Volume 9, Issue 11, November 2021 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Life Cycle Cost Analysis of Flexible Pavement with Geo-synthetic Materials and Conventional Flexible Pavement []

In this study; it was aimed to determine the overall cost of flexible pavement with geosynthetic material and conventional flexible pavement and evaluating its cost effectiveness. It was conducted on the road construction project under Addis Ababa city road authority. The true cost (LCCA) was adopted as it has the means to fulfill these requirements. This was achieved by determining the agency, user and environmental costs for the selected road segment. In this regard information like traffic data and pavement data was collected from concerned agencies. Travel speed on the road segment, discount rate, design period, analysis period and base year were selected based on the experience of Addis Ababa City Road Authority. An Indian department of transportation vehicle class were adopted and Percentages of Truck distribution were determined by conducting a sample of field survey. Accordingly, observation of sample field survey revealed that out of 100 vehicles on the road segment under study 65% were passenger cars, 20% were single unit trucks and 15% were combination trucks. Estimation of costs was done specific to each treatment activities. Two alternative methodologies were provided: one was using a per-lane length approach which incorporates updated market prices and contract data from design document and this was adopted in determining agency cost associated with maintenance and rehabilitation. The other approach was one that builds the costs from a developed model. This approach was adopted to determine the cost of construction at initial stage of the project for both alternatives

Effect of corporate social responsibility on the effectiveness of quoted pharmaceutical firms in Nigeria. []

ABSTRACT There has being increasing demand on the involvement of business organizations in solving both social and ecological problems in the environment in which they operate. The study investigates the effect of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) on the effectiveness of listed pharmaceutical companies in Nigeria. The dimensions of CSR were adopted from Carroll’s CSR that included ethical, philanthropic, legal and economic responsibilities. The study adopted a cross-sectional survey design. Questionnaires were distributed to collect data from a sample of 303 employees of ten listed pharmaceutical firms in Nigeria using simple random sampling technique. Multiple regression analysis was used for data analysis. Formulated hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 23). The results indicated that the ethical, philanthropic, legal and economic responsibilities have significant effect on the effectiveness of effectiveness of quoted pharmaceutical companies in Nigeria. The study concluded that CSR activities are fundamental to the effectiveness of business organizations. It recommended amongst others that pharmaceutical companies must operate strictly within the legal framework of the society and adhere to all government rules and regulations.


Objective: This study was carried out to investigate the combined effect of ethanolic leaf extracts of C. papaya and N. laevis on the cerebellum of alloxan-induced diabetic male wistar rats. Methodology: Forty (40) male wistar rats weighing 150-180g were procured and acclimatized for two weeks, after which they were divided into eight (8) groups of five (5) rats each, and were housed in cages. The groups were designated as groups A - H. Group A served as the control group, and received distilled water only. Animals in groups B – H were induced with diabetes using alloxan. The diabetic group B did not receive any treatment throughout the experiment, while the diabetic groups C - H received 400mg/kg of C. papaya leaf extract, 600mg/kg of C. papaya leaf extract, 400mg/kg of N. laevis leaf extract, 600mg/kg of N. laevis leaf extract, 200mg/kg of C. papaya + 200mg/kg of N. laevis, and 300mg/kg of C. papaya + 300mg/kg of N. laevis leaf extract respectively for 21 days through oral route with the aid of oral gastric tube. On the 22nd day, the animals were sacrificed via chloroform inhalation, and cerebellums were harvested for histological studies. Result: The histopathological findings showed molecular layer (ML), granular layer (GL) and well outlined pyramidal cell within the purkinje layer (PL) in group A; severe degeneration with severe fatty change (FC) severe vacoulation (V) of purkinje cells layer pyknotic (P) pyramidal cell and aggregate of inflammatory cell (AIC) within the hemorrhagic (H) area in group B; normal histological feature with well outlined pyramidal cells (PC) in group C; moderate regeneration with moderate focal areas of hemorrhage (H) and moderate pyknotic (P) pyramidal cell in group D; moderate regeneration with mild vacoulation (V) and mild pyknotic (P) pyramidal cell in group E; moderate regeneration moderate increase in the number of pyramidal cells (PC) in group F; mild regeneration with moderate vacoulation (V), pyknotic (P) prymadial cell, mild cytoplasmic ground glass appearance within the molecular layer (ML) and focal area of hemorrhage (FAH) in group G; and mild regeneration with moderate vacoulation (V) and moderate fatty changes within the molecular layer (ML) in group H of the cerebellums of the alloxan-induced wistar rats. Conclusion: Combined leaf extracts of Carica papaya and Newbouldia laevis have anti-diabetic and ameliorating effect on the histology of cerebellum of alloxan-induced male wistar rats.


In this paper, we considered the three widely used versions of tests of indirect effect vis-à-vis Sobel, Aroian and Goodman’s test. Their test statistics are ratios of indirect effect and standard error of indirect effect. The issue of determining the sample size for these mediational tests is the major work here, baring the associated issues in recent times. This study is aimed at determining the sample size that gives the best mediational effect and the best test of indirect effect based on sample size. The bootstrapping approach was employed for various sample sizes. The comparison of the two methods of effect size calculation shows that effect size is not affected by sample size. The comparison of the three test across the various sample size show that sample size of 100 is the optimum sample size for test of indirect effect. The significance of the tests of indirect effect was observed to increase with sample sizes but reduces at n=200. Statistically, the version of test that is seen on the average to have the highest value of test statistics is the Goodman test.


The concern of this study was to explore the role of marshland development on success of agricultural improvement project in Musizi sector, Gisagara District. Specifically, the study finds out the impact of marshland irrigated land on agricultural improvement specifically Misizi marshland, assess the impact of marshland valorization on agricultural improvement specifically Misizi marshland and assess the impact of farmers organization on agricultural improvement specifically Misizi marshland. The study adopted descriptive research design using quantitative approach. The population involved in this study was 300 farmers from Musizi irrigation scheme. Random sampling method was used to sample respondents 133 respondents taken as sample size. Structured questionnaire was used as instruments to collect primary data. Descriptive and inferential analysis such as frequencies and percentages, correlation analysis was used to present quantitative data in the form of tables and graphs using SPSS version 20. From findings, the study revealed that there was an impact of marshland irrigated land on agricultural improvement specifically in Mugombwa sector. Besides, the study indicated that marshland valorization has an impact on agricultural improvement in Mugombwa sector. Besides, the study found that there is insignificant positive correlation r=0.589, p=0.000) between variables statistically correlated given the p value is <0.005. Finally, the study also showed that farmers organization has an impact of agriculture improvement in Mugombwa sector. The study recommended that due to its importance, the government should sensibilize farmers to variables gather themselves in association and cooperatives. Keywords: Marshland, irrigated land, marshland valorization, agriculture improvement, farmers Organization


The study aimed at examining the effects of project risk management on the project performance in microfinance institutions in Rwanda with a focus on the Umwalimu SACCO. The study employed descriptive cross- sectional design, and relied on a population of 117 project staff of Umwalimu SACCO. Applied the risk management theory and a mixed study that included a questionnaire, interview, observation and document review. With an objective to examine effect of risk planning on the project performance in microfinance institutions in Rwanda and to assess effect of risk assessment on the project performance microfinance institutions in Rwanda and to examine effect of risk response of on the project performance microfinance institutions in Rwanda. Basing on the findings, most of respondents disagreed with the statement relate to that fact risk planning of project risk management effects project performance in microfinance institutions in Rwanda with a focus on the Umwalimu SACCO. In conclusion, it is clear that 67.5% of total respondents strongly agree that Umwalimu Sacco forecast updates throughout the operations. 23.1% of total respondents agree with the statement that Umwalimu Sacco forecast updates throughout the operations, 9.4% disagreed with the statement that Umwalimu Sacco forecast updates throughout the operations with a mean of 4.58 and standard deviation of 0.660. From the findings, most of respondents agreed with the statement relate to that fact risk planning of project risk management effects project performance in microfinance institutions in Rwanda with a focus on the Umwalimu SACCO. Based on the findings of the research, researcher conclude that Umwalimu SACCO to create an avenue of investing hugely in the project risk management basing on that fact that the big number of respondents agreed with the statements relate to risk planning of project risk management and it is indicated also by the factor that hypothesis of this research was confirmed.

Physicochemical Analysis of Potable Water in Baham Community []

Water samples were collected from four representative sampling points in different areas of Baham; 2 boreholes, a well, and a stream. Physicochemical analysis using gravimetric and titrimetric methods were carried out on the collected samples and they were analysed based on their temperature, pH, color, odour, total dissolved solids (TDS) and total suspended solids (TSS) content, sulphate, lead, and chloride concentration as well as water acidity and alkalinity. The results showed low pH values of between 5.39 and 6.11 for all samples, an average temperature of 20°C, agreeable colour, and odour for all samples but for the stream, which had colour, odour, very low TDS content of between 10-20 mg/l, TSS of between 10 and 50 mg/l, acceptable for all but the stream and well samples which had a concentration of 30mg/l and 50mg/l respectively, an extremely low chloride concentration level of 8-23 mg/l compared to WHO's recommended 250 mg/l, higher than acceptable sulphate contents of 246.9-493.8 mg/l and extremely high lead concentrations of 0.27-0.30 mg/l which is about 5 times the recommended 0.05 mg/l WHO permissible limit. The results showed higher than normal acidity values of between 60-110 mg/l and Alkalinity values of 50-150 mg/l which fall within acceptable limits. From the results above, it was concluded that the quality of water in Baham is not fit for consumption according to WHO standards. It is acidic, lacks essential minerals, is not properly disinfected, and has disturbingly high lead concentrations.


The purpose of the study was to establish the influence of microfinance services on the performance of small and medium enterprises in Tanzania, specifically; to examine the influence of provision of microfinance services on the performance of SMEs; to determine the influence of micro insurance the performance of SMEs and to determine the influence of training on the performance of SMEs. The study employed descriptive design whereby quantitative research approach was used to gather data to answer the research problem and summarize the results. Data was analysed using descriptive statistical analysis. The targeted population was 210 SMEs stakeholders from Iringa municipals where a sample size of 138 was drawn out of it. Simple random sampling technique was used for the selection of respondents for the sample in the study among participants. From the findings, the following results were obtained; it is important to provide microfinance services on the performance of small and medium enterprises, especially on microfinance services and training, because the change frequency of microfinance services and training has greater effects on performance of SMEs in comparison with micro insurance which have no contributions on influencing performance of SMEs in Iringa Municipality. The study concludes and acknowledges the importance of emphasizing insurance to the business of SMEs in Iringa Municipality was not a priority to microfinance institutions. Thus microfinance institutions have a big challenge on emphasizing the importance of insurance to the business of SMEs in Iringa Municipality. Therefore, the study recommends that microfinance institutions in Iringa Municipality should provide money transfer, deposit and consultancy to SMEs in order to support their business performances. Moreover, MFIs in Iringa Municipality should ensure openness on cost, reliability, stability, awareness and procedures of micro insurance to SMEs business and its importance of protecting the business when the risk is due. Additionally, MFIs in Iringa Municipality should provide chances for financial and business skills to SMEs in appropriateness because it has an impact on the performance of SMEs in Iringa municipality.


This study focused on critical factors affecting effective implementation of projects in non-governmental organizations in northern province Rwanda a case of SFA project (FAO). The main aim of this study was to carry out critical factors affecting effective implementation of projects in Rwanda, specifically in SFA project. The study employed descriptive, correlation and explanatory study design and the researcher administered questionnaire to 65 respondents includes project manager, project office and head farmers of SFA project. The research used universal sampling technique where all necessary people in the population have the same profitability of being included in the sample. In this research study employed primary data and secondary used for the purpose of obtaining necessary information relating to the study. The research used the descriptive and correlation research design to analyze the collected data. Mean, standard deviation, and Pearson correlation was taken into consideration to make the analysis. A Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22.0 was used to analyze the data collected using questionnaires. Findings reveal that there is a significant relationship between Project Manager Competencies and effective project implementation and that project competencies alone could predict effective project implementation. Pearson correlation coefficient between project manager competencies and effective project implementation of .84 meaning there is a positive high correlation. implementation of projects, Primary results have revealed that there is a significant relationship between community involvement and effective project implementation with.92. meaning there is a positive strong correlation and The Results showed a significant positive relationship between Coordination and effective project implementation. Pearson correlation coefficient between coordination and effective project implementation of .71.meaning is a positive high correlation. In line with the findings, discussions and the conclusions of the study, the following recommendations were drawn NGO project Managers should gain these competencies through training so that they are able to transform the livelihood of the people that benefit from their organizations, researcher recommends that project managers and officers should effectively involve the community in areas such as goal identification, project design and others so that projects of NGOs are effectively implemented.

Seroprevalence of Brucellosis in Saanen Goats in Khartoum North, Sudan []

A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of brucellosis in Pure Saanen goats in Khartoum North. Three areas were selected in the state: Shambat, Bahri University (Veterinary Clinic) and Alkadaro. A total of 130 Saanen goats were randomly selected. Blood samples were taken and examined with Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and competitive Enzyme Linked Immune-sorbent Assay (ELISA). The results of examination of the serum samples showed that 5 of the samples were positive (prevalence) with Rose Bengal Plate tests (3.8%), which were confirmed negative with the competitive ELISA. All the positive cases were males, of good body condition and good hygienic conditions. The statistical association between risk factors and brucellosis was done by the univariate analysis (chi square test) followed by multivariate analysis (logistic regression). With the exception of age (x2=3.731, df=1, p=0.053) all studied risk factors (educational level of the owner, pregnancy, sex, present of dogs, insemination, body condition, hygiene conditions and history of abortion) revealed no significant statistical association with brucellosis even with RBPT. The study concluded that the prevalence of brucellosis in Saanen goats was relatively low in Khartoum North. It was recommended that more studies on potential risk factors and isolation of Brucella spp from goats in general and Saanen goats in particular in the Khartoum North are important for designing control policies.


ABSTRACT The study used both quantitative and qualitative design. There were 219 respondents consist of students, administrators, faculty and on-teaching staff in one of the private schools in Region XII. Descriptive statistics like frequency, percentage, and weighted mean were used in this study. Chi-Square was also utilized to test the significant difference in the needs of the respondent’s regarding guidance program and their demographic profile. Descriptive analysis were used for the Focus Group Discussion. The major findings of the study were majority of the students are in the age bracket of 17 – 20 years old, are female and in their first year of college. Students claimed self-development, family relationships, social relationships, studies, course/occupational/career and specific social skills as important needs. The results reflected from the socio-demographic profile of the student-respondents, their needs with regard to guidance program and the importance of the services shows a need to create an action to address the results through a comprehensive guidance program. Keywords: college guidance program, psychological needs assessment, educational needs


ABSTRACT The research aims to looked into the determinants of readiness of second year midwifery students of Notre Dame Hospital and School of Midwifery toward related learning experience in the clinical area. This study sought to answers the following questions: How are the respondents characterized in terms of the following; Age, Final Grade in CP101 A and Attitude towards Midwifery. What is the level of readiness of second year students in terms of the following: Knowledge and Skills? Is there a significant difference in the level of readiness of second year midwifery students when grouped according to their characteristic? This study was conducted at Notre Dame Hospital and School of Midwifery and participated by level II midwifery students. The result of the study, Majority of the students-respondents are within the 16-20 age group, single, whose final grade in CP 101 fall between 1.75 and 2.20. they have a positive attitude towards midwifery. The students have a poor level of readiness considering knowledge. As to their skills, they have a good level of skills in fundal height measurement, leopold’s maneuver, internal examination and auscultation of fetal heart rate, they have a very good level of skill in blood pressure measurements. Their overall knowledge and skills level are good. In significant difference were noted in the midwifery students’ level of readiness when grouped according to age and grades except in internal examination where a highly significant difference was noted. Likewise, no significant difference was noted according to the student-respondents’ attitude toward midwifery. In general, students’ characteristics cannot define their readiness in clinical area. But there is significant difference in terms of Final Grade in CP 101A in performing Internal Examination. Therefore, for those students who have low grade in knowledge should undergo an enhancement program to be qualified for internship ready. Keywords: Related Learning Experience, Midwifery students, knowledge and skills of midwifery students, Readiness of midwifery students, Cotabato City

Speculation and Investment: An empirical analysis []

Market analysis and forecasting are vital components of contemporary capitalist activity. Financial market participants create financial possibilities through their speculation of the present and engagement in the unknowable future. The activity of specialists who profess to conduct 'thorough studies' of economic trends and market movements is at the center of this process. This study employed a descriptive research design. It is a quantitative study that employed parametric inferential statistics to examine data using IBM SPSS v 22. The researcher chose a population of 200 customers of betting and investment firms living within Accra, Kumasi, and Takoradi located in Ghana. A sample size of 132 was recommended by the Raosoft sample size calculator to be used for the study at a 95% confidence interval. The research was unable to disentangle investment from speculation and conclude that all participants, whether on Wall Street, Ghana Stock Exchange, or even in game centers, are engaged in uncertain economic activities. Investing in equities or staying out of the financial markets entirely are both speculative activities. This study suggests that customers of betting and investment firms speculate whiles engaging in investment activities. The study results also clearly state that speculation and investment are closely related, affecting how Ghanaians carry out investment activities. KEYWORDS: Speculation, Investment, Investment Decision Making


The purpose of the study was to assess the contribution of training on employees’ performance in Local Government Authorities in Tanzania taking Iringa Municipal Council as a case. Specifically, to examine how job efficiency contribute to employees’ performance in Local Government Authorities; to find out how job Satisfaction contribute to employees’ performance in Local Government Authorities; and to examine whether job Commitment contribute to employees’ performance in Local Government Authorities. The study employed cross-sectional design whereby quantitative and qualitative research approaches were used to gather data to answer the research questions and summarize the results. The targeted population was 200 employees from different departments in Iringa Municipal Council where a sample size of 105 was drawn out of it and administered with questionnaires and 5 HoDs were interviewed. Simple random and purposive sampling techniques were used for the selection of respondents for the sample in the study. Data were analyzed using descriptive, inferential statistics and content analysis. The study found that job efficiency, job satisfaction and job commitment through training contributes to employees’ performance, if employees are efficient, satisfied and committed to their job after being trained, and it triggers employees’ performances. Pearson correlation shows that there is a positive relationship between independent variables which includes job efficiency, job satisfaction and job commitment with the dependent variable which is employees’ performance. Findings revealed that; training positively contribute to improved council’s service delivery, staff training increases efficiency in service delivery and employees are equipped with professional knowledge, experienced skills and valid thoughts. Finally, it was established that mentorship promotes professional growth, development and the acquisition of new skills with the direction and advice of a seasoned expert. Lastly, it was recommended as per findings that; the government should allocate a significant portion of the budget to human resource training programs; management should ensure that employees are involved in the identification of areas in which they require training. The organization should devise a clear policy for staff selection and training of staff in the same and make them an integral part of the program.


The purpose of the study was to assess the effects of population growth rate and real GDP growth rate on minimum wage policy in Tanzania. Specifically, the study intended to determine the effect of population growth rate and real GDP growth rate on minimum wage policy in Tanzania. The study was longitudinal research design whereby the research employed quantitative research approach to gather data and answer the research hypothesis and summarize the results. A sample size of 31 observations was taken on population growth rate of Tanzania and Real GDP growth rate from 1990 to 2020. Pearson Correlation Coefficient for correlation and Linear Regression using Ordinary Least Square Estimator were used for data analysis. The study revealed that population growth rate and real GDP growth rate have positive effects on the minimum wage policy. The result from the t- test shows that the population growth rate and real GDP growth rate has a significant impact on the minimum wage policy. The coefficient of determination, the adjusted R2 is to 0.764, which shows that the independent variables explain about 76.4% of the variations in the dependent variable. The result from the f- test shows that the overall model was significant. The study concludes increase in population growth positively affects wages. Due to that, increase in population has result to increase in wages as workers depend on the wages to attend the needs of his/her family so due to increase in population means the number of dependent increases so wages should rise so that people can meet the needs due to the number of people in his/her family. Moreover, an increase on real GDP growth rate, results to increase in wages as workers with earn more from their productions. The researcher recommends that more non- governmental organizations should be encouraged to come up with more blue prints that would help in sensitizing the population growth with the increase of real GDP growth rate. Moreover, NGO’S should continue to mount pressure on government agencies and communities come up with pleasant cultural practices that tend to increase population growth rate in relation with the increase in real GDP growth rate towards economic performance of the country. In addition, more economic activities and/ or institutions that increase GDP such as the food vendors, hair making, agriculture, restaurant business etc., should be improved to accommodate more economic performance.


This study based on evaluating the Factors Influencing the Adoption of Mobile Banking to the University Students in Tanzania. Primary data were collected by using questionnaire from 370 respondents of Ruaha Catholic University in Iringa region. The sample was chosen from students who are taking Certificate, Diploma, Degree and postgraduate using simple random sampling technique. The analysis was performed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS ver. 20, IBM, USA). The results revealed that, altitude has greater influence on mobile banking adoption to the university students through transaction service which is offered 24 hrs and speed up transaction process. Out of that the study revealed that, subjective norms influence adoption of mobile banking technology to the university students through mobile money vendor which ensures decrease in loss, maintaining time and unanticipated costs. Furthermore, the study revealed that perceived behavior control has significance influence on mobile banking adoption to the university student. Therefore, the study recommend that Banking sector should consider that financial transaction using mobile banking technology is important towards enhancing free and timely transaction to the university students and through good financial transaction technology money circulation is enhanced.

Project Planning Practices And The Performance Of Education Projects In Rwanda. A Case of SOS Children’s Villages []

This research is entitled project planning practices and the performance of education projects and SOS Children’s Villages, Kigali-Rwanda was selected as the case study. This research is guided by three research questions namely; what effects does communication planning have on performance of education projects in Rwanda? to which extent risk planning is important for the performance of education projects in Rwanda? And what is the relationship between project scope planning on project performance for education projects in Rwanda? The population will consider 9 project staff members and 3 partners of dual vocational education and training project at SOS Children’s Villages. This research is descriptive and correlation research design. It is descriptive because describes the perception of respondents on variables under study, by using descriptive statistics. It is correlation research because shows the relationship between the variables by using Pearson correlation. Not only the primary data was used in this research, but also the secondary data sources from literature review and the project documentation was explored. SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Scientists) was used in data analysis. The relationship between project planning and project performance was measured using the correlation analysis which has shown a strongly positive correlation of 0.982. From the findings of this research the researcher concluded that, there is a strong positive relationship between project planning and project performance of SOS Children’s Villages Rwanda. After the results from the research were presented, SOS Children’s Villages Rwanda was recommended to find improved ways through which Project milestones and outputs can all achieved as planned since a big percentage of respondents indicated that not all milestones were achieved as planned. SOS Children’s Villages Rwanda should communicate more with stakeholders on project progress since many respondents tended to disagree that the project stakeholders were regularly communicated about the project progress, changes and issues and participate in finding responses at SOS Children’s Villages Rwanda. SOS Children’s Villages Rwanda should constantly invite project partners to participate in its programs, since many partners indicate that they were not invited to participate the dual vocational education and training project risk analysis and response. Keywords: Project, Planning, Performance


ABSTRACT This paper aims to review articles pertaining to work from home arrangements its benefits in the lives of the employee, employer and in the economic development of our society. It aims to identify factors in implementing the work from home arrangements. The review focuses on the findings and conclusions of the articles reviewed. This paper revealed that work from arrangements has big benefits to the employees work-life balance that will impact to the development of the society. Though, there are also disadvantages that the employees may encounter.


Traditional medicine has gained prominence in the treatment of cancerous sore, lung inflammation, dysentery and dermatitis. The antibacterial activity of A. ringens was tested on two pathogenic bacteria viz., Salmonella spp, Shigella spp and Escherichia coli. Extracts from powdered root of A. ringens were prepared using sterile water, methanol and Ethylacetate. The extracts were tested on each of the pathogens for their antibacterial properties. The root was also screened for presence of secondary metabolites following standard procedures. The aqueous extracts of the stem and the root barks were effective against Salmonella spp and Escherichia coli at all concentration. The results showed that the aqueous extract of A ringens root was effective against Salmonella spp with highest inhibition of 2.5mm while Escherichia coli with highest inhibition of 2.3mm at concentration of 30 μg. The methanol extracts was effective against Salmonella spp and Escherichia coli with zone of inhibition of 2.4mm and 2.4mm respectively with concentration of 30μg. The methanolic extract of the root of A ringens was not effective against Shigella spp at the same concentration. The ethyl acetate extract was used on the microbial isolates. The ethyl acetate extract was non-effective on Shigella spp and Escherichia coli at all concentration while the extract was effective against Salmonella spp with zone of inhibition of 1.7, 2.1 and 2.8mm with concentration of 10 μg, 20 μg and 30 μg respectively. The root of Aristolochia ringens parts showed the presence of the following phytochemicals in methanol: phenols, tannins, terpenes and saponins. The aqueous extracts showed the presence of terpenes and flavonoids while ethylacetate revealed the presence of terpenes. However, alkaloids, steroids were absent in all the extracts of the plant. Conclusively, the results from this research shows that solvent extracts from the roots of A. rigens possess antibacterial properties. Hence, concerted efforts to produce safe and potent bacteriocide from its parts should be encouraged. From the results obtained in this study, it is recommended that pharmacological properties and the bioactive ingredients from these extracts should be studied, and scientifically evaluated


It is habitual for every in-coming administration in Nigeria to design its own policies in order to meet set targets in different sectors. The case of the civilian administration of Muhammadu Buhari is no different as it introduced the Agriculture Transformation Policy (APP), in order to, among other things, address rising food security challenges. This paper, therefore, examined how the APP, while it lasted, impacted on food security in the country. Data for the paper were generated from secondary sources, and analysed quantitatively. The paper argues that the APP introduced a number of commendable initiatives, but these did not do much to improve food security in Nigeria. Consequently, it was recommended, among other things, that policies should be made with realistic targets, so as to avoid frequent cases of policy failure. Key words: Agriculture, farming, food security, food insecurity, policy.


The purpose of this study is to discuss the impact of the global pandemic on accommodation establishments or staycation businesses in the Philippines and the changes that have occurred as a result of the pandemic. The coronavirus (COVID-19) global pandemic poses a significant challenge to everyone, particularly businesses that are not prepared for such a crisis. Following the guidelines and protocols that assist the accommodation establishment in operating and providing its services to the consumer.


Waste from the fishing industry that uses raw materials from freshwater fish such as catfish and catfish in the fillet industry and surimi has the potential to be extracted for its oil. The purpose of this article is to review the stages of the oil/fat extraction process, and the characteristics of the resulting oil/fat. The method used is citing various articles that have been published in national and international journals. Based on the results of literacy, it was found that the stages of extracting oil from fish waste from the fillet or surimi industry consisted of stages of oil extraction and purification. A distinctive characteristic of freshwater fish oil is that it contains high levels of oleic, palmitoleic and arachidonic fatty acids. The fatty acid composition consists of SFA (Saturated fatty acid ), MUFA (Monounsaturated fatty acid), PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acids). There are three parameters that determine the value of fish oil, namely the provisions of CRN (Council for Responsible Nutrition), GOED (Global Organization for EPA and DHA Omega-3), and IFOS (Internal Fish Oil Standards).

Participation of Community and Pakistan Government in Health Education about Non-Communicable Diseases []

Abstract Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) include conditions such as heart disorders, brain disorders, cancerous cells, and accidents-related illnesses that are not transferrable from one patient to another (Preston, Waugh, Larkins, & Taylor, 2010). People's lifestyles are the leading cause of many of the NCDs. The main types of noncommunicable diseases are chronic respiratory diseases such as obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular diseases such as strokes, and diabetes. (Atiq, 2017). Despite the lack of transferability from one individual to another, NCDs are fatal. Statistically, they are amongst the top 10 leading causes of fatality globally, and in Pakistani (Khan et al., 2018). The use of tobacco, lack of exercise, and the use of alcohol increase the chances of contracting the disease. Non-communicable diseases are among the significant public health issues. Studies have shown that these problems majorly affect minority groups and low-income earners. The economic, physical, social, and physical environments where this group of people lives are the primary influencers. Since these diseases pose a threat to the affected populations, the public health departments need to formulate effective strategies to combat the problem. For maximum positive effect, the communities that are affected need to be involved in tackling the problem. Reputable organizations such as the World Health Organization have realized the importance of involving the communities. Research conducted in Islamabad, Pakistan, reveals that non-communicable diseases predominantly affect people living in low-income neighborhoods as opposed to those in the high-income ends (Nishtar, 2004). With this in mind, continued participation in health education by both the community and the government is vital to creating awareness of the severe effects of non-communicable diseases. KEYWORDS: Non-Communicable Diseases, Participation of Community, Pakistan Government


The rise of new infectious diseases, the recovery of several infections that appeared to have been controlled and the increase in bacterial resistance have generated the necessity for studies directed towards the improvement of new antimicrobials. Nickel (II) and Cobalt (II) complexes as well as the mixed ligands of acetanilide and ampicillin in methanol and water medium were synthesized and characterized based on their physical analysis such as color, percentage yield, solubility as well as IR spectroscopic study. The solubility of the complexes was tested using dimethylformamide, carbon tetrachloride, dimethyl sulphate, chloroform, ethylacetate, and methanol. The solubility test showed that the complexes were both polar and non-polar. The coordination of the metal complexes to the ligand was found to be through the nitrogen and oxygen atoms of ampicillin and nitrogen atom of acetanilide The antimicrobial activities of the cobalt (II) ion complexes were evaluated by screening against selected micro-organism, bacteria such as; Streptococcus faecalis, Xanthomonas axinopodis, Salmonella entrica, Xanthomonas phaseoli and Fungi; Sclerotium rolfsii, Mansourian phomoides, Collectotrichum lindemuthanium. From the findings, the result revealed that the active ingredients were not against bacteria but were proactive to fungi.


1. Abstract: Aim: To explore the knowledge, practice, and associated factors towards post-operative pain management among nurses. Design: Institution-based cross-sectional study. Methods: Convenient sampling was adopted to select 110 nurses from May to July 2020. A structured questionnaire on knowledge and an observational checklist to assess the practice was used. Descriptive statistics were performed to describe demographic characteristics, level of nurses’ knowledge, and practice on pain management. Significance of determinant factors was tested using Logistic regression and Odds Ratio & P < 0.05 at 95% CI. Results: According to the study, 51.8% of nurses had poor knowledge about postoperative pain management. Gender, previous training, and present working area were significantly associated with nurses’ knowledge. The majority of nurses (60.9 %) had poor practice. Previous training and gender were found to be significantly associated with nursing practice. Keywords: - post-operative, pain, management, nurses, knowledge, practice.


This action research explores the implications of phonological skills to the reading fluency of the grade four (4) learners. It was conducted at Teresa Elementary School, Teresa, Rizal during the last quarter of the school year 2019-2020. The study is a descriptive type of research. The data were collected through an adopted-modified questionnaire which was tested among other pupils of the said school to verify the reliability and applicability of the material. The participants of this research were the selected 18 grade four section Venus pupils. After the data gathering and analysis, it was found out that there were differences in the mean scores of the learners in reference to their phonological skills. This means that phonological skills of the pupils are related to their reading fluency level. The study also revealed that pupils who have difficulties in their phonological skills tend to have a slower reading fluency. Several tests were performed to maintain the veracity and reliability of this research. These relationships indicate that lower levels of syntactic awareness correspond to poor reading fluency and poor comprehension among these readers. These findings have important implications for research and instruction addressing the relative contributions of broader language skills to the development of reading among struggling readers.

Challenging knowledge production in disability issues from the Global North to the Global South. []

The evolution of disability studies can be traced back to originate in the Global North. This has created a conundrum in terms of the existing knowledge on disability issues. The Global North has largely dominated in influencing and shaping the global narrative surrounding disability. This has not only resulted in disability issues being universalized, rather it has been more of disability issues being discussed basing on the thinking and experiences of scholars and activists from the Global North ignoring the regional dynamics and differences. This does not mean to say nothing has been taking place in the Global South from past to present or the scholars and activist of disability issues in the Global South have been idle. A blind eye has been turned when it comes to the knowledge produced from the Global South due to the hegemony the Global North exerts on this matter. Issues regarding disability rights and studies have been written by those in the Global North not only for the whole world but even also for those in the Global South. Voices from the Global South have not received enough attention to even influence the policies crafted for these areas. This problem within disability intersects well with the hegemony in neo-colonialism, racism, sexism, LGBTQ issues and other issues related to hegemony and structural violence of one group over the other(s). This paper aims at challenging the production of knowledge within disability studies looking into how the Global North has dominated the discourse and amplify the voices and narratives on disability rights coming from the Global South.

Challenges in maintaining Sustainability of Drinking Water Systems – Aftermath of a natural disaster []

October 8, 2005 earthquake was a major calamity affecting the northern regions of Pakistan disturbing the social system generally and drinking water supply systems specifically. In response several organizations of national and international backgrounds intervened the affected areas contributing in different areas including water supply systems. The current study assessed over eight hundred (800) water supply systems in Northern Pakistan. The water system were either rehabilitated or re-established during the humanitarian response in the study area. New sources were developed succeeding the known principle of build back better in emergencies. Source displacement in case of spring sources due to variation in tectonic plates left behind the only alternative for the intervening agencies; the surface water source. Sources were developed on surface water (nearly 60% of the new developed sources). The newly developed sources within a limited duration of six years are showing the signs of decay (more than 95% of the sources). The interventions on transitory basis fulfilled drinking water needs but will be a major setback in achievement of MDGs for safe drinking water for the area. The findings from the study suggest that the emergency response should only focus on life saving activities, while disregarding the long term planning areas of emergency stricken areas. Responding to issues requiring long term planning and comprehensive actions during the emergency response stage with projects of shorter duration can lead to long term problems for the concerned government line agencies that at a later stage necessitate even a greater rehabilitation and recovery effort.