Volume 9, Issue 11, November 2021 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Institutional Corporate Governance Compliance, Level of Tolerance and Performance in Listed Deposit Money Banks in Nigeria []

The objective of the research is to examine the compliance level of listed deposit money banks in Nigeria to some of the core variables of corporate governance, as well as determine the level of importance of corporate governance variables to performance. Percentage and bar chart was employed to examine the level of compliance. Optimal scaling correlation with the level of importance was used for objective two. The following constitutes corporate governance variables; board independence, the board size, gender diversity, board independence, audit committees’ size, number of meetings per annum. Intervening variables included were inflation and exchange rate. Compliance index showed that Union Bank Plc has a perfect compliance score of 100%, thereby coming first while Access Bank Plc came last with 82%. It was shown that the level of importance of the corporate governance variables differs to financial performance, it revealed that Board meetings, Board independence, corporate social responsibility, Firm size are the most important variables to the financial performance of banks. Compliance to Corporate should be enforced and emphasis should be placed on Board meetings, Board independence, corporate social responsibility, firm size.

A mathematical model to determine safe weight lift among manual materials handling workers in Nigeria. []

The low back pain (LBP) problem described as serious public health is observed to be prevalent among manual lifting workers. Despite various existing methods and equations there are still areas that needs to be explored in determining safe weight of lift. This study is contributing to filling the gap. The study objective is to identify some selected factors (worker’s weight, age, gender, spine length, stature change, frequency of lift, and temperature) that may contribute to the safe weight of lift model formulation and determination for Nigeria manual construction workers. Purposive sampling technique was used to select twenty experienced male construction workers that reported no musculoskeletal disorder, lifting between 20 and 22.50kg blocks. A digital surgilac scale model ZT – 160 weight-height machine and Extech RH/Temperature pen 445580 device, tape rule and clock timer were requre instrument used for measurement. The measurements sample size was 140 at 20 per independent factor. The load weight of between 3.78 and 13.63kg, mean 6.99kg were obtained as safe weight deemed not capable of causing low back pain among manual lifting construction workers in Nigeria.


An ideal family structure is beneficial to a child's well-being because it ensures that the youngster will receive adequate support, strength, and stability from the family. While we all wish for the perfect family, we are well aware that each child comes from a distinct family structure. The majority of research shows that a child's home arrangement has a significant impact on their academic performance. Students from two-parent families had higher or better academic accomplishments than students from single-parent families. However, it is also noted that the findings of a recent study show that family structure has no bearing on children's academic performance. Other family structure features, such as socioeconomic status, family size, parent education, parental involvement, and so on, have a substantial impact on improving children's academic achievement. The goal of this research is to see how family structure influences children's academic success in school. This study also aims to fill any knowledge gaps about the impact of family structure on children's academic success. Articles published in international online journals were examined. This paper focuses on the findings and conclusions of the various studies examined.

Essentials of Finance []

Abstract Essential finance is one of a series of economist that brings clarity to complicated area of business, finance and management. Research will examine how stocks and bonds have become more important as sources of finance for companies, how financial institutions have expanded not just in size, but across borders and in the kinds of business they do.


The coronavirus disease 2019 is a respiratory disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The pandemic is extremely contagious with high risk of death from infection. Thus, it has been causing unbearable psychological pressure to everyone including healthcare service providers. An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the psychological impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak on the healthcare service providers in Lusaka district. The target population were front-line health care workers who were considered most vulnerable to COVID-19 pandemic. The results show that 79 % of healthcare workers working in the first line, with higher clinical responsibilities in Lusaka district were deeply concerned about being infected with COVID-19. Shortage of personal protective equipment has been associated with fear of infection among health workers, and just like in other developing countries. The 91% who reported being worried to infect family with COVID-19 also said they had to report for work every day. During the COVID-19 pandemic, some workers have been infected and recuperated while others lost their lives. All these experiences have left them psychologically stressed. The study highlights that healthcare workers are at utmost risk for psychological distress during the COVID-19 outbreak. Thus, timely psychological interventions targeting this vulnerable group may be beneficial. There is need to provide sociological and psychological support to frontline healthcare workers. Training may be of essence to bridge the gaps in knowledge that is required for health care workers to handle the pandemic and to cope with the psychological pressure.


Street vending is a livelihood strategy for many poor women in Africa. The rapid spread of COVID-19 in South Africa resulted in a hard lockdown restricting the operation of non-essential services including street trade. This study ascertains the impacts of the hard lockdown on the livelihoods of female street traders in East London, South Africa. Convenience and snowball sampling were utilised to select twenty respondents for in-depth interviews. The key findings of the study are that the loss of financial capital, increased unpaid workload and lack of economic relief for the informal sector have threatened the livelihoods of poor women. There is a need for a multi-sectoral approach to strengthen livelihoods and the implementation of more pro-poor policies.

8×8 and 4×4 Magic squares []

The new method of constructing 8×8 magic square from this method everybody can create his own 8×8 birthday magic square by putting his date of birth in the top row of magic square.


This descriptive study aims to determine the Status of Iloilo City Community College students during the COVID-19 pandemic in terms of their existence and relatedness needs. The study was conducted in May 2020 involving 151 of the 458 students who are enrolled in the 2nd Semester, AY 2019 – 2020. Convenience sampling was utilized through the use of google forms that were sent via messenger and the ICCC Facebook page. A researcher-made questionnaire was used and was validated and pilot tested with Cronbach's Alpha of 0.87. Mean, standard deviation, Mann-Whitney U, and Kruskal -Wallis Tests were the involved statistical tools. Results revealed that the ICCC students were “Highly Affected” during the ECQ in terms of their Existence and Relatedness Needs. For Existence needs, students have experienced various fears for their health and family members, and limited economic mobility due to lack of jobs and business closure. They also had mixed-negative emotions, isolation, being paranoid, unaccomplished, and defenseless which pertains to the relatedness needs. Moreover, the mean status of ICCC students does not differ significantly among groups. It is recommended that the college should provide intervention and student support programs to help students. Likewise, the college may continue to deliver services related to education appropriately and accordingly in this time of the pandemic.

Study of water transmission line from River Nile at Atbara to Port Sudan and utilize of hydraulic energy []

This paper prepared to improve the previous study by using close system transmission pipeline and extend the term of the study to year 2050 through which reducing the number of booster pumps and avail the elevation between Summit (912m) to Port Sudan (0 m) to generate electrical power by using hydraulic turbine, hence reducing the capital cost of the project. The methods have been used in present work are four different designs for water supply and hydro power generation. The results showed that: the design2 and design4 are the best compared to the other designs. In design 2 using 1.4 m diameter will be the best design to implement capable to supply the average demand flow rate until year 2030 using only the main pump, after that adding one booster pump for year 2050. In design (4) twin pipeline each one has 1m diameter will be used, with one main pump and 2 booster pumps to transport the half of demand flow rate of water. However, design4 is considered the second selection after design2, in this case one of these lines will transmit the water to facing the demand and the other will be standby until Year 2035. The hydro power generation started from location of Summite as the highest elevation of transmission line. The difference in the head to hydro turbine location is about 866.4m. The overall efficiency of unit selected and pipe line friction loses estimated to be 75%. The maximum power produced 16.97 MW, obtained in Year 2050 due to the increasing of water flow rate.


This study aims to analyze and explain the effect of organizational commitment and work environment on employee performance through additional employee income at the Inspectorate of West Sulawesi Province. The data used in this study is primary data using a questionnaire. This research is a quantitative research, because the research data is in the form of numbers and the analysis uses statistics with the research design of a hypothesis testing study to test the effect between variables. The research uses Path Analysis using the AMOS program. The research sample amounted to 72 respondents. The results of the study show that: 1) Organizational commitment does not directly affect the performance of ASN. 2) Work environment affects the performance of ASN. 3) Organizational commitment and work environment affect the TPP. 4) Provision of Additional Employee Income can mediate the relationship between organizational commitment and work environment to Performance Of State Civil Servants

Impact of Coal Mining on landuse/landcover in Singrauli coalfield, Central India: A study using Remote Sensing & GIS []

Land use/Land cover change detection has acquired immense significance as part of global environmental change. The necessity on land use/ land cover analysis has gained importance due to large scale environmental impact of mining, besides urban expansion and other related human activities. Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographical Information System (GIS) have widely been employed as modern tools in monitoring and mapping of LU/LC due to mining and other economic activity. Singrauli coal field situated in Central India contributes about 13% of India's coal production through mechanized opencast mining. It produces power grade coal and together with nearby water reservoirs, it offers an excellent location for super thermal power plants (STPS), Aluminium plants, Cement industries etc. The present study utilizes multispectral/multi-temporal Remote Sensing data of 1993, 2001, 2010 and 2020 to assess the impact of coal mining on landuse/landcover in a spatio – temporal scale. Survey of India toposheet (63L/12) on 1: 50,000 scale was used to derive the base map which was superimposed on the FCC for land use/land cover mapping through visual interpretation method. Interpretation of satellite data led to the identification and delineation of 14 land use/land cover classes such as dense forest, open forest, open scrub, cultivated land, uncultivated land, mining pit, overburden dumps, wasteland and settlement/builtup, ash pond, plantation etc. Visual interpretation was supplemented with ground truth verification conducted in key areas. LU/LC cover maps derived from 1993, 2001, 2010 and 2020 satellite data were scanned & digitized in ArcGIS. Various LU/LC were assigned unique IDs in polygon topology. ArcGIS module was used to compute area statistics under each LU/LC category. The comparative analysis of land use/land cover derived from 1993, 2001, 2010 and 2020 data shows that loss of dense forest in the study area has reduced from 80.78 km2 in 1993 to 29.0 km2 in 2020 i.e. a reduction of about 51.78 km2 are due to the expansion of coal mining activity. This analysis suggests large scale changes during the last 27 years as a result of industrialization and expansion of coal mining activities. Significant changes in terms of area have taken place under mining pit, overburden dumps, ash pond, plantation, open forest etc. Coal mining has also affected dense forest, which has reduced by about 51.78 km2 during 1993-2020, since the expansion of coal mining has taken place in virgin areas. Area under overburden dumps has significantly increased from 34.17 km2 in 2010 to 51.30 km2 in 2020 as a result of expansion of coal mining areas, settlement/built up area has also increased from 21.28 km2 in 2010 to 40.43 km2 in 2020, area under plantation has increased by about 22.23 km2 from 1993 to 2020 due to plantation derive undertaken by NCL and Thermal power companies. The drivers for land use/land cover change are mainly coal mining activities and industrial expansion, which have transformed this belt into one of the prominent industrial zone in northern India. It has also been observed that the some areas under overburden dumps have been reclaimed under operation "Green Gold" launched by Northern Coalfield Ltd, through plantation activities.


Abstract The study was conducted in Gorche woreda, Sidama region, Ethiopia during November to December 2019. The study was carried out to evaluate the effect of different spacings on soil physical and chemical properties in 0-25cm top soil depths of smallholding farmers E. globulus woodlot plantations. 19 soil samples Results from soil laboratory analysis showed that soil pH were ranged between very acidic to slightly acidic nature and pH were decreasing with increasing density, but statistically insignificant with spacing. OC, OM, %MC, P, TN and CEC were decreasing with increasing density and ANOVA value revealed that these soil parameters are statistically significant among spacing regimes. Sand fraction of the soil was increasing with increasing density. However, bulk density, clay fraction and silt fraction were on the reverse trend/ decreased as spacing regime was decreasing. The reason behind the higher amount of sand fraction and lower clay in the soil with increasing density might be due to the absence/ lowering of vegetation cover on the ground of the woodlot in plantation. In conclusion, spacing regimes had seriously affected the soil physical and chemical properties. Finally, it could be better to see the effect of spacing on the soil properties that were not part of this study like in different soil depth and other soil physico-chemical properties.


The research study investigates the improvement of the bearing capacity of silty clay soil with thin sand layer on top and placing geosynthetic at different depths. Using a model tank which was verified by the experimental data reported in the publications of other authors. The shape of the Model Tank is rectangular footing and is resting on top of the soil to establish the load versus settlement curve for the unreinforced and reinforced soil system. Three thin layers are used at different depths and the results show that there is significant increase in the bearing capacity with the increased number of geosynthetic layers The direct shear test shows that Bearing Capacity of the shallow foundation improve with geosynthetic reinforced silty clay and sand compare to the unreinforced soil system in non-dimensional form. The anticipated ultimate bearing capacity of the soil system was in good agreement with the results of model tests as reported in some publications. That is this method of reinforcing soil has improved the bearing capacity of soil for shallow foundation and can be apply for foundation design for similar type of soil available elsewhere

The preferred method of identifying business successors among Small and Medium Enterprises in Ghana []

Across the globe, Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) drive economic growth both in developed and developing economies. Sadly, most SMEs do not exist pass the first or second generation due to poor business succession management to ensure the business continuity. In effect, there is the need to understand the issue of succession planning among SMEs so as to promote the effectiveness of SMEs. In effect, this paper sought to examine the preferred method of identifying business successors among Small and Medium Enterprises in Ghana. The paper used the pragmatic research paradigm and mixed methods approach. The cross-sectional survey was utilized to gather data from SMEs domiciled in five regions of Ghana. The survey precisely targeted middle level employees, management staff, Human Resource and Admin departments, as well as CEOs. The study utilized 237 valid quantitative data for analysis. More so seven respondents (i.e. CEOs, HR/Administration Managers) were purposively selected and interviewed on the subject matter. Using both quantitative and qualitative data analysis techniques, the result indicated that employee performance evaluation rating(s) is the most preferred indicator used in identifying potential business successors among the SMEs. The paper recommends that SME owners and management should proactively invest and engage in effective succession planning so as to ensure their growth and survivability


This article aims to examine the processing fish bones become an attractive and economical accessory product. Processing fish bones into accessories is very easy. The stages are as follows: Washing, drying and coloring. Accessories products have a relatively high selling value. Keywords : Fishery, waste, Washing, coloring, economic value

Status of school Infrastructure and Child Friendly School Environment in Public Primary Schools in Belgut Sub-County []

Pupils thrive in environments where they feel safe, nurtured and respected. The objective of the study was to establish the status of the school infrastructure in the child friendly schools in Belgut Sub-County. The study adopted Lezotte Model of effective schools. The study adopted descriptive survey sample design. The target population for this study consisted of 117public primary schools in Belgut sub-county, 117 head teachers, 702 teachers and 5487 pupils. Stratified as well as simple random sampling was used in selecting teachers and the pupils who participated in the study. Purposive sampling technique was used to select the headteachers for the study. The sample size was 10% of the target population which consist of 12 headteachers, 18 teachers and 162 standard seven pupils. Questionnaires were administered to headteachers and teachers, while interview schedules issued to standard seven pupils. The researcher used observation checklist to observe and record the availability of facilities, infrastructure and the general health and nutritional status of the sampled schools. Data analyzed using descriptive statistics. This is because the findings yielded both quantitative and qualitative data. The results were presented using tables, pie charts and bar graphs. The findings of the study showed that although the toilets were designed for children and were gender sensitive in most of the schools, classrooms were overcrowded for learning and were not streamlined for wheelchairs. There is need for schools in Belgut Sub-county to collaborate with the County government, Alumni and community to raise funds to facilitate ensures that facilities in the schools were child friendly.


ABSTRACT Grammar Enrichment Programs have been implemented in the Philippine Schools, but the onset of the COVID-19 health crisis resulted to having new normal education set-ups. With this, the government schools adopted the use of the Self-Learning Modules (SLMs) to provide basic education to the learners without compromising their health and safety. The adopted modality posed a great challenge in the implementation of the enrichment programs, thus this study was purposely conducted during the time of pandemic to determine the relationship between the implementation of the grammar enrichment program described in terms of (a) learning delivery modes, (b) learning assessments, and (c) learning assessment strategies and the development of composition skills in public Junior High Schools in the use of (a) subject-verb agreement, (b) verb tenses, and (c) verb forms. The descriptive- correlational research design was used and the Pearson r Product Moment Correlation analysis was employed to determine the relationship between the variables. The data were taken from the 85 respondents who were purposely selected as teachers who handle English subjects for school year 2020-2021. The findings revealed that the higher is the implementation of the grammar enrichment program, the higher is the development of composition skills. The correlational analysis between the variables revealed a relationship at 0.01 level of significance which resulted to the rejection of the null hypothesis. The study concludes that the public Junior High Schools in the Schools Division of Cotabato City implement the grammar enrichment program to develop composition writing skills. Keywords: Grammar, Enrichment, Development, Grammar Enrichment Program, Composition Skills, Verbs, Descriptive-Correlational, Philippines, Asia


This paper explored how journalists covering dangerous beats survive in reporting from difficult terrain. Nigerian journalists for instance were caught unaware when the Boko Haram insurgency broke. Nothing prepared them for the type of coverage, reporting and how to survive dangerous beats like terrorism reporting. As a result, so many journalists were caught in the web of conflict of interest between what to report as professional journalists and how to survive after reporting. Many journalists paid the ultimate price. This paper therefore highlights some of the mechanism journalists in Nigeria can deploy to survive dangerous beat. The paper advocate for inclusion of safety training in the curriculum of mass communication and journalism training institutions. This is paramount in order to enlighten journalists on safety threat, how to report terror, environmental awareness, security management strategy, elaborate intervention and protection strategy, incident reporting guideline, among other necessary education that will safeguard their lives when on the field. This paper therefore recommends for the establishment of agencies that will ensure safety and protection of journalists covering dangerous beats. Also, there should be legislation that cater for journalists in danger zone. Keywords: Safety Education, Survival mechanism, journalist, Boko Haram, Nigeria


ZAMFARA STATE IN HISTORY OF ITS CRISIS AND ARMED BANDITRY MUHAMMED SANI BABAKATUN, SAIDU ABDULRAHMAN 1,2MASS COMMUNICATION DEPARTMENT ABDU GUSAU POLYTECHNIC TALATA MAFARA, ZAMFARA STATE sdrahman21@gmail.com FEBRUARY 2021 KEY WORDS: Autonomy, Administration, Communities, detached Abstract: The area today called Zamfara state was one of the old Hausa cities like Kano, Katsina, Sokoto, Gobir, and Zazzau. The people of the state have the years of struggle for autonomy but not until 1996 during the military administration of late General Sani Abacha who detached the state from Sokoto. The crisis attacks are routed in decade long completion over resources between herders and farming communities while most residents are involved in agriculture as the state slogan “farming is our pride”. Huge numbers of livestock have similarly been lost. The study adopts analytical and historical research. Moreover, the study has revealed the causes of its crisis and armed banditry in the state. Government reserved were evaded, encroachment of paths, unemployment and lot more. The study recommends the needs of federal and state intervention in conflict resolution and amnesty as well to put resolution and conclusion in other to reform the affected communities.


Brick-and-mortar businesses have been a part of our community for decades, providing a variety of work opportunities and daily necessities for households. Restaurants, shops, supermarkets, and other establishments have always been our go-to places for purchasing necessities or simply unwinding. Traditional businesses allow us to experience the product in real time and ensure that we are getting exactly what we paid for. However, due to digital transformation and the rise of digital technologies, everything we knew is changing. It resulted in the emergence of e-commerce and posted a threat to the existence of traditional businesses. An abrupt turn of circumstances, on the other hand, also resulted in a drastic change in our daily life. In this paper, we will discuss ecommerce and the factors affecting its demand in the Philippines, as well as the effect of the COVID-19 epidemic and its impact on traditional brick-and-mortar businesses. The goal of this study of related literature is to address the question of whether e-commerce will supplant traditional brick-and-mortar businesses.

NGO sectors of Bangladesh: Controversies and Contradictions []

In this paper, we can analyze the background of NGOs in the post liberation war conditions in Bangladesh which has got no similarities with the current time conditions of NGOs operating in Bangladesh. The paper discusses the functions of various NGOs along with their good and bad terms with the government of Bangladesh, their promises towards their clients and the maintenance of activities. Most importantly, the possibilities of the presence of any loopholes to be present in the general activities carried out by the NGOs, the balance between the optimistic efforts and pessimistic outcomes to be unfolded.


Apart from the rains, Niger State is home to three HEP dams which contribute to flooding in some parts of the state through operational management of their reservoirs. Indeed, one of the factors that prompted the creation of Hydroelectric Power Producing Area Development Commission (HYPADEC) in which Niger State is a member is to, among other things, look into the destructive effects of dam-related flood water on the ecology, livelihood and wellbeing of both the upstream and the downstream locations of the dams. Niger State is the most affected by the dams because other HYPADEC states namely; Kwara, Kogi, and Kebbi states are either upstream or downstream of the dams. Only Niger has locations both upstream and downstream and also houses the three dams, Kainji, Shiroro and Jebba. This aspect of flood which is contributed to by the normal dam operations affects all HYPADEC states in general and Niger State in particular. Consequently, it becomes necessary to assess the vulnerability of parts of Niger State to floods and suggest strategies for reducing the disaster or risk of flood events. There have been several studies on flood in Nigeria in general but Niger State in particular has few studies reviewed on the subject matter.


This study considered neutron activation analysis of aerosol particles emanating from construction activities in the metropolitan city of Port-Harcourt from (October, 2017 — September, 2018). Port-Harcourt City is located at 40 47 21 North, 60 59 55 East and elevations of 52ft (16 meters) above sea level. Direct deposition of particles under the influence of gravity was employed for the collection of particulate matter (PM) samples on filter papers from building construction sites and a Residential Area located 150 meters from the construction sites. Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) was use in the analyses of the PM samples. The results showed the presence of twenty one elements; sodium (Na), aluminium (Al), calcium (Ca), vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), rubidium (Rb), zirconium (Zr), caesium (Cs), cerium (Ce), neodymium (Nd), europium (Eu), terbium (Tb), ytterbium (Yb), hafnium (Hf), tantalum (Ta), titanium (Ti) and thorium (Th). Out of these 21elements, calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), aluminium (Al), vanadium (V), and sodium (Na) had relatively higher annual mean concentrations in milligram per meter cube than other elements for both Construction Site and Residential area in the following order for the period under study:267013.49±19mg/m3and117620.63±68mg/m3;135042.07±56mg/m3 and49766.76±59mg/m3; 5898.41±22mg/m3 and 47946.67±11mg/m3; 36624.84±15mg/m3 and 33.50±50mg/m3; 18564.38±89mg/m3 and 10064.42±39mg/m3 and respectively. Calcium (Ca) had the highest annual mean concentration for both Residential Area and Construction Site. The relatively higher annual mean concentration of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), aluminium (Al), vanadium (V), and sodium (Na) as revealed in this study could possibly be due to their relative abundance in the earth and partly as components of building materials. Annual mean concentrations of 15 out of the 21 elemental components of the particulate matter for Construction Site and Residential Area exceeded the 8-hour total weighted average (TWA) established permissible limits by OSHA and NIOSH. Long-term exposure to very high concentrations of these elements may lead to serious health challenge and short life s span of human being and other living organisms within the environment. This calls for adequate measures to protect construction workers and people whose residences are located few meters from construction Keywords: Aerosol Particle, Pollution, Construction, Neutron Activation, Analysis


Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) is the problem for the hospitalized patients as Nosocomial infection and threat for the healthy peoples. Most of the Gram negative organisms are responsible for UTI but some Gram positive bacteria also cause UTI which is more in female than male. In this study, twelve organisms were found that causing UTI. The most common bacteria among the isolates which cause UTI was E. coli (53.8%). Moreover, 51-60 age group females (14.5%) and 75.3% OPD patients were found to be more prone to UTI. Most effective antibiotics sensitive against E. coli were Meropenem, Amikacin, Nitrofurantoin and Piparacillin / Tazobactam.


This project titled “Pharmacy Information System”, is a web based interactive application with primary aim of improving accuracy, safety and efficiency in processing pharmacy transactions and reporting. It applies on both billing and stock by providing secure and interactive way of recording medicines and sales, simplifies the work of searching a medicine availability and expiration, checking stock status and alert system for almost expiring drugs, generating reports easily and automation of billing for both patients and health insurance companies. This system solves the problem of much time spent in checking availability of a medicine, expired medicines and reporting, it improves also security and integrity of information due to the use of Relational Database Management System, where data correctness and accuracy are assured, data access is also controlled along with authentication. It also solves the error prone problem in billing and financial reports as the existing system of manually maintained records where information processing was done using hard copies. The system is built and implemented using a three-tier application design approach. The design of the graphical user interface will be designed with Hypertext Mark-up Language (HTML), CSS and JavaScript (Ajax and jQuery), MySQL is used for database development while PHP is used as a language. The Methodology will be based on Object oriented analysis and design (OOAD) the phases are planning, analysis, design and implementation. Following the System Development Life Cycle, waterfall model approach.

Mechanical and Physical Properties of Silicon Carbide, Aluminum Oxide and Epoxy, Hybrid Composite: An Overview []

Abstract: Very tellingly, hybrid epoxy based composite are used in various branches of engineering and other solid material systems because of their sustainable and effective mechanical strength, thermal efficiency, resistant to environmental and chemical conditions, cost, low specific gravity for their light weight applications, however, the introduction of hybrid fibers was due to the shortfalls in natural fibers which have lower engineering properties compare to organic or inorganic types of synthetic or manmade type of fibers, however, cost and availability of raw materials via natural fibers are the chief profit of vegetable and animal natural type of fibers over synthetic fibers whereas in other hand, good mechanical strengths, chemical and thermal properties are the advantages of synthetic fiber over natural fibers. Moreover, another material involve in composite application is the use of epoxy matrix which aid in hybridization fine formation to the layers of reinforcing fibers in the form of laminates, another factor that influences the application of composite is the preparation techniques which includes resin transfer-molding , vacuum assisted resin transfer-molding , cold/hot pressing, hand-layup and others. This paper work presented in this material showcases an overview of some natural fibers and synthetic fibers mainly silicon carbide and aluminum oxides which the focus area are the composite manufacturing techniques, physical and mechanical properties using experimental apparatus and their applications.

Is board size a determinant of earnings management? []

This study looks at the factors that influence earnings management practices of financial institutions listed on the Ghana Stock Exchange from the period 2010-2018. The study adopted quantitative design, as data on Total Accrual, firm size, firm age, leverage, auditor size, and firm age were sourced from published annual report of nine (9) financial institutions listed on Ghana Stock Exchange from 2008 – 2018. Results from the regression model under a 5% significance level reveal that Board size and financial leverage are the factors influencing earnings management practice amongst listed financial institutions. Results from the correlation model also document a negative correlation between Auditor side, Financial Leverage and Earnings management while Board size, Firm size, and Firm age reveal a positive correlation with earnings management. The study therefore recommends that, the regulatory bodies of financial institutions ensure that listed firms are once in a while audited by the big four (4) audit firms. An independent committee should be set to performance an oversight responsibility for the board of directors.

Various New Domains in the Field of Technology []

- This current period can be termed as the advanced stage in the Information technology. IT is becoming a big change agent in different aspect of business and society. Information Technology tools are definitely a catalyst in resolving economic and social issues. The World is becoming technically advanced, markets are stronger, and new technologies are emerging at an astronomical pace. The backbone of these technological advances are the seamless connectivity. The digital transformation continues, to build a more interconnected society. The data is shared and used by more platforms than ever – in the datacenter, on the cloud and on internet of things (IoT) devices and this would increase in the future. However, benefit comes with a cost. The topic of discussion is on the data susceptibility due to the seamless connectivity.


Azo dyes were synthesized using sulphanilic acid as the diazo component and betaoxynaphthoic acid(BON acid) and 1-naptholas the coupling components,the wavelength of maximum absorbtion is at 471.00 and 509.00 nm on the solvent ethanol for dye 1 and dye2respectively.thus the synthesized dyes were characterized using Gallan kamp melting point apparatus in which dye 1 and dye 2 have the melting point range of 298℃- 200℃respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies shows that dye 1 has the following functional group and vibrational frequencies;3429.2 cmˉˡ NH-stretch,2981.9 cmˉˡ CH-stretch,1722.0 cmˉˡ ,1677.3 cmˉˡ N=N stretch.While dye 2 has the following;1722.0 cmˉˡ NH-stretch,2881.9 cmˉˡ CH-stretch,1722.0 cmˉˡ ,1677.0 cmˉˡ N=N stretch.The antimicrobial analysis performed shows that the dye were effective for all the concentration except 12.5,6.25 and 3.125 mg/ml for both dye 1 and 2.The highest zone of inhibition was 15mmat 3.125mg/mm for dye 1 against Escherichia coli and 13 mm against Staphylococcus aureus.The result for minimum bactericidal concentration shows that both dye 1 and dye 2 were active on all the tested organism.Hence the analysis carried out was observed that both dye 1 and dye 2 had no effect on the tested fungi which is Candida albicans respectively.

Management : A Critical Tool for Socio -Economic Development of Taraba State, Nigeria []

Taraba state is one of the thirty six (36) states in Nigeria, created on the 27th August, 1991. It is bordered on the north by Bauchi and Gombe states, on the east by Adamawa state, on the south by the republic of Cameroun and on the west by Benue, Nassarawa and Plateau states. The benue river and its tributaries is a major resource for agro-economic derivatives for the people, others are trading and local/foreign remittances. For the government, the sources of financial derivatives comes majorly from its forty seven (47) Boards and Parastatals, Tourism( Gashaka/Gumti Park) as Internally Generated Revenue (IGR) and the monthly federal government allocations to the state. The Mambila highlands is a wonderful exceptional natures gift to the state, at an elevation of over 2000 meters above sea level it is the highest highland in Nigeria with an average daily climatic temperature range that never exceeds 25oC making it the coolest place in Nigeria, this makes it possible as the only place for tea farming in Nigeria. These favourable climatic conditions , vast stretched kilometers of the benue river basin and its tributaries, thousands of expanse of fertile savannah belt, several solid minerals deposits, access to international boundary and predominant youthful populations are potentials for the state to leverage on for socio-economic development. Paradoxically, the national bureau of statistics considers the state as one of the poorest states. This work adopts a qualitative research method to review literatures on nation-building for socio-economic development. Most of the literatures addressed the concept and theories of nation building however, most did not highlight the significance of the key factors of democratic political institutional philosophy framework, strategic and change management models of state governance and leadership management models as critical issues for socio-economic development of any state. These are the identified gap in knowledge that this work intends to fill for the state development. Keywords: Taraba State, Mambila Highlands, Socio-Economic Development, Strategic and Change Management, Political Institution.

The Impact of Covid -19 and Security Challenges in Nigeria on Building Technology []

Covid-19 has impacted significantly on the building construction business sector globally hence impacting adversely on the global economy. For Nigeria, the pandemic plunged the nation’s economy into distress this is made worst by the crashed value of oil price leading to government instantaneous halt on building and construction of critical national infrastructures such as housing estate, roads, bridges, dams and flyovers. These projects are major sources of employments for the teeming population of the nation. However, it is interesting to know that we can only come out of the challenges presented by the pandemic by spending our way out of the economic recession by the government accelerating and embarking on massive multiple critical building and construction projects which shall return cash flow to the people. Neglecting such will enhance the already terrible state of the unemployment rate of the Nigerian population, integrating other predicaments such as worsening security challenges being experienced across the nation ranging from Boko–Haram, herder- farmers clashes, kidnapping, banditry, ethno-religious clashes and political instability is disastrous to national economy and social stability. This study emphasizes on identifying and overcoming covid-19 challenges faced by the building and construction sector and suggesting the way forward such as the factoring in of the disruptive digital technology into the construction sector called construction 4.0. Data and information used for this study were drawn from reviews of books and journals of various authors on the subject matter using content analysis approach. Keywords: Covid-19 Challenges, Security Challenges, Disruptive Digital Technology, Socio – Economic Stability, Construction 4.0

Review on food matrix –fortificants interaction, implication, bioavailability and costs []

Nutrition is a very important component for the development of health which improves the physical and cognitive abilities of infants and young children. However, deficiencies of micronutrients have significant impacts on infants and young children's growth development. Fortification is a cost-effective scheme with proven health, economic and social benefits. It is probable to be more cost-effective, and a very essential mechanism of public health approaches used for enhancements of nutritional values of supplementary foods, micronutrients such as vitamins, and minerals which have a crucial in preventing child mortality. The common food micronutrient elements used for fortification purposes include milk, Iron, Zinc, Iodine, and vitamin A, and folate which are globally the most serious health risk factors. However, the interaction between micronutrients affects absorption and the bio availabilities of nutrients used for food fortification programs. And, the nature and physicochemical properties of substances lead to interferences such as antagonism and synergism between nutrients such as drug and micronutrients is physicochemical interaction that the losses of the chelating cause of nutrients which reduces the activity of the drug. Minerals of iron and Zinc have characteristics of competition with one another and this causes interferences with absorptions. Factors for fortification giving consideration are the cost of the fortificants, capital, blending, and transportation mechanisms; other factors which are a source of variations for fortification include technological aspects and varieties of raw materials, and their costs. Developing countries particularly Ethiopia, not only the limitation of categorizing staple foods used for food fortification, but also basic experiences on factories working on flour-based products, which are considered as drawbacks for the country to initiate fortification. Fortificants (wheat, sugar, and edible oil) are concentrated with the highest income divisions, which leads that the Ethiopian poorest nation covers 20% of 5.4 million Anemia cases.

Does Access to Credit Impact the Performance of Small and Medium Enterprises? []

The study examined whether access to credit impact the performance of Small and medium enterprises in Ghana. Survey methodology was used to collect data for the study through the administration of questionnaires. Purposive sampling technique were used to arrive at the sample of 65. Data was analysed through the use of the Predictive Analytics Software (PASW) version 20. With respect to whether access to credit impact the performance of Small and medium enterprises (SMEs), majority of the respondents confirmed that access to credit is an important element for performance and sustainability of the firm which was evident through sales growth, customer base and increase in profit margin. It was observed that there was a significant positive relationship between access to credit and performance of SMEs. The researcher used Pearson’s correlation coefficient to find the relationship between access and performance of small and medium enterprises and the finding revealed a positive relationship 0.368. This shows strong relationship between access to finance and performance of SMEs.


This study sought to determine the toxicity of the ethanolic and essential oil extracts of Cymbopogon citratus against adult stages of Anopheles gambiae s.s and to compare mortality rates resulting from the application of the two extracts. Five different concentrations of each extract were derived by serial dilution and these were applied to adult stages of the test subject respectively. A total of 720 two to five-day old laboratory reared adult Anopheles gambiae were exposed for a period of 24 hours to the varying concentrations of the plant extracts as well as positive and negative controls with the aid of the WHO kit method. Deltamethrin at 0.5% and Ethanol at 0.2% were employed as positive and negative control. The application of increasing concentrations of the essential oil extracts resulted to increasing mortality among test subjects with the highest mean mortality of 100% recorded against the two highest concentrations of 8 and 10 µg/ml and LC50 of 1ug/ml within 24 hours. Ethanolic extracts concentrations of the plants however demonstrated lower toxicity than the essential oil extracts with the highest mean mortality recorded as 86.50% at a concentration of 1 mg/ml and an LC50 of 1 mg/ml. Chi-square probability value of P = 0.222 recorded from probit analysis proved that mortality resulting from essential oil extract concentration is dose-dependent however, mortality resulting from the application of ethanolic extract of the plant is not dose-dependent as a probability value of P = 0.897 was obtained. This study proves that the ethanolic and essential oil C. citratus plant extracts are toxic to adult Anopheles gambiae s.s. It is recommended that further studies be carried out to determine the effect of the extracts on non-target organisms in the environment and to also investigate the susceptibility of other mosquito species to these extracts.

Restorative effect of Justicia insularis aqueous extract on Testosterone propionate induced infertility in female wistar strain rats []

Aqueous extract of Justicia insularis (AEJi), an herbaceous and perennial plant widely distributed in tropical Africa stimulates folliculogenesis in immature female rats, exhibits FSH-like and/or estrogenic effects and improves in vitro follicular survival and activation of ovine primordial follicles. This study was designed to evaluate the potentiality of AEJi on fertility restoration in testosterone propionate (TP)-induced infertile female albinowistar rats. Hyperandrogenic infertility were induced in 30 days-old female albino wistar rats by daily subcutaneous injection of TP (10 mg/kg) for 21 days. From the 16th day, distilled water, Cyproterone acetate or AEJi (50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg) were added by oral route for 20 days. TP-treated rats exhibited delayed vaginal openings, irregularity in the estrous cycle phases and infertility. Upon treatment with AEJi, remarkable changes were found in animals through normalizing the estrous cycle and restoring fertility and mostly in animals receiving 50 mg/kg of AEJi in which the values were quite similar to the vehicle control group through statistical analysis (p˂0.05). These effects prove that AEJi is a potent antidote for restoring fertility in TP-induced infertile female rats. Thus could be a good candidate for the treatment of infertility due to hyperandrogenism.


Nations around the globe face crucial Energy decisions today that may have noteworthy ramifications for a long time to come. Financial development and future thriving are tested by quickly expanding Energy needs around the world. The worldwide press need to save energy, increment business benefit, secure nature, and decrease ozone depleting substance emanations worldwide has urged the refining facilities to apply a progressively deliberate way to deal with, improve the general processing plant's Energy execution and individual Energy sparing measures. Energy Management is turning into a need as refining part endeavor to lessen Energy costs, fit in with administrative necessities, and improve their corporate picture. The Management of Energy related issues in a methodical way and an increasingly coordinated way, to guarantee persistent enhancement for their Energy productivity is an encouraging sign for the refineries. A gap is still persists between energy management literature and current implementation practices despite of the increasing interest in energy management standards. The associations can create sound Energy Management Systems and efficient process-based energy management configuration that could be perceived through outsider affirmation by the assistance of the ISO 50001 universal standard. Expanding on the energy management writing and energy management standards, the present paper exhibits the basic advances the refineries should take to for all intents and purposes structure a sustainable energy management system. Additionally, by utilizing different contextual investigations of endeavors that have executed an ISO 50001 Energy the board framework, it presents an organized methodology that processing plants can use to adequately build up their energy planning and improve energy performance. The key parts of the refinery’s energy saving and increment in processing plant benefits by execution of Energy Management System through the ISO 50001standard are talked about, as well as practical examples of energy objectives and performance indicators from a case study of a refinery is advertised. The paper demonstrates that by actualizing a successful Energy the executive’s framework, this will proficiently fulfill needs for accomplishing Energy execution markers and universal accreditation and along these lines improved the association's benefit.


ABSTRACT The study was an assessment of the inventory status of the Reading Clinic in terms of facility, funding, and reading resources support to implement the CNR Program. The level of attainment of Reading Clinic objectives, extent of the implementation of the reading strategies in terms of instructional strategies, assessment techniques, instervention activities and monitoring and evaluation as well as the determination of the issues and concerns on the implementation of the Reading Clinic. The study employed a qualitative and quantitative descriptive survey research and the researcher used survey questionnaire containing statements to determine the inventory status and level of attainment of the Reading Clinic objectives which were rated using Likert Scale. The locale of the study was Midsayap, Cotabato, specifically there were 44 respondents composed of 7 principals, 4 Teacher Moderators and 33 language teachers. The researcher used a complete enumeration method in selecting the respondents and utilized a researcher-made questionnaire in data gathering. The result of the validity assessment was 4.20 described as Very Good thus highly valid. The reliability of the instrument was evaluated through a pilot study on 20 language teachers who were not respondents of the study. The result revealed a .968 result interpreted as a highly reliable instrument. Results revealed that a typical Reading Clinic of a medium sized rural public secondary high school under the Midsayap Cluster has a facility that is evidenty (mean=3.04) available for use, though funding and ICT are scarce. Results further revealed that the level of attainment of Reading Clinic objectives: Developed the literacy skills of the students as an objective is attained by the Teacher Moderator of a medium sized rural public secondary high school under the Midsayap Secondary Cluster. Results revealed further that the extent of the implementation of reading strategies: Assessment Technique (mean=3.21) is implemented by a Teacher Moderator of a Reading Clinic in a medium sized rural public secondary school. Results finally yielded on issues and concerns: the participants identified two prevailing themes as the issues and concerns for the medium sized, rural public secondary school: theme 1: teachers’ concern on source of funding and support for Reading Clinic and barriers to effective reading intervention. It is concluded that all public secondary schools under the Midsayap Secondary Cluster have implemented the Reading Clinic based on the Care for Non-Readers Program of DepEd Region XII. However, ICT, gadgets, lack of funding from the school and stakeholders for the improvement of Reading Clinics as well as the many barriers in the reading intervention sessions are the challenges the schools are still facing. The researcher generally recommends that the Reading Clinic improvement both as a facility and as an intervention program should be a priority project under the Parents and Teachers Associations’ School Improvement Plan (SIP). Keywords: Inventory Status, Objective Attainment, Reading Strategies Implementation Level, Reading Clinics, Midsayap, Cotabato, Philippines.

Three puzzling Questions on COVID-19: are recent vaccines feasible to stop the pandemic; what measures can boost a vaccination; and does corona affect Intimacy? []

Title: Three puzzling Questions on COVID-19: are recent vaccines feasible to stop the pandemic; what measures can boost a vaccination; and does corona affect Intimacy? Dessalegn Temesgen Leye (PhD) Addis Ababa Science and Technology University Abstract A virus tends to develop a new strain and due to the exceptionality of the anatomy-physiology of respiratory tracts, such a trend is more noticeable among the respiratory based pathogenic viruses. Therefore, in our 5th article on COVID-19 issues, we hypothesized that the failure of developing effective-feasible vaccines against respiratory pathogens is mainly caused by the above-mentioned two factors. However, in the case of SARS-CoV-2, although the simplest but effective measure is - not to let the coronavirus enter into nostrils-oral cavities, world is aggressively advocating vaccines that are injected through muscle. Against these types of vaccines, except our last article, in which we forwarded five questions among which was - “Are adopted antibodies can attain to the alveolar sac sufficiently and on time?” Moreover, through social media too since April 2020, we have been alerting responsible organizations, particularly the WHO. Nonetheless, perhaps may be due to lack of a popular journal where to publish it; at least the above question was stiff for vaccine developers to respond; or deliberately blocked our articles by vaccine-oriented business bodies. In the meantime, neglecting the socio-economy-political disruptions, life is crumbling like an autumn leaf! Hence, in this work, using perception of anatomy-physiology-biochemistry correlations as control variables (tool), we ourselves have elaborated the above question by partitioning it into: influence of the anatomy-physiology exceptional of respiratory tracts on the adopted antibody’s effect and postulated what to use for boosting vaccination. Additionally, this work becomes the first to speculate about the sexual intimacy issues of post recovering period. Key words: Avascular epithelium, Alveolus, Organ Failure, Prophylaxis, Stay at home