Macedonia. Key words: Reorganize, bankruptcy proceedings, reorganization plan


Wamp Server is technological tool for local hosting of website, is the topic under discussion, website hosting is beautiful career in the field of computer science, since final year students trying to defence their project (designed website) are show the functionalities of their to see if it met requirement of their project, it will be too much cost if these websites are launch directly on the internet without wanting these sites to be use in practical has led to this studybesides final year students projects, website are met to launch on the internet for the globe to see and use therefore it is important first preview any website by capable software like that of wamp server to debug any error or ineffectiveness before it is launch. The objective of this articles to give easy ways one use wamp server for local hosting.


This study presents the findings on assessing the role of head teachers’ recognition of teacher’s job commitment efforts in public primary schools in Iringa District Council. Using a sample of 93 respondents from 9 different schools. The study employed mixed approaches. Data were collected through interview, questionnaire and document search. The collected data were analyzed through content analysis for qualitative data and descriptive statistics for quantitative data with the help of Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 20. The findings revealed that head teachers in public primary schools were using various ways and technique on motivating teachers in public primary schools like through recognizing their work performance, involving teachers in decision making, transparency and accountability, democratic leadership style, equal opportunity for further studies, seminars, workshop and training were provided. The study findings revealed that as more as teachers were motivated the more they worked hard in the school. The findings also revealed that teachers in public primary schools were motivated both intrinsically and extrinsically as the heads according to the situation of the school management in case of availability of resources in the schools


The study assessed the role of information asymmetry and regulatory requirements on performance the Rwanda Stock Exchange (RSE) listed firms. It adopted a descriptive, quantitative research approach. The target population for the study was 100 respondents from different categories of the selected companies of capital market exchange in Kigali City. Probability sampling technique was used to collect data, done by means of a structured questionnaire and interview. The Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS) program version 23.0 was used to analyze the results. The results showed that the socio-demographic were dominated by females; age ranged from 40-50 years old, the married people and the education level were Bachelor’s degree studies. The findings revealed that 41% of respondents were strongly agreed with information availability being a factor of companies listing at RSE. Other characteristics of companies listing regarding information asymmetry at RSE agreed by respondents including the availability of communication platform (68%), Companies being informed (37%), Companies are being told about ASM (47%), the advantages of listing are being explained (53%), information is accessible through the public media (63%), and free information is available via the vending business (32 percent). The study found that adjusted R-square was 0.676, an indication that there was variation of 67.6% on the information asymmetry at 95% confidence interval and model was significant since the p-value was less than 0.05without the interaction term, F (4, 99) 22.055, <.0018. The significance value was less than 0.05 an indication that the model was statistically significant. Therefore, RSE should motivate listed companies to use financial management information needs to be accompanied by strong commitment, sufficient manpower and financial resources, widespread internal support, and an agenda for effective investment

Ex Version : Article Review []

Fish heads are solid waste from the fillet processing industry. This article aims to examine the use of fish heads as a typical processed food in Indonesia. Based on the literature study, information was obtained that fish heads can be processed in typical food in Indonesia. The processed fish head foods are red snapper head curry, salmon soup, gangan sour dori head, catfish head mangut, salmon head soup and tuna fish head spicy sour.

Nanofluid Flow Between Parallel Disks with Nernst-Plank Model []

This article explores a theoretical model that has been developed to analyze the behavior of a squeezing flow of nano-fluid between two disks. It has been further investigated that the uniform magnetic field is applied normal to the disks and an induced magnetic field is ignored due to the low Reynolds number. The domain of this study is to investigate the behavior of ionized flow in the radial and azimuthal direction with the change of non-dimensional parameters developed during modeling. The proposed theoretical model has been solved by a robust numerical scheme (PCM) and for the accuracy of this numerical scheme, the results have been compared with BVP4C.

To evaluate the composition and effect of temperature on mass decrease of clay using TGA and XRD techniques []

The aim of the current research was to study the mass decrease with temperature using Thermogravimetry (TGA) Technique and composition of the clay used in the manufacturing of bricks using X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Moreover, the bricks formed is further studied and analyzed using the above mention techniques. It is found that the strength of bricks depends on porosity and composition. Mass decrease and temperature distribution are irregular and from 6290C to 7080C a rapid decrease in mass occurred due to dehydroxylation.