Volume 9, Issue 11, November 2021 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Internal audit is an independent evaluation to measure and evaluate the effectiveness of the established internal control system in the entity. Internal audit has the main function of informing senior management about the functioning of management and control systems, gives appropriate recommendations on ways to improve. The purpose of internal audit is to provide additional assurance to the government, line minister, head and management of the public sector entity that the implementation of management and control mechanisms is appropriate, cost effective and generally accepted. Standards and national legislation. Internal audit provides the head of the unit with the opportunity for analysis, recommendations, advice and information on the revised activities. The audit opinion / conclusions confirm the reliability of the financial statements as well as the effective functioning of the established management and control system. The responsibility of the management that manages the audited entity should be emphasized, as well as the responsibility of the auditors who perform the audit. Management responsibilities are in terms of the reliability of the data and information attached to the accounting reports as well as the establishment of an appropriate system of internal controls and the establishment of appropriate internal procedures for the ongoing monitoring of management and control processes and timely delivery. feedback in case of system vulnerabilities. It is the responsibility of the auditors to provide an independent and competent audit opinion on the reliability of the accounting information attached to the financial statements in terms of the intentional and lawful use of the funds, and to provide an opinion on the effectiveness. the functioning of the established management and control system. Internal audit should be performed in all organizational units and at all levels of the entity and covers all assets of the business entity. To maintain a high level of expertise and competence at work, internal auditors must have established a system of continuing education. Keywords: Internal audit, management, efficient management


Institutional linkage optimization an aide in combating educational challenges amidst the pandemic consider some elements useful in sustaining academic goals such as Industry counterparts reveal that different sets of partners are at "par" with each other, hence, it is suggested that the institution will strengthen the linkages among identified partners by assigning someone capable to link potential partners as a source of goodwill. Internal partnership suggested that top management should initiate a step closer towards solving this problem so that normal education can still be attained despite the abnormality of the situation. Learning continuity initiatives suggest that since flexible learning is inevitable, educators should advocate learning methodology like creating a "talking module" so that the desired learning level expectancy is met in a way, the privilege provided by the government such as the free education can be compensated through a convincing result. Community engage learning to suggest that as a way of extending the provision of support through community-engaged efforts, the national government should appropriate and allocate additional funds to the local government units (LGU) which the later distributed to the community level as a way of supplementing the limited resources "the multimedia infrastructures" of the community. Restriction intensity suggests that meeting halfway could be a buyable and doable solution so that despite the spirit of this pandemic seeming normal as it seems, nothing could be considered as collateral damage and the learning linkages become stronger and realistic despite the test of time. Family-teacher support suggests that, for the initiative to remain effective and reflective, a review should be done so that the mechanisms, strategy, and tactical approach are well-defined which yields motivation and satisfaction spikes to the next level.

Biosorption of Cr (III) and Pb (II) from aqueous solution by wood mushroom biomass 'Agaricus silvicola' []

The use of fungi such as mushrooms to remove metal ions from aqueous solutions is gaining popularity in the treatment of water pollution by heavy metals. The purpose of this study was to see how well mushrooms (Agaricus silvicola) adsorb Pb (II) and Cr (III) from aqueous solutions. The equilibrium experiments are conducted in a batch process and involve a variety of process factors such as contact time, adsorbent dose, shaking velocity, and aqueous solution pH. For the elimination of Pb (II) and Cr (III), the ideal pH for the aqueous solution was 4 and 6, respectively. For each of the two metals, the contact time and shaking speed was 60 minutes and 300 rpm. The removal efficiencies of Pb (II) and Cr (III) were biosorbent dependent and increased with the increase in shaking velocity and biosorbent dosage. Comparative investigations into the sorption of two heavy metals by the mushroom have found that lead uptake is higher than chromium. These results suggest that Agaricus silvicola are good adsorbents for removing heavy metals especially Pb (II) from contaminated water.

The Budgeting and Budgetary Control Practices and its Influence in Akenten Appiah Menka University of Skills Training and Entrepreneurial Development []

The study examined budgeting and budgetary control practice in Ghana with reference to Akenten Appiah Menka University of Skills Training and Entrepreneurial Development (AAMUSTED), formally called College of Technology of Education, Kumasi (COLTEK). The research design employed was characterized and analyzed to achieve the purpose of the study. Purposive sampling techniques were used to select the respondents. The sample size for the study was fifty (50) participants and five (5) internal control comprising, units of Management members, Junior and senior staff. Questionnaire and interview guide were used to collect data from the respondents, which was analyzed to generate frequencies and percentages with the help of Microsoft Excel. The result of the study showed that the management of AAMUSTED is positively related to the budgetary control practices. In establishing the time period covered by budgets, the study found that AAMUSTED reviews its budget after 1 to 5 years. The approximate annual budget revenue, the study found that budgets have clear goals and objectives and when budgeting, outcomes, goals, and objectives are linked to programmes and activities of AAMUSTED. On the Impact of evaluation on budgetary control practices in the management of AAMUSTED, the study further established that AAMUSTED engages its stakeholders in making key budgetary decisions and that the Management of AAMUSTED reviews the budget periodically. The study recommended that budget review and controls should be undertaken as frequently as possible to achieve greater results in the prudent financial management of the University.


No one expected this type of change to happen in the blink of an eye, as Heraclitus famously remarked, "change is the only permanent thing in this world." Everyone was taken aback by the degree of change that occurred in their life. The viral Covid 19 has wreaked havoc on every system, especially the educational sector. Face-to-face sessions were abruptly halted, and several distance learning modalities were investigated and implemented to continue the children's education. On the other hand, most of the articles studied revealed that different schools used a variety of strategies in teaching araling panlipunan, including online learning, asynchronous learning, flexible learning, and the development of contextualized and digital learning materials. As a result, the purpose of this study is to gain a better knowledge of how teachers have used distance learning to teach araling panlipunan (social studies). This research also intends to uncover any research gaps that may exist in the use of remote learning as a teaching tool for araling panlipunan. This study looked at articles published in international online journals between 2016 and 2021. The findings and conclusions of the several studies analyzed are the topics of this work.


The study assessed taxpayers’ perception on the Usage of Electronic Fiscal Devices Machine (EFD), specifically perception on the functionality of EFD, cost of purchasing and servicing EFD machine and benefits of using EFD machines. The study adopted a mixed research approach and descriptive research design; data were collected using questionnaires which were administered to 242 respondents and interview for Tax officials. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze quantitative data and content analysis used to analyzed qualitative data. Results found that respondents had positive perception on the functionality as it solve their problem timely, provides promised services all the time, ensures transaction accuracy, EFD machines designs are user friendly, quality of paper rolls are very impressive and they receive technical support from TRA officials. In addition, on the perception on the cost of purchasing and servicing, the study found that the majority of respondents had positive perception on several items such as the cost of purchasing EFD machine, batteries, and receipts to be affordable except the cost of EFD machine to be high. Lastly, on the benefits of EFD machine, respondents were very positive on EFD machine benefits as follows; it facilitates timely payment of tax, enhances record keeping, reduces time for report preparation. The study concludes that there is significant positive relationship between perceptions on the benefits and cost of purchasing EFD and EFD usage and no significant relationship between perception and functionality. The study recommends that taxpayers should change their minds to cope with the pace of technology change and TRA should provide education on the use of EFD machine, provide all support to taxpayers.

Project planning and project implementation success in Rwanda: A case of Sebeya Watershed Management Project, Rubavu District []

The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of project planning on the project implementation success in Rwanda using a case of Sebeya Water Resource Board in Rubavu District. The specific objectives of the study were to identify the effect of scope planning in project implementation, to analyze resource planning in project implementation and to assess the effect of duty planning in project implementation at Sebeya watershed management project by Rwanda water resource Board, Rubavu District. The study is helpful in acquiring skills on how watershed management project is planned and skills that beneficiaries have in executing this project which stimulates its effective implementation. Future studies related will use results from this study to obtain a useful literature review. A descriptive research design with a correlation coefficient r-size effect was used. This research used both qualitative and quantitative approaches. The target population comprises of 1170 employees working in the project and 9 key informants, a sample size of 138 respondents calculated using Slovene’s formula was selected using purposive and simple random sampling techniques. Due to COVID-19 prevention measures, online data collection tool and phone interviews were used where possible to local leaders and questionnaire were distributed by youth volunteers. A questionnaire was administered to respondents, interview guide was held with key informants. Quantitative data was analyzed using statistical package for social sciences version 26.0 and qualitative data was analyzed using content analysis based on research objectives.The study found a positive correlation between scope planning and efficiency (r=.890, p=0.000), scope planning and productivity (r=.935**, p=0.000, scope planning and control (r=.893**=0.000). Results demonstrated that a positive correlation between resource planning and efficiency (r=.891, p=0.039), resource planning and productivity (r=.896, p=0.000) resource planning and control (r=.853, p=0.000). Furthermore, it was evidenced, a positive correlation between duty planning and efficiency (r=.953, p=0.000), duty planning and productivity (r=.890, p=0.000), duty planning and control (r=.875, p=.0.000). All the above, relationship is positively correlated given that the p value was < 0.005 proposing than an enhanced in project planning led to the success of project implementation for Sebeya Watershed Management in Rwanda. The study recommends that all project should focus on planning for assessing their short, medium and long –term effect implementation success; this is therefore, owing to planning is helpful in understanding the condition in which they are working and how to address about it. Keywords: Project, Project Planning, Duty Planning, Resource Planning, Scope Planning, Project Success.

Research []

This study considered neutron activation analysis of aerosol particles emanating from construction activities in the metropolitan city of Port-Harcourt from (October, 2017 — September, 2018). Port-Harcourt City is located at 40 47' 21'' North, 60 59' 55'' East and elevations of 52ft (16 meters) above sea level. Direct deposition of particles under the influence of gravity was employed for the collection of particulate matter (PM) samples on filter papers from building construction sites and a Residential Area located 150 meters from the construction sites. Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) was use in the analyses of the PM samples. The results showed the presence of twenty one elements; sodium (Na), aluminium (Al), calcium (Ca), vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), rubidium (Rb), zirconium (Zr), caesium (Cs), cerium (Ce), neodymium (Nd), europium (Eu), terbium (Tb), ytterbium (Yb), hafnium (Hf), tantalum (Ta), titanium (Ti) and thorium (Th). Out of these 21elements, calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), aluminium (Al), vanadium (V), and sodium (Na) had relatively higher annual mean concentrations in milligram per meter cube than other elements for both Construction Site and Residential area in the following order for the period under study:267013.49±19mg/m3and117620.63±68mg/m3;135042.07±56mg/m3 and49766.76±59mg/m3; 5898.41±22mg/m3 and 47946.67±11mg/m3; 36624.84±15mg/m3 and 33.50±50mg/m3; 18564.38±89mg/m3 and 10064.42±39mg/m3 and respectively. Calcium (Ca) had the highest annual mean concentration for both Residential Area and Construction Site. The relatively higher annual mean concentration of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), aluminium (Al), vanadium (V), and sodium (Na) as revealed in this study could possibly be due to their relative abundance in the earth and partly as components of building materials. Annual mean concentrations of 15 out of the 21 elemental components of the particulate matter for Construction Site and Residential Area exceeded the 8-hour total weighted average (TWA) established permissible limits by OSHA and NIOSH. Long-term exposure to very high concentrations of these elements may lead to serious health challenge and short life’s span of human being and other living organisms within the environment. This calls for adequate measures to protect construction workers and people whose residences are located few meters from construction Keywords: Aerosol Particle, Pollution, Construction, Neutron Activation, Analysis

Case Study []

Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) is the problem for the hospitalized patients as Nosocomial infection and threat for the healthy peoples. Most of the Gram negative organisms are responsible for UTI but some Gram positive bacteria also cause UTI which is more in female than male. In this study, twelve organisms were found that causing UTI. The most common bacteria among the isolates which cause UTI was E. coli (53.8%). Moreover, 51-60 age group females (14.5%) and 75.3% OPD patients were found to be more prone to UTI. Most effective antibiotics sensitive against E. coli were Meropenem, Amikacin, Nitrofurantoin and Piparacillin / Tazobactam.


ABSTRACT The study determined the correlates of print resources utilization and their resource literacy with their utilization of print resource in the library. Descriptive–correlational research design was used. The instrument adapted and used the survey questionnaire of Mateo (2016) which was based on Tool for Real-Time Assessment of Information Literacy Skills (Kent University Libraries, 2015). The participants consisted of 200 students from one of the Dominican Schools in the City of Cotabato. Data were organized using frequency counts, percentage, mean, and standard deviation to determine the advantages of print resource and resource literacy as well asthe utilization of print resources, and Pearson r was also utilized to ascertain the significant association between advantages of print resources and print resource literacy. Findings reveal that majority of the participants assessed as highly advantageous the print resources in terms of both functionality and quality of information. The participants rated their print resource literacy in terms of locating resources, retrieving resources, and evaluating resources as “fair”. The participants’ extent of utilization of the print resources in the library was rated as “moderate”. This study found that the print resource literacy of the participants was fair. While the print resources in the library were considered as highly advantageous, the print resource literacy was fair. The study recommends the review and assessment of all the print resources to determine the library instruction sessions so they will have a working knowledge of the research process and develop more their information literacy. Keywords: Print Resources, Print Resource Literacy, Locating resource, Retrieving Resource, Evaluating Resource


ABSTRACT Grammar Enrichment Programs have been implemented in the Philippine Schools, but the onset of the COVID-19 health crisis resulted to having new normal education set-ups. With this, the government schools adopted the use of the Self-Learning Modules (SLMs) to provide basic education to the learners without compromising their health and safety. The adopted modality posed a great challenge in the implementation of the enrichment programs, thus this study was purposely conducted during the time of pandemic to determine the relationship between the implementation of the grammar enrichment program described in terms of (a) learning delivery modes, (b) learning assessments, and (c) learning assessment strategies and the development of composition skills in public Junior High Schools in the use of (a) subject-verb agreement, (b) verb tenses, and (c) verb forms. The descriptive- correlational research design was used and the Pearson r Product Moment Correlation analysis was employed to determine the relationship between the variables. The data were taken from the 85 respondents who were purposely selected as teachers who handle English subjects for school year 2020-2021. The findings revealed that the higher is the implementation of the grammar enrichment program, the higher is the development of composition skills. The correlational analysis between the variables revealed a relationship at 0.01 level of significance which resulted to the rejection of the null hypothesis. The study concludes that the public Junior High Schools in the Schools Division of Cotabato City implement the grammar enrichment program to develop composition writing skills. Keywords: Grammar, Enrichment, Development, Grammar Enrichment Program, Composition Skills, Verbs, Descriptive-Correlational, Philippines, Asia

Review Article : The Use Of Glass Bottle Packaging (Jar) In Maintaining The Quality And Quality Of Fishery Processed []

Processed products, especially processed fisheries, are in demand among the community today. But there are constraints from the decline in the quality of fishery processed products caused by improper packaging. In the review of this article, I will discuss about glass bottles in maintaining the quality and quality of fishery processed such as fish sambal, fish abon, and fish oil. The use of glass bottle packaging is also not without cause, because glass bottles have nonpermeable properties that are considered to prevent a decrease in quality in fishery processed products. In the first study, smokedstingrays used glass jar packaging with variations in dry cooking methods with the addition of cooking oil cauldron-bag aroma is best (the aroma is close to fresh sambal) and has the longest shelf life of 197.96 hours or equivalent to 8 days. In the second study, the results offish stored in plastic bottles were damaged on the twentieth day with a peroxide content of 36.69meq / kg which with the same amount of peroxide content in the glass bottle on the thirtyth day. The third study, namely abon fish packed glass bottles produce the longest shelf life of 194 days in a temperature of 30o C. And the last study is Shidal, the product remains acceptable for up to 90 days of storage with an overall acceptability score of >3.0. Shidal after 90 days of Storage.

Effectiveness Of Use Packaging On Pindang Fish []

Fish is a source of animal protein whose presence is quite vital in supporting the fulfillment of essential nutrients to meet the needs of body functions. Fish pindang is one of Lampung's specialties served with yellow sauce. This typical Lampung Pindang has a unique and different taste, the taste is very savory, fragrant and delicious, it is a natural combination, because the majority of the ingredients in the recipe are made from natural spices, which is made with the addition of tamarind and turmeric but with a short shelf life. Fish pindang will be more durable if packaged in plastic packaging that has been vacuumed. The types of packaging materials that can be used are Polypropylene (PP), Polyethylene (PE) and Aluminum Polypropylene (AlPP). These types of packaging materials certainly have different characteristics and can affect the quality and shelf life of fish. Therefore, it is necessary to know the effectiveness of the use of packaging on pindang fish. The review method is by minitiation from various primary sources, namely related articles published in various journals in the last 10 years. Parameters observed were chemical quality (pH and water content), physical (L and OHue values), microbiology (total microbial and total mold) and shelf life (visual fungus, gas and color change). Observations were made on days 0, 7, and 14. Based on the results of the study, it was shown that the interaction of packaging technique and type of packaging affected the pH of storage on the 7th day. The packaging technique treatment affected the pH and L values on the 7th and 14th days of storage, while the water content and OHue were significantly different only on the 7th day of storage. The type of packaging only affects the pH of the yellow spiced pindang fish on the 7th and 14th days of storage. The combination of vacuum packaging with PP is recommended as the best treatment because it is better able to maintain pH, water content, and produces the best color.


Learning the syntax and understanding the basic concepts have been identified as the most difficult aspects in the learning of computer programming. The Digital Game Based Learning approach has gained successful outcomes at several studies related to programming and other subjects. Yet, with the examination minded competitive classrooms, lack of computer facilities and deficient time for practical sessions, studying the best way of executing Game Based Learning approach in Sri Lankan context for programming education was necessary. Thus, this study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and motivational attractiveness of computer game play for learning programming principles within Sri Lankan school context. This study demonstrates a Game Based Learning approach exploited as an E-learning environment to motivate and engage students in learning and enhancing programming skills. Primary data was collected from subject evaluation questionnaires, interviews with students and teachers involved in programming, game developers and through study of game artifacts. An educational game mapped with the basic programming concepts was implemented. In the game, the students were guided to find simple solutions by playing a game. The core study was conducted as illustrative case studies of sampled ICT students of 3 schools. The students’ performance was recorded and observed before and after the application of Game Based Learning approach. Summative evaluation of the results suggests that Educational Games can be exploited as an effective and motivational learning environment. The recommendation is to blend the Game Based Learning approach as a supplementary learning and teaching material to the conventional instructional designs in programming education


This study assesses the health consequence of Crude oil spill’s alterative effects on Physical and Chemical properties of surface water in Ukwa West Local Government Area, Abia State, Nigeria. Objectives were to determine the physical and chemical properties of surface water and to evaluate the suitability of water for healthy domestic uses. Sequential design was employed for collection and analysis of water properties to generate data. A total of twenty (10) water samples of pollution and control areas were collected at geo-referenced points, using bottle containers from five water bodies in the study area. The mean values of water properties recorded in rainy season were high compared to few earlier dry season reports, which inferentially is due to weathering and transport of contaminants via erosion and run-offs into rivers, streams and lake. pH were 5.81 and 6.01.for polluted and control sites. EC were 346.00μS/cm and 607.00μS/cm for polluted and control sites respectfully, due to resistance posed by residual hydrocarbon or inability to conduct electric current. Turbidity, TDS and TSS were 6.28mg/l, 266.00 mg/l and 0.82 mg/l respectively in polluted sites but 3.67 mg/l, 213.60 mg/l and 0.74 mg/l respectively in control sites due to raise in water bodies from weathering and erosion of toxic substances and or sediments which finally may be either dissolved or suspended, thus a resultant increase in turbidity, TDS and TSS observed. THC and Total hardness for polluted sites were 1431.80mg/l and 310.98mg/l respectively but, 310.98mg/l and 50.15 mg/l respectively for control sites, due to residual hydrocarbon pollution. The surface water parameters fall short of Nigeria indigenous standards such as SON, NAFDAC and that of the WHO standard for domestic use in terms of pH, EC, Hardness, DO, BOD, COD, Zn,Pb

Feasibility of Rainwater Harvesting at Dhaka Export Processing Zone Area: A Potential Approach to Reducing Dependency on Groundwater []

Bangladesh’s economy has currently been growing fast than others previous decades. Government of Bangladesh recently formulated the 8th Five Year Plan (FYP) and now all developments have been taken under this FYP where economic zone and export processing zone are being considered as vital, need to scale up keeping green environment in place for sustainable development. Dhaka Export Processing Zone (DEPZ), situated at Savar is one among others EPZs which has been contributing to ours economic significantly where groundwater has been extracted and distributed to all factories and its offices by BEPZA. The hydrogeology of Savar is complex because of its geological formation being Pleistocene Terraces, generally called it Madhupur tract. It is seen that northern part of Dhaka, Gazipur and Savar are in Pleistocene Terraces. In these areas the upper soil is up to 30 ft and in some place even up to 150 ft of stiff clay with very low permeability, and eventually natural groundwater recharge is almost negligible. From the groundwater zone map 1998, 2002, 2008 and 2012 developed by Bangladesh Agricultural Development Corporation, it has been seen that the groundwater table depletion rate in this area is too high and being alarming. A study is conducted at DEPZ and took learning from 4 factories in Narayagoonj. From study it is found that there is an opportunity to introduce rainwater harvesting system in DEPZ and by which 1.7 million cubic meters rainwater per year would be captured which is equivalent to 65 million BDT (0.76 million USD). Rainwater could be used for different purposes including production sector such that cloth dyeing and washing at RMG.


ABSTRACT The study entitled” Project financing and project performance of selected SMEs at Remera ,Gasabo District, Rwanda ” the study is guided by three specific objectives: to examine the influence of debts financing on project performance of selected SMEs in small and medium enterprises in Remera sector, Gasabo district; to examine the influence of equity financing on project performance of selected SMEs in small and medium enterprises in Remera sector, Gasabo district, to assess the influence asset based financing on project performance of selected SMEs in small and medium enterprises in Remera sector, Gasabo district and to determine the influence of donor financing on project performance of selected SMEs in small and medium enterprises in Remera sector, Gasabo district. The study covers 274 project owners in SMEs in Remera sector, Gasabo district as sample size. The study used descriptive research design where questionnaire was used as to collect data techniques and descriptive statistics and inferential statistics was used to analysis data. For the first objective, the results revealed that project debts financing have significance positive influence on project performance of selected SMEs in Remera sector as indicated by β1= 0.713, p=0.006<0.05). For the second objective, the results that revealed that project equity financing have significance positive influence on project performance of selected SMEs in Remera sector as indicated by β2= 0.113, p=0.001<0.05). For the third objective, the findings indicate that project assets based financing have significance positive influence on project performance of selected SMEs in Remera sector as indicated by β3= 0.228, p=0.000<0.05). For the four objective, the findings revealed that project donor financing have significance positive influence on project performance of selected SMEs in Remera sector as indicated by β4=0.035, p=0.018<0.05). The study recommends that the management of project performance of selected SMEs in Remera sector should consider using internal funds to finance their projects if these funds are available. The study recommends that the organization should strive to use more of its internal resources of available so as to gain overall control and decision making powers for its projects.


The research objective was to analyze the natural hatchery and nursery techniques of Tilapia Larasati in CV. Dejeefish. The method used is a descriptive method. The implementation of research consists of pond preparation, parent selection, parent spawning, harvesting, nursery and raising larva. The pool used is a ground pool with an area of 375 m2 and breeders come from the Balai Besar Perikanan Budidaya Air Tawar (BBPBAT) Sukabumi, West Java. Natural spawning was carried out en masse with 300 female brooders and 100 males. Harvesting is done 2 times a month in the morning. In nursery activities, the results of the survival rate (SR) of 80% are classified as good. During 15 days of rearing the larvae experienced an increase in growth in length and weight.

Employability Skills as a Predictor of Labour Market Outcomes of Female Graduates in Technical Fields: The Case of Ngamiland Region of Botswana []

Background: The Botswana government identified vocational technical education as an area of education that can provide employment opportunities to citizens. There has been a significant number of women enrolling in technical institutions. However, women continue to face problems in securing employment in the technical fields and this can be attributed to lack of employability skills. However, with women being the victims of gender discrimination in the labour markets, especially in the technical field, attributing challenges that female graduates from technical institutions face to lack of employability skills might be inaccurate. Aim: This study focused of female graduates from Ngamiland region, the study investigates whether employability skills help to, explain the labour outcomes of female graduates. Setting: This study is located in the Republic of Botswana particularly the Ngamiland Region as a case study. The Ngamiland Region exists in the North west District of Botswana. The North West District Council, has ten villages and towns under its administrative wing. The Ngamiland Region has four technical colleges namely Maun Technical College, Maun Brigade, Ngethu Brigade and Okavango Brigade. Methods: This study conducted an empirical review of literature from an explorative perspective focusing on the employability skills as a predicator of labour market outcomes for female graduates in technical fields. Results: The study reveals three major findings. Firstly, that study communication skills were the skills that employers consider very important. These were followed by technology skills, problem solving skills, self-awareness skills, initiative and enterprise skills, self-management skills, time management skills and specialist skills. Secondly, the study revealed that female graduates have a high level of employability skills, implying that they believe they have employability skills necessary to gain employment. Thirdly, the study revealed that employability skills do not explain the labour outcomes of female graduates. Conclusion: employability skills failed to explain the labour outcomes of female graduates in the technical fields does not mean that employability skills are not important. Employability skills are still important because they enable graduates to fit well in the labour markets.


Fish is also one of the food ingredients that are easily damaged or experience a decline in quality. This study aims to compare the use of vacuum and non-vacuum packaging on the quality of processed fish products. The type of packaging can affect the quality during storage. Therefore, in the production of processed fish, appropriate packaging is needed so that the quality of fish products can be stored for a long time without reducing the quality of processed fish. Vacuum and non-vacuum packaging cannot be used for all types of processed fish, so many studies have made comparisons in order to determine the most suitable packaging. The method used in this research is lit-erature exploration: Research Gate, Directory of Open Access Journals, Elsevier, Springer, and Google Scholar. The keywords used to search for relevant discussion topics include quality analysis, various fishery products, packaging, smoking, storage, vacuum packaging, non-vacuum packaging and room temperature. The results of this study indicate that vacuum packaging is more recommended in maintaining the quality of processed fish products than using non-vacuum packaging. Several studies have shown that the quality of processed fish products in vacuum and non-vacuum packaging can be determined by measuring water content, pH and TPC. If the water content is high, the growth process of microorganisms will increase so that it can cause faster foaming, seen from several journals, it is known that the increase in water content occurs mostly in non-vacuum packaging. A good pH measurement for preserved fish is between 2.0-5.6 while pH is 6.0-8, 0 is a good medium for the growth of microorganisms. Several studies have shown that non-vacuum packaging has a higher pH than vacuum packaging. Meanwhile, if the TPC value is higher in the measurement of a package, it is not suitable for consumption. From this study, it is known that the highest TPC value is found in non-vacuum packaging compared to vacuum packaging.


ASTRACTThis study assesses the effect of oil spillage on Physical and Chemical properties of soil in Ukwa West Local Government Area, Abia State, Nigeria. Objectives were to, determine the physical and chemical properties of soil and to evaluate the suitability of soil for agricultural use Sequential design was employed for collection and analysis of soil properties to generate data. A total of twenty (20) soil samples were collected in polyethylene bags using auger at depth of 0-15 cm for the top-soil and 15-30 cm for the sub-surface soil and labeled. Two kilogram (2kg) of soil samples were collected at five (5) different oil spill points and five control points in five wards.. The mean concentrations of pH in soil were within acidic threshold for dry seasons; top and sub soils were 6.4 and 5.54, EC in top and sub soils were 127.60μS/cm and 122.60 μS/cm, THC were high, 1342.60 mg/kg and 1275.20 mg/kg.The concentrations of heavy metals were high in dry season examples; Fe was (8.31 and 8.23) mg/kg in top and sub-surface. Zinc was 0.54 mg/kg and 0.40 mg/kg in top and sub soils of dry season Lead was 0.31 mg/kg and 0.21 mg/kg in top and sub soils of dry season. Cadmium was 0.66 mg/kg and 0.49 mg/kg in top and sub soils of dry Thus, Oil spill have negatively affected the physical and chemical properties of soil in Ukwa West Local Government Area. However, a high concentration of macro-nutrients in dry season is inferred to have resulted from zero water infiltration and percolation. Oil companies are expected to be more environmentally conscious and adhere strictly to the provisions of the law and standards set for mitigation and remediation by regulatory bodies or agencies. more so, Cooperate Social Responsibility CSR should focus on adequate Irrigation farming projects to support food production and livelihood as soil properties showed minimal pollution in rainy season.


Improved project performance is the ultimate goal to all road project managers but achieving high performance in the construction industry is a challenge that road project managers face. The present research held on Goal Setting. Performance in project management is directly linked to customer satisfaction level. Client is only satisfied when projects meet the planned or expected quality. Thus, real performance is achieved when quality standards are met. In a study conducted in Rwanda, it was found out that there a significant relationship between six sigma and road construction project performance as tested using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. The output given from the findings showed that that there was a significant positive relationship between the components of six sigma and components of project performance. Further the study concludes that six sigma is a key quality management technique and once taken into consideration during execution phase, it grants improved project performance of construction projects, roads in particular.


This research work examines the problem involved in domestic waste collection and disposal methods in central Bo City. Te study itself is divided into five main chapters excluding the preliminary section which is composed of items such as certification, dedication, acknowledgements, abstract and table of contents. Chapter one is the introduction to the piece of work. It comprises of the background to the study, statement of problem, objectives of the study, significance of the study, limitation and delimitation of the study and definition of terms.