Volume 9, Issue 6, June 2021 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Introduction: Ce travail avait pour objectif de déterminer les facteurs associés au risqué de la tuberculose multi résistante chez les tuberculeux fréquentant les CSDT de la zone de santé de Lubilanji. Matériel et Méthodes: L’étude est quantitative de type descriptif corrélationnel. Elle cherche à établir le lien qui existe entre certains facteurs sociodémographiques, sanitaires puis économiques des malades soumis au traitement anti-tuberculeux et la résistance tuberculeuse. Les données ont été récoltées d’une manière transversale au sein des CSDT de la zone de santé de Lubilanji, la période de recherche s’était étalée du 10 au 25 Octobre 2020 et celle-ci avait porté sur l’ensemble des patients ayant développé la tuberculose multi résistante. L’échantillon était constitué de 61 tuberculeux ayant développé la MR aux antituberculeux sur l’ensemble de 391 cas de Tuberculose soignés dans les CSDT de la zone de santé de Lubilanji. Résultats: Six facteurs ont été trouvé dans cette étude comme étant à la base de la tuberculose multi-résistante, il s’agit entre autre de:  Non-respect de la prise des médicaments,  La dénutrition,  Le tabagisme,  La négligence du personnel soignant,  La mauvaise communication sur la prise des médicaments et le manque de suivi de la prise des médicaments,  La toxicité des médicaments. Conclusion: Etant donné que la tuberculose est un problème majeur de santé publique dans le monde, ce grave problème de santé se complique encore par l’émergence des souches multi résistantes. À l’heure actuelle, seule la prévention de la création de nouvelles souches de tuberculose résistante par une application rigoureuse des moyens et des recommandations disponibles Une amélioration du taux de guérison des tuberculeux et la surveillance du traitement des cas nouveaux jusqu’à la guérison offre une certaine garantie de limiter l’extension de la maladie en attendant que de nouveaux moyens ne viennent renforcer les possibilités thérapeutiques, actuellement limitées. L’abaissement progressif de la proportion des cas multi résistants dans certaines régions très touchées (par exemple, les pays Baltes) montre que le contrôle de la multi résistance est possible. À l’inverse, l’augmentation progressive de la proportion de cas de multi résistance parmi les nouveaux cas de tuberculose dans d’autres régions montre que le contrôle de la tuberculose n’est pas garanti à l’avenir. Mots clés:Tuberculose, Multi résistance, Facteurs associés, Tuberculostatique


This paper is an exploratory study that focuses on the issues surrounding curriculum in higher education in Nigeria. Higher education in many developing countries including Nigeria confronts many problems. Curricula are often dominated by liberal subjects thereby making education provided by higher education institutions in the country more of liberal education than vocational, technical and other forms of entrepreneurship education. The high number of unemployed graduates in the country is becoming unbearable by the day. The cause of this is not unconnected with issues surrounding curriculum in Nigeria universities. This paper reviews those aims and objectives of higher education that have to do with curriculum issues and development. The definition and concept of higher education, problems facing higher education in Nigeria, concept of curriculum and some of the challenges facing implementation of university curriculum are considered. The paper then submits that if the higher institutions in the country operate within the content of education policy, there would be unprecedented improvements in the skill acquisition among the Nigeria graduates. Recommendations on ensuring productive implementation of university curriculum are consequently made.

Factors associated with viral load suppression among HIV patients in Rutsiro District, Rwanda []

Introduction: HIV/AIDS constitutes a global public health problem since the early 1980s. Globally, there was 37.9 million PLHIV with 79% informed of their status, of the 78% accessing ART and their 86% had viral load suppression in 2018 against 90.1% in Rwanda in 2019 after 3 years of treat all policy implementation but few studies have been done on factors associated viral load suppression in Rwanda and none in Rutsiro. The objective of this study was to assess the factors associated with viral load suppression among PLHIV in Rutsiro District, Rwanda. Methods: A retrospective study randomly recorded information from 295 files among 1121PLHIV enrolled in ART from July 2016 to December 2019 in Rutsiro District. Using IBM SPSS Statistics 27 software, descriptive frequencies and % were calculated and using the confidence interval of 95%, the margin error being at 5%, we used cross-tabulation to test the Chi-square and for confounder adjustment, the binary logistic regression was performed to assess associated factors. Results: Of participants, 64.4% were in between 24-49 years old, females being 62%, while 50% were married. The viral load suppression rate was 84.7%. After adjustment, the very good adherence and good adherence had a 99.5 and 92.4 chances of reduction in the odds of having unsuppressed viral load with OR: .005 (CI: .001-.041, P-value <.001) and .074 (CI: .008-.657, P-value: .019) compared to those with poor adherence respectively; and alcohol consumers had a triple odds of having unsuppressed viral load compared to non-alcohol consumers (OR: 3.254, CI: 1.310-8.084, P-value: .011). Conclusion: Based on findings, for PLHIV to achieve viral load suppression, they have to be encouraged to quitting alcohol consumption, and health care providers should encourage, guide, and monitor them to make sure they address any concern that can interfere with adherence on time.


A preliminary survey of medical values of some plants in Maiduguri, Borno state revealed that 10 different plant spices, exotic and indigenous are on common use for the treatment of more than 10 common diseases prevalent in the state. Meanly the information on the medicinal values of some plant was generated through one on one interview using vernacular language of the respondent who are herbalist farmers and traders. The identified plants are Aloe vera (Linn) Allium satium (Linn), Acalia nilotica (L) Willd. Ex DEL, Acacia faidherbia (Del.) chev. Pisdium guajara (Linn) Carica papaya (Linn) Adansonia digitala (L) Managifera indica (L) Azaderachta indica A. Juss, Tamrindus indica (Linn.) These plants are used to cure malaria fever, typhoid fever, diarrhea, diabetes, stomach ulcer, hypertension, pneumonia, open wound, scabies and other skin disease. This investigation highlights some plants of medicinal values uses and the active chemical ingredient the commonest diseases that are being cured by these plant species are also mentioned alongside with the most used herb in curing different ailments. In the same vein percentage of people using different plant species for the treatment of different disease was evaluated. This paper briefly discusses the implication and concludes with some recommendation to improve on the use of these plants such as creating evidence on safety, efficacy, and quality of plant products through scientific and clinical trials of medicinal plants and other aspects such as botanist should be encourage the acquisition, identification, documentation, development and dissemination of knowledge in natural medicine.


Numerous studies have established high prevalence of psychological distress among people with terminal diseases, however, there are limited focus on sickle cell diseases. There are paucity of studies that had examined the relationship between cognitive factors and psychological factors among patient living with sickle cell diseases (SCD). This study therefore examined how self-esteem and thought patterns influence psychological distress among SCD patients. Adopting an expost facto design, 150 patients living with SCD (23 males and 127 females) whose ages ranged between 10 and 30 years, (M=15.14; SD=2.83) were selected using purposive sampling techniques. Patients were selected from Lautech Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria. Hypotheses were formulated and tested with 2 x 2 Analysis of Variance. Results revealed that self-esteem significantly influenced psychological distress (F (1, 146) = 7.71, p < .05). Thoughts pattern also significantly influenced psychological distress (F (1, 146) = 02.45, p <.05). However, there was no significant joint influence of self-esteem and thought patterns on psychological distress among SCD patients (F (1, 146) = 1.15, p >.05). The study concluded that patients with low self-esteem presents more symptoms of psychological distress than patient with high self-esteem. In addition, patients with dysfunctional thought patterns report higher psychological distress than patients with functional thought pattern. It is therefore recommended that services of clinical or health psychologist should be integrated into clinical process or procedure of management of SCD patients. Keywords: Thought patterns, self-esteem, sickle cell disease, psychological distress.

Minimizing Freight Transportation Costs With The Application Of Stepping Stone And Modified Distribution (MODI) Methods At PT. Tirta Sukses Perkasa []

Minimizing Transportation Costs For Delivery Of Goods By Implementing The Stepping Stone And Modified Distribution (MODI) Method At PT. Tirta Sukses Perkasa (supervised by Rakhman Laba and Sumardi) This study aims to analyze the average minimum transportation costs by using the Stepping Stone and MODI at PT. Tirta Sukses Perkasa. Distribution can be defined as the process of distributing goods or services from producers to consumers. To distribute goods to a company, a means of transportation and distribution costs are needed to send the goods using transportation means. In a transportation problem, for example at PT. Tirta Sukses Perkasa can be formed into a transportation model. The transportation model can be completed in 2 stages, namely the initial solution with the Stepping Stone and the final solution using the Modified Distribution (MODI) method. This study aims to obtain transportation costs for PT. Tirta Sukses Perkasa. The results showed that the minimum transportation costs at PT. Tirta Sukses Perkasa from January to December 2019 using the Stepping Stone as the initial solution and the Modified Distribution Method (MODI) obtained a value of Rp. 91,331,902. Keywords: Transportation, Stepping Stone, and Modified distribution method

An Analysis of the Current Mother Tongue Instructional Language Policy in Ethiopia. []

For the very first time, during the period of Haile Selase the first, language policy in written form was prepared. And there was an expectation of the Dergu`s language policy for the making of many Ethiopian language development however, it continued on the usage of only one language. Right after the downfall of the Dergue, a shift towards using mother tongue instructional language policy seen in our country since 1994 with the reign of the former EPRDF (The present Prosperity Party). The purpose of this analysis is therefore to explain and present the current Ethiopian mother tongue instructional language formulation, implementation and outcomes. To materialize the study, a contextual discourse analysis was applied. To this effect, after providing a brief background on the current Ethiopian mother tongue instructional language policy, an analysis of the formulation and implementation of mother tongue instructional language policy with its problems was discussed using document review and analysis. Finally, the findings indicated that the author of this analysis appreciated the merits of mother tongue instructional policy for the students however, the researcher argue that the quick change to formulate and implement the mother tongue instructional language policy without considering the existed unbalanced stage of development among different regions and with no or sufficient readiness to provide education using mother tongue instructional language seems to be more of political decision than a proper pedagogical shift . It is recommended that an in depth feasibility research that focuses on the students pedagogical needs and the population distribution pattern in the country would support the proper monitoring of a genuine and applicable mother tongue instructional language policy. Key words: Instructional Language, Mother Tongue, and Policy


This research aims to obtain the community structure and spatial distribution patterns of clams and to obtain the relationship between clams and the condition of coral reefs in the waters of Sepa Island, Seribu Islands. This research was conducted from October – March 2020 and field data collection in January 2020 at 4 stations based on different depths and located in the waters of the East, South, West, and North Sepa Island using a survey method. Coral reef data retrieval using the LIT method and chemical observations using a belt transect. The results showed that in the waters of Sepa Island, 24 individuals from 4 species of the bivalve class were found, namely Tridacna squamosa, Tridacna maxima, Tridacna crocea, Hippopus hippopus. The highest relative abundance of clams was found at the north station, which was 21% and the lowest relative abundance was at the south station, which was only 4%. The chemical diversity index at the four stations was obtained in the medium category, which ranged from 1,054 – 1,386 and the uniformity index at the four stations ranged from 0.635 – 1,000, which means high population uniformity. The spatial distribution pattern of chemistry at the four stations was uniform, ranging from 0.17 to 0.81. The relationship between clams and coral reefs is 0.784, which means that clams have a strong relationship with the condition of coral reefs.

Evaluation of container shipments in Nigerian maritime industry []

The study is an evaluation of container shipments in Nigerian maritime industry. The aim is to determine the trend and the growth of container shipments (inward and outward) laden and tonnages in Nigerian maritime industry as a way of suggesting need for an integrated intermodal transportation system in Nigeria. Data was source through secondary data collection technique. Online Nigerian ports statistical database was the source of data used for the purpose of the study. To achieve the objectives of the study, four hypotheses were formulated. Statistical tools were used to analyze the data collected on the study and to answer the research questions. Trend analysis, regression and correlation analyses were employed for the data evaluation. The findings of the study show that the trend lines of container shipment (inward and outward) experience series of fluctuations and were unsteady over the period of study which may be attributed to the volatile nature of shipping trade and/or as a result of global economic recession. The study however, shows there is expectation of growth in inward and outward container laden which was shown on the growth line and forecast shows increasing trend on graphs. Similarly, the tonnage inward and outward experience great fluctuations over the period of study, and however, the growth lines show increase in growth and forecast graphs prove increasing trend for the container tonnages inward and outward in Nigerian ports. The findings of the study show that there is a negative linear correlation between inward and outward container, whereas there is a positive linear correlation between inward and outward container tonnages. Based on these findings, the researchers made some recommendations on the need for integrated intermodal transport system to effectively and efficiently cater for the expected growth in container shipments in Nigerian maritime industry. Keywords: evaluation, container shipments, maritime industry

Investor’s Expectations: A comparative analysis of ULIP and Mutual Funds []

There has been a revolutionary transformation in India’s investment since 1991, when the country was stricken by a severe crisis due to sharp plunge in its foreign exchange reserve, a downgrading of credit rating, etc. The only way out is by the initiating reforms and structural adjustment program. The measures which were taken results today there are domestic and foreign financial institutions, like insurance companies, broking firms, mutual funds, etc. operating in India. The most difficult and important change in the past 65 years or so is the change in the customer behavior toward the investments. The entire scenario of investment is changing, in past all the important sectors of the economy were more or less working in a seller’s market, but now they are more concerned for the consumer and the services which they accessible to them. If we compare from the past, we have more options for investment like life insurance, equity market, mutual funds, etc. Today consumers seek for more & more services and more return over their investment. i.e. most of the insurance companies are providing more values- added services with their basic policy. Another option for investment available for the people nowadays is Mutual Fund. Mutual Fund are providing good returns on their investment. So, while investing people tend more towards Mutual Funds as they are providing outstanding returns and safety like insurance too, with a good investment portfolio mutual funds are providing more liquidity. The paper was taken to have knowledge about various aspects of the Aditya Birla Capital, and it’s Unique Selling Preposition (USP), which provide them more business and customers. Customers always prefer to invest in instruments having high return and safety and, in a company, which is market leader. There are many people who chose to invest in ULIP insurance policies to cover the risk of life, and invest it in good portfolio but there is a big portion of customers who have taken the policies to save the taxes. Some people choose to invest in the mutual funds for the higher return. Therefore, while investing in any investment option investors checks whether his money is not in any kind of risk or if on risk what is going to be the return. Mutual Fund provides good return but investments are directly linked to market risk. In ULIP returns are related to stock market, but they have some insurance benefit which covers their health and life and IRDA regulates the investment. Many people are using the tax benefits in ULIP but in mutual fund they have to invest their money in tax saving funds to get the benefits. Both have some benefits and more or less it depends on the person that how much they could bear the risk.

Job Satisfaction of Employees within Different Organizations in Pakistan []

Purpose of this research to examine the level of job satisfaction of employee’s within different organizations of Pakistan. Job satisfaction has a big impact on how an employee performs his job. In the modern era, the organizations facing different challenges due to the dynamic nature of environment in different organizations. The main challenge in a business is to satisfy its employees by fulfills the needs of its employees by providing good working conditions. The aim of this paper was to assess employee’s job satisfaction with the use of simple survey. In order to achieve this aim, a survey was conducted. The employees defined their job satisfaction by referring to 50 statements describing this satisfaction and evaluating 10 factors that are used to calculate the satisfaction index. 150 respondents involved to give feedback about the questionnaire. Correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis performed to monitor the relationship between study variables. Employee’s satisfaction has the perfect positive relationship work performance and job satisfaction as linearly. Analysis of variance performed to check the means differences of the study variables.

Recurrence of Natural Risks and Sustainable Development Perspectives on the North Western Margin of Yaoundé []

Abstract Natural hazards abound on the seven hills that border the city of Yaoundé, especially on its north-western margin where uncontrolled occupation accentuates their occurrence. Thus, how can we understand the dynamics of land use that exposes people to risks and makes people vulnerable? The memory of past events, the reading of archival documents, field observations, satellite image processing and other information are deployed for this research. It is, therefore, important to study the impacts of risks in order to reduce their devastating effects, reconcile constraints of the physical environment and development constraints and improve the living conditions of the populations. The resources available to the majority of developers do not allow them to be absorbed. The characterization and risk assessment of the physical environment are lines of thought for this study. The study provides new elements necessary for the sustainable and harmonious development of risks in urban areas. It highlights important parameters for their monitoring and control. Basic constructions amplify them on the flood-prone lowlands and steep slopes. On the NW margin, floods and landslides are experienced continuously. Analyzes show that the physical environment combined with poorly organized human activities are the root causes of recurring risks in flood-prone lowlands and steep slopes. Keywords: natural risks, urban environment, sustainable development, NW margin, Yaoundé

Effects of Fungicide and NPSB Fertilizer Application on Late Blight Disease and Yield of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in Wombera District, North Western Ethiopia []

Potato (solanum tuberosum L.) is one of major crops grown in Wombera district. However, the yield of the crop is low due to lack of proper use of fungicide on late blight disease and recommended appropriate fertilizer rates. Therefore, a field experiment was carried out during the main cropping season of 2019 in North Wombera District. The objective of the study was to assess the effect of Mancozeb (80%WP) and NPSB fertilizers on late blight disease and yield of potato. A potato variety, "Belete" was used as a testing crop for the experiment. Factorial in four spraying periods (control without spray, and spraying 3, 6 and 9 weeks after full emergence) and three rates of NPSB fertilizers (130, 180, and 230 kg ha-1) were laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Analysis results showed that number of marketable and total tubers per hill, marketable and total tuber yields were significantly affected by the main and interaction effect of spraying Mancozeb (80%WP) and blended NPSB Fertilizer. While unmarketable tuber number showed non- significant effect. The results showed that Mancozeb had positive effects on reducing late blight infestation and increasing tuber yield productivity of potato. The highest marketable tuber yield (43.67tha-1) and total tuber yield (47.67tha-1) were obtained from spraying fungicide 6 weeks after full emergence and 230 kg ha-1 blended NPSB fertilizer application.


Abstract: In this paper we are trying to balance the chemical equations by representing the chemical equation in to the mathematical model. Particularly we are using the simultaneous linear equations method and Matrix to solve the mathematical problem. With this method, it is possible to handle any chemical reaction with given reactants and products.

the management of court records []

The management of court records is essential to efficient and effective legal systems, and this helps to support accountability by making the judiciary more transparent. The study sought to find out the system of management for court records at Mzimuni village manned by Chief Mbiko Masuku. The problem of the study was triggered by the lack of proper court equipment to capture court proceedings as the court session was in progress. It seems Mzimuni District village court give little attention to the proper management of record processes, during the village court proceedings. The village clerk recreates session handwritten court records. It remains uncertain whether proper records management practices are being followed in the village court since court records need to be protected from manipulation. The study therefore sought to determine the types of records created at Mzimuni village court, to find out the processes and procedures involved in the management of village court records. Furthermore, the study meant to examine the regulatory framework guiding the management of village court records and also identify challenges faced in the management of such records in Mzimuni village court. The study was guided by the a qualitative research methodology was applied and a case study design was used with a population sample of fifteen (15) participants comprising of the chief, councillors, village court clerks, assessors and messengers who were purposively chosen because they had vast knowledge about the operations of a village court. Data was collected through the conduct of interviews. Interpretation of data was thematic based on the objectives of the study. The findings of study were that there are different types of records created at the Mzimuni village court such as case notes and main points. Respondents of the study showed little knowledge about the existing legislation and its application in the management of records. Findings also revealed that the records were kept at the village clerks homestead. The major challenges identified were the lack of proper court infrastructure and a records storage room and lack of funds. The researcher then concluded that with different types of records created at Mzimuni village court, there was lack of records management legislation and there was no records management policy document. The study recommended that there were that there should be collaboration between the National Archives of Zimbabwe (NAZ) and the village court officials where archives staff frequent the village court and train them about good records management practices.

Impact of Brand Archetype on Customer Acquisition in the context of the Life Insurance sector in Sri Lanka []

Sri Lanka, as expressed in the structural trends seen in the economy, is referred to as a service-driven economy. Therefore, insurance firms have also grown with various structural and business trends that have a broader effect on the economy. Besides, Sri Lanka's life insurance sector, a segment of the insurance industry, demonstrates more dynamic trends according to marketing and customer behavioral perspectives. Many brand-building programs aimed at stimulating favorable customer reactions to sign competitive edges are demonstrated by business activities of the life insurance industry. Meanwhile, very few empirical studies have related to the notion of brand archetype and consumer acquisition to investigate the relationship between the marketing stimulation of the brand archetype and the behavioral responses of consumer acquisition towards them. Besides, this study aims to review these principles and formulate research proposals concerning the context of Sri Lanka's life insurance sector. A deductive method was adopted by this researcher, and a systematic literature review on empirical studies was undertaken as the primary research tool to construct arguments. The paper concluded by establishing recommendations for potential studies in line with brand archetype principles and customer acquisition behaviors that resolve empirical research gaps in Sri Lanka.

The Human Right to Health: In International, Regional and National Legal Instruments. []

This Article discusses the contents, essential elements of human rights to heath, right to health and other fundamental principles of human rights in international, regional and national legal instruments. The human right to health discussed in this Article is only from the legal point of view. Almost all international human rights treaties recognize the right to “highest attainable standard” of health. The human right to health perceived as significant aspect of economic development, environmental issues, and the rights of children-all currently important international concern. The human right to health importantly focuses the attachment of health status to the issue of dignity, non-discrimination, justice and participation. Almost all states of the world at least signed one international human right treaty that recognize health as human right but the problem is there is no flexible standard that consider the developing nations their level of wealth and development for progressive realization of this right.


ABSTRACT The importance of zoonoses is increasing day by day in public health. Among zoonoses, rabies is a highly fatal viral anthropozoonosis that affects the central nervous system of all warm blooded mammals including humans. It is more prevalent in Asia, Africa and the Latin American countries. The first major outbreaks in dog were reported in many parts of Ethiopia in 1884. The transmission of virus occurs only when the saliva of the infected animal comes into contact with a broken skin or mucous membrane. Histophatological Reliance on the detection of accumulations of Negri-bodies is no longer regarded as suitable for diagnostic assessment because of low sensitivity and alternative laboratory-based tests findings have been developed to conclusively confirm infection. Detection of rabies virus antigen in rabies diagnosis may be carried out either in vivo or postmortem. The main reason for rabies to remain as a neglected zoonotic disease in many developing countries including Asia and Africa is lack of specific diagnostic and surveillance techniques. Generally, elimination of canine rabies is epidemiologically and practically feasible through mass vaccination of domestic dogs which is cost-effective approach to the prevention and elimination of human rabies deaths. Key words: Control, Diagnosis, Epidemiology, Rabies


ABSTRACT Every language of the world has its peculiar sound systems which make them differ both in spelling and pronunciation from other languages. And often times these sound patterns have a way of influencing the L2 teaching, learning and acquisition. As such, this research aims at the contrastive studies of the sound systems of English and the Nigerian Indigenous languages of Yoruba and Igbo. Through qualitative design, primary data were gathered through interviews, observations and focus group discussions and host of other secondary sources were employed. Based on articulatory theory, data gathered were geared towards answering the following questions; what are the similarities and dissimilarities of speech sounds of English and the two Nigerian Indigenous languages (Yoruba and Igbo)? What are their influences on L2 teaching, learning and acquisition? It was observed from the work that two (Yoruba and Igbo) out of the three languages came from the same language family but with unequal number of speech sounds while English is from Indo-European language family and has its own unique sound system. Hence, their areas of convergences and divergences, from whence; both their positive and negative influences on L2 acquisition were spotted. This work also provided solutions to where negative interference applies. KEYWORDS: Contrastive Study, L2, Acquisition, Learning, teaching, Languages, interference


Agriculture plays the vital role in GDP of Pakistan and more ways are producing to increase the agriculture in Pakistan. Rapidly increasing population require more food and consuming meat to overcome the hunger prevailing in the developing countries. the government and the researchers introducing techniques of agriculture biotechnology to promote the crop improvement more production of staple needs. A survey was taken with the help of closed ended questionnaire to check the people perception. This turns out that some people know about the difficulties, innovation, and investment in agriculture sector but most of the people are unaware about agriculture sector even if they are educated. Government need a to invest on agriculture sector with powerful and innovative tools like using biotechnology techniques to increase the productivity as our country is agriculture based and to increase GDP, strengthen of agriculture is necessary. For this research and to analyze the impact of agriculture on economy, we perform the chi square test. Moreover, Chi-square arithmetic is one way to show the relationship between the variables of the two categories. The p value will tell you whether your test results are important or not. While analyzing the impact of agriculture and subsectors of agriculture on economic growth, we noticed a pattern that our overall agricultural output is not seeing the growth as compared to the potential it has. When Pakistan came into being the contribution of agriculture in GDP was more than 50% but now it has come down to only 21%.


Rapid growth and development in Agriculture has become a global yearning. This is so because, not only will it guarantee food sufficiency, it has the potential to provide prime solution to dwindling economies. The World Bank for instance is of the opinion that “Agriculture can help reduce poverty, raise incomes and improve food security for 80% of the world’s poor, who live in rural areas and work mainly in farming” (World Bank Group, 2021). In recent times, it appears there is a paradigm shift from the old order where farming remained an exclusive preserve of the ‘illiterate’ rural dwellers, to a broad spectrum of more active participants spread across semi-urban and urban areas. Today, there is no gainsaying that agriculture is back on the development agenda of world economies. What this portends is that, with new entrants into the Agribusiness sector, there is going to be an increase in the demand for information, education and news bothering on innovations, breakthroughs and inventions in Agric. The Institute of Agricultural Research and Training (IART) for example has as one of its core mandates, amongst others, ‘to conduct national research into the development of improved processing and utilization of technology for crops and livestock.’ However, the extent to which these research findings, discoveries and innovations in Agric are diffused will require the expertise and specialty of Agricultural Journalists in discharging the function of informing and educating farmers. It is on this premise that a conscious attempt is made in this work to pointedly advance a linking pin between Agricultural Journalism and Agricultural Development.

Treatment of Underground Water in Industrially Polluted Communities in Ogoni Land []

The research work, evaluation of possible contaminates in the underground polluted water and Ogoni land especially in Gokana, Eleme, Khana and Tai Local Government Area of Rivers State has been developed. Each of the Local Government Areas provided with two sites, making possible of eight (8) locations where the evaluations of these contaminants were done. These areas were highly characterizing with petroleum activities and as such are termed polluted, causing the underground water to be highly contaminated. The raw water collected from the locations were analysed to determine the physicochemical properties. About twenty-one (21) pollutants present in the sites. The contaminants concentrations were recorded and compared to standard set by the World Health Organization or United Nations. Absorbents made from activations of plantain peels and rice husk were used to determine the absorptions effect. The contaminants by the absorbents. It was noticed from the results that turbidity, TSS, Nitrates, Ammonia, Dissolved Oxygen and sodium were the only pollutants that are effectively absorbed from the contaminated underground water. Also, interms of performances of absorbents, rice husk absorbent was a better performed as it absorbed more of their pollutants than plantain peels absorbents. Finally, compared to the standard set by the WHO/ United only turbidity, TDS, conductivity, colour, taste, pH, Cl-, total hardness THB, types of E-coli, and sodium were below the limits set by WHO and united nations while the rest of the parameters were above the limits and thus caused the underground water polluted. The results were in agreement with the aim and objectives of the work.

The use of RFID Technology and its contribution in managing organization warehouse. []

The logistics sector is critical to the Omani economy, as it expands inward investment, non-oil exports, and the country's competitiveness. Logistics is not only a vital factor for companies in Oman but is also an essential sector. Where Omani companies and manufacturers can boost productivity, make them greener, and earn more money through a well-equipped logistics industry. According to (muscatdaily 2021), "the logistics sector in the Sultanate of Oman achieved in 2021 the 14th rank globally, and the third at the level of the Gulf Cooperation Council." Its business-friendly environment as well as world-class transportation and logistics infrastructure makes it a great place to do business. Logistics plays an important role in the economy as it facilitates the movement and flow of many commercial transactions, an important activity in terms of facilitating the sale of all goods and services. “Because if the goods do not arrive on time, the customers will not be able to purchase them. If the goods do not reach the right place or condition, then no sale can be made” (nust 2021). If the logistics function fails to fulfill this role all economic activities will suffer. across the supply chain. So, the function of logistics management plays an important role in a country's export efforts. In addition, the warehouse department in any company is considered one of the most important departments because it is the department that communicates with companies that provide the company with important supplies and tools. Therefore, it is important to use technology in warehouses to manage them well and to improve the logistics services in the company. Where technology helps to increase the productivity and efficiency of the warehouse, make the work environment smoother, reduce the number of workers and reduce human errors, increase security in warehouses...etc. There are many leading logistics technologies that improve warehouse management and increase its efficiency, such as “Drones, RFID Tags, AI, GPS, and On-Demand Storage.” (ALLEN.W 2020) In contrast, this research was focused on the use of RFID technology in warehouses. Where this study targeted to know the role of RFID technology in managing companies' warehouses. The researcher used many methods to gather data and information, regarding primary sources, the researcher conducted an interview with the assistant director of warehouse operations and distributed the survey to 54 workers in the company. On the other hand, the researcher also used secondary sources, where magazines, books and the Internet were used in order to obtain sufficient information related to the topic of the research.

Addressing the backlog in the General Warehouse Pickups area using Quantitative survey approach: a study on Gulf nails manufacturing LLC []

Sultanate of Oman is one of the 6th gulf countries with the leading oil export countries throughout the globe. Due to the growing demand for oil export and others manufacture, logistics came to the hand as a vital role within the country’s economic growth. The overall concern with several logistics organizations and others firms around the Sultanate of Oman, owning the logistics warehouse inventory systems allow firms to manage easier in terms of inbound and outbound procedures. The countries have an enormous sound of logistics sectors across the country. However, its challenges and importance within the logistics are unclear. Due to the rising technology within logistics sectors, warehouses are facing an immense challenge through organizations across the Sultanate of Oman. It is necessary to take initial steps to solve certain warehouse challenges that the organizations are facing (Roth, Klarmann, and Franczyk 2013). The warehouse challenges in the present time within the warehouse are the backlogs within the warehouse pickup procedure. On the statement to Burinskiene (2010), analysis of customer orders, order picking entails retrieving items through the designated central warehouse. From the general perspective within warehouses, order picking is perhaps the most time-consuming operation. Order picking costs can account for up to 55% of the firms' warehouse overall operating costs. This research paper aims to address the creation of warehouse backlog within the pickups procedure. Moreover, the research goals are also to help to reduce the backlogs by addressing the distance traveled towards the order employer’s shelf region within the warehouse. Numerous specific considerations are taken into account herein to meet the goals of this research paper: Stockroom scale, warehouse space/storage, architecture, and routes. The importance of this research is to understand the depth effect of warehouse backlogs effect within pickup operation and its overall effect on the organization's success. This paper also proposes several innovative approaches towards reducing the backlog effect upon its order picking operation. Such as a density technology upgrade, warehouse device upgrade through its use of connection among order picking productivity and inventory precision. The research presented at this time identifies variations with its appropriate independent implementation approaches to minimize backlog effects.


Crinum species is a source of many bioactive molecules with both antimicrobial and anti-tumor properties. Chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts of Crinum scabrum and Crinum macowanii bulbs and leaves were investigated for their anti-mycobacterial activity against Mycobacteria tuberculosis using agar well diffusion, and broth dilution methods. Rifampicin-streptomycin resistant (R.S), pan African sensitive (H37Rv) and wild type (Sou 14827) strains of the bacteria were used. The investigation aimed to determine the anti-mycobacterial activity and safety profile of the crude extracts of Crinum scabrum and Crinum macowanii. The extracts had antimycobacterial activity that ranged between 1-5µg/ml. Their patterns of inhibition varied with the plant extract, solvent used for extraction and the organisms tested. Different concentrations of methanol extract were compared with similar concentrations of chloroform and aqueous extracts for their maximum zones of inhibition. All the extracts of Crinum macowanii were found inactive against Mycobacteria tuberculosis. Methanol leaf extract of Crinum scabrum was the most active, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) less than1µg/ml and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 1µg/ml. acute toxicity test in mice for Crinum scabrum leaf was found to have LD50 greater than 2000mg/kg. In conclusion, the leaf of Crinum scabrum is a natural source of new anti-mycobacterial compound that is tolerable and effective in treatment of tuberculosis. The study recommends herbalists to use the leaves instead of bulb of C. scabrum Alani Davis for treating TB patients.