Volume 9, Issue 6, June 2021 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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THE INFLUENCE OF GOOD GOVERNANCE ON COMMUNTY DEVELOPMENT Case Study:- Some Politicians in Mogadishu-Somalia. []


This study is designed to identify the role of good governance on community development and how their projects participation in Good governance process can contribute toward community development in ministry of labor and social affairs Mogadishu Somalia. In addition, this study intends to establish good Governance on Community Development among the voice and accountability their participation in community-based good governance and to assess how rule of law participation in community development in ministry of labor and social affairs. A review of literature was conducted to determine the existing rule of law gap concerning governance on community development in ministry of labor and social affairs. A descriptive research design with quantitative method was adopted in order to achieve the objectives of this study. Data was collected using structured questionnaire with a sample size of 68 being selected. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 20. Analyzed data were presented using both descriptive and correlation. And tables were adopted during the presentation of analyzed data. The majority of the respondents 53 (77.9%) were Staff, while only 15 (22.1%) were Manager. the majority of the respondents 56 (82.4%) Strongly agreed Citizen‘s voice through citizen participation and independent media influence government policies, 6 (8.8%) agreed the same idea, 1 (1.5%) were Neutral. On the other hand, 2 (2.9%) Strongly Disagreed that the Citizen‘s voice through citizen participation and independent media influence government policies, 3 (4.4%) also disagreed the same idea. the majority of the respondents 33 (48.5%) strongly agreed Government is accountable to citizens for its decision, 28 41.2%) agreed the same idea, 4 (5.9%) were neutral. On the other hand, 3 (4.4%) also disagreed the same idea. The study concluded we found that citizen participation that the most influential objective that contributes community development This study recommends that other researchers are encouraged to test the generalizability of this study by conduction the same study in other districts within Mogadishu or other regions of Somalia.


A NOVEL MODEL FOR IDENTIFYING AND COLLATING FRAGMENTS IN DISTRIBUTED SYSTEM []


The problems of complexity, maintenance of query processing and performance according to the request of end users from different strategic areas have called for the development of a novel model for identifying and collating fragments in distributed system; considering the fact that companies and other establishments adopted and are using distributed system for their daily business transactions in so many locations. Algorithms clustering and fragmentation were adopted in identifying database fragments to individual sites and collating these distributed systems to one central store. The methodology used to achieve this study and in design of the system is object oriented analysis and design methodology. In the implementation of the efficient system, create, read, update and delete (CRUD) techniques, bootstrap, cascading style sheet (CSS) and javascript were equally used. The database of the system became workable with the adoption of mongodb database engine. The end result projects a system with external fragmented database capable of saving to a central database. Every individual, industries and organizations that need to fragment database in distributed system can adopt the use of this system for maximum reduction of process time, for complexity reduction and for easy access of data.


Assessment of Locational Characteristics of Markets along the Highway in South-south, Nigeria []


The study analysed the locational characteristics of markets on the highway in the South-south geopolitical zone of Nigeria. Thirty four markets along the East-West road were purposively selected for the study and three hundred and forty four copies of questionnaire were used for the data collection. Observations and interview were done to have the good understanding of each market. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analyses. Findings showed that females were higher than males in the study area among which youth dominated (73.6%). Majority (60.5%) of the respondents lived maximum of 10km distance from their respective market while fewer people lived above 20km to their respective market. More than 75% of the respondents earned less than 100,000.00 naira as their average annual income. Findings showed that 50% of the markets had fair access to reach the market and more than 75% of the market had fair site condition while the parking facility of majority (79.4%) of the markets was poor. The presence of toilets and water supply were poor in these markets (94.1%). The study concluded that majority of markets along the highway of South-south region are not in good conditions and it is recommended that the environmental health of the markets should be brought to a better one by making provisions for the poorly and fairly found facilities.


Developing Reading Comprehension Skills of Junior High School []


This study investigated the effect of collaborative learning approach on reading comprehension among the Grade 7 and Grade 8 students using the experimental method. Fifteen grade 7 and ten grade 8 students were tasked to take the pre-test and they were group accordingly based on their scores. The data gathering instrument used in this study was a researcher based and it was validated by an expert. A posttest was given after conducted the treatment to the two group of respondents. The One-way Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was used in the study to determine the summary of literal comprehension, inferential comprehension, and evaluative comprehension. In literal comprehension, the analysis yielded an F-ratio of 15.66 and probability value of .001 which indicates that there was significant difference between collaborative learning and conventional approach at 0.05 level of significance which led to the rejection of the null hypothesis. However, in inferential comprehension the analysis yielded an F-ratio of .129 and probability value of .72 and in evaluative comprehension the analysis yielded an F ratio of 3.39 and probability value of.08 which indicates that there was no significant difference which led to the non-rejection of the null hypothesis. The results imply that the junior high students developed their literal comprehension by using CLA which is a better avenue in addressing reading comprehension that was considered as perennial problem in the Philippines as well as in other countries. However, neither of CLA and conventional approach were better in developing the inferential comprehension and evaluative comprehension. There contributing factors why CLA failed in inferential comprehension and evaluative comprehension such as the respondents’ cognitive level and priority. Given the demographic area of the school and it is comparable that the cognitive level of students who lived in the urban area far different from the cognitive level of the students who lived in hinterland. Also, students from the hinter land would always prioritized work over education as part of their daily struggle for survival. Keywords: Reading comprehension, collaborative learning approach, literal comprehension, inferential comprehension, evaluative comprehension


E-MARKETING MATRIX FRAMEWORK: THE TWO-FACTOR PARADIGM SHIFT []


One of the most ubiquitous aspects of the marketing research practice is the concept of marketing mix. The marketing mix has persisted for so long as the 4P’s (Product, Price, Place and Promotion). However, in the post dot-com era, Marketing Executives are learning to cope with evolving marketing elements that have emerged from the use of Internet in Business Process Operations and Re-engineering. The result is a lack of a common vocabulary in which such categorisation of techniques and an integrating framework create fundamental problems for practitioners and researchers. In some ways, the new marketing elements are not manifested in world business practices and yet from another perspective they are revolutionary and worthy of a new characterisation especially in the knowledge economies. This paper is an attempt to converge the evolving e-Marketing Matrix Framework with the Traditional Marketing Mix to promote an effective Marketing Strategy, identify and characterise it’s tool-kit and classify them into a taxonomy for Marketing Managers and Researchers.


Computer Mediated Communication: Students’ Language on Social Media []


The study investigated the language used by the students who are considered part of Generation Z who were born after millennials through computer- mediated communication (CMC). The study was also conducted to know the frequency of students’ use of social media. The language investigated in the study were derived from social media posts and messenger. It employed qualitative analysis to analyze the language used by the students on social media and the connotative meaning of the words they utter. It was found out that majority of the students used social media on a daily basis. Further, it was also found out that the 45 most commonly used words by the students on social media were 1) combinations of letters which were used to save time and shorten utterances; 2) borrowed words from the Filipino/Tagalog language and some were from English movies and online games and from the LGBTQ community which were utilized to maintain friendship; and 3) other creative expressions to add more color to the language used which were mostly used as interjections. Additionally, it was found out that majority of the words used were positive and neutral in connotations which showed that the students were conscious of their language on social media.


Analysis of the radiation-chemical yield of molecular hydrogen formed during the radiolysis of pure water and an aqueous solution of NaOH []


The effect of the concentration of aqueous solution NaOH (CM = 0.025 ÷ 8 mol / l) on the radiation-chemical output of molecular hydrogen was studied in the process of radiolytic conversion under the action of γ-quanta ((60Co, P = 26,1 rad/l). It has been established that the radiation-chemical yield of molecular hydrogen decreases depending on the concentration of the solution. This is due to the fact that thermal electrons formed by the action of emissions with 〖Na〗^+ ions form excited intermediate complexes. And it reduces the emission of free electrons, which play an indirect role in the formation of molecular hydrogen.


DEVELOPMENT OF A MICRO-CONTROLLER BASED HEARTBEAT MONITORING DEVICE []


Interest in solving heart related issues technologically brought about the aim of this innovative research to design and implement a portable microcontroller-based heartbeat monitor. The design considerations are medical practitioners in developing countries who have very limited medical infrastructure. Hence, low cost, power, portability and ease of use are factors that are considered at every stage of the design. The main challenge is amplification of the desired weak signal in the presence of noise from related muscles and electrical sources. The design and construction of the heart monitor involved affordable amplifier and filtering components coupled with a (PIC 16F84A) and a 7 segment displays. A typical heart rate ranges from 50 beats per minute to 200 beats per minute, with a normal one in the range of 70bpm-72bpm. Most readings obtained were higher (100bpm-150bpm) than the normal ones which do not conform to the normal readings expected. The heart rate results were obtained by measuring the time between peak signals and comparing it with predetermined value programmed in the PIC. The beats per minutes (BMP) results were displayed on the multiplexed 7-segment displays.


A Clinical study of awareness of ocular complications due to Diabetes among Diabetic Patients []


Ocular complications due to diabetes are becoming a major health issue due to increase number of population suffering from diabetes. Diabetes mellitus is the leading cause of ocular complications. However, awareness about the complication associated with diabetes is not so much high. In this retrospective study data results show that large number of population suffering from diabetes examine their eyes after medical professional advice. Remarkable work needs to be done to increase the awareness and management of complication to decrease the chances of visual impairment.


Exploring The Entrepreneurs Effect on Local Community to Facilitate Innovation: Evidence from GCC []


This study aims to identify the entrepreneurs’ views regarding startups as they have pioneering experiences in business. Also, review some experiences in entrepreneurship and acquire their feedback regarding challenges and opportunities in this respect. They were determining the visions of the target sample about the roles that entrepreneurship can play in bringing innovation to the GCC communities in particular. The study used the qualitative case study research method. The cases studied were various social entrepreneurs and their projects in their given environments in different Gulf counties. This study uses in-depth, open-ended interviews to collect the data. The findings revealed a significant entrepreneurial activity and contribution to progress innovation in their communities in terms of frequency, degree, and intensity of entrepreneurship. The results also approve the existence of an “entrepreneurial vehicle.” that led to meaningful breakthrough ideas in their societies. The study recommended facing the challenges of entrepreneurship by developing multiple options for policies to support the digital transformation of business models. Also, developing guidelines for digital infrastructure and innovation based on information and communication technology, and finding ways to spread the culture of using digital technologies in society. Both the explanation and the analysis have practical implications for people interested in entrepreneurship and the circumstances for initiatives of all kinds and entire development.


A conceptual study of the talent management from the perspective of the employees of an organization “special reference to MULTIGENERATIONS” []


Conventionally, Talent Management referred exclusively to the development and replacement of top executives. Nowadays, the emphasis is on attracting and retaining talented employees at all levels within the organization. This idea leads to a shift from the idea of one single ladder (i.e. one talent pipeline, focused only on (potential) leaders) towards the idea of multiple talent-ladders or pipelines (i.e. talent pipelines for different kinds of people in the organization, not exclusively leaders). Talent Management aims at improving the potential of employees who are seen as being able to make a valuable difference for the organization, either now or in the future. Moreover, Talent Management should also improve organizational performance. However, talent management strongly focuses on (potential) leaders, which can cause organizations to forget ‘the other groups of talents that are critical today. This realization had led to the use of the following definition of Talent Management: Talent Management means that an organization tries to nurture and develop the people that are defined as having both a high potential and ability’. This research paper has an important focus about understanding the various aspects of the Talent Management of multi-generations and the various areas that the organization focuses on during the process. It also aims at understanding how the characteristics and value of people belonging to different generations affect their work ethic or expectations. This research will be useful in understanding various aspects and decisions that are involved in the process of managing and integrating talent and people within an organization.


Principle of Proportionality and Normative Quality: An Overview of the Moroccan Criminal Law []


It is not uncommon for national legislators to adopt inappropriate laws that are contrary to international norms and standards. As a human work, the law is not free from error and must therefore be subject to continuous evaluation and reform in order to comply with the requirements of human rights as the universal general principles endowed with primacy. This study is limited to an examination of certain targeted laws in Moroccan criminal legislation that may represent serious violations of the legal principle of proportionality and normative quality which puts in failure the values of a tolerant democratic society that promotes human rights.


FACTORS AFFECTING THE PERFORMANCE OF EMPOWERMENT PROJECTS FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES IN RWANDA: A CASE OF NYARUGENGE DISTRICT []


Abstract The performance of projects has been a challenge until today. Through empowerment projects, the government together with development partners has initiated empowerment projects for persons with disabilities. The empowerment of persons with disabilities is fundamental to empower them to take their place in the community. The attempts made have, however, been unsuccessful and persons with disabilities are still among the poorest community until today. Generally, the study aimed to assess the factors affecting the performance of the empowerment projects for persons with disabilities in NYARUGENGE District of Rwanda and the specific objectives were: To examine effect of resources availability on performance of empowerment projects of persons with disabilities in NYARUGENGE District of Rwanda; To assess effect of project plan clarity on performance of projects of persons with disabilities in NYARUGENGE District of Rwanda; and finally to analyze the effect of stakeholders’ participation on performance of projects of persons with disabilities in NYARUGENGE District of Rwanda. The study used descriptive survey design. The population of this study comprised of 121 and the sample was 93 beneficiaries (trainees) of empowerment projects for persons with disabilities in NYARUGENGE District during 217-2019. Data collection was done by requesting permission to the respondents to participate in the survey. The data were collected directly from the respondents by use of questionnaires. This study was descriptive and summarized the characteristics of the respondents; the descriptive statistics involved the use of mean, frequency, percentages and standard deviation about the variables of the study. The data of this study was also analyzed by using correlation and regression analysis. Resource availability had a correlation of (=0.726, p<0.01) and regression results (β=. 409, t=8.142, p<0.001), clear project plan had a correlation of (=0.616, p<0.01) and regression results (β=. 176, t=3.532, p<0.001), and finally stakeholders’ participation had a correlation of (r=0.714, p<0.05) and regression results (β=. 129, t=2.829, p<0.005). The regression line was Y=β1(.409)+ β2(.176)+β3(.129)+ e. Since the findings revealed that resources availability has positive and significant correlation to the performance of empowerment projects for persons with disabilities in NYARUGENGE District thereafter researcher concluded that there is statistically significant relationship between the resources availability, clear project plan, and stakeholders’ participation and the performance of empowerment projects for persons with disabilities. The researcher recommended that project funders and managers to foster and organize enough project resources to guarantee the performance of their projects. The researcher recommended to the project team leaders to clearly establish the project scope and breakdown structure to everyone to ensure the performance of their projects. The researcher recommended the project owners to engage all stakeholders in planning, implementation, and execution processes of the projects to guarantee that the stakeholders’ expectations are met.


RESEARCH WORK ON; OVER SCHOOLING IN ARTS AND SOCIAL SCIENCES AND THE CRISES OF UNEMPLOYMENT: THE NIGERIAN EXPERIENCE By Iwegbu Chuks Justus & Alika Happy Social Studies Department College of Education, Agbor Delta State. []


OVER SCHOOLING IN ARTS AND SOCIAL SCIENCES AND THE CRISES OF UNEMPLOYMENT: THE NIGERIAN EXPERIENCE By Iwegbu Chuks Justus & Alika Happy Social Studies Department College of Education, Agbor Delta State. Abstract The paper on Over Schooling in Social Sciences and Crises of Unemployment: The Nigerian Experience examines the concept of over schooling and the social science. The difference between the levels of education an individual or a graduate acquires with his required schooling needed for a preferred job is also analyzed. As a relatively new concept, over schooling requires education from direct background to show concern and contribute to this very important and controversial aspect of education ideology. The purpose of this position paper therefore, is to expose the need to match schooling with employability, skills and employment. To make this paper comprehensible and result oriented, basic concepts relevant to the discourse were conceptualized: career options in the field of social sciences are also highlighted. The crisis of unemployment, as well as the inability of over schooling to address those crises was equally examined. Based on the foregoing, the paper recommends among others, that practical and functional education, knowledge, skills, abilities and competence should take prominence during curriculum planning and implementation. Keywords: Over Schooling, Social Sciences, Acquired schooling, Required Schooling etc. Introduction The concepts of Over Schooling, Over Education and Over Bothering in teaching and learning from the Crèche to the highest citadel of learning, the university, today in the school environment seems to be the new conflict arising from the link between Education, Employability and Productivity at work places. The search for results, fulfillment, job satisfaction and often times the struggle to lead a better and most fulfilled life and in a more friendly and serene environment has always made man to be in an unending search for theories, principles, knowledge, skills, abilities and competencies to adequately achieve these permutations on live issues. Therefore, whether in the Arts, Social Sciences, Humanities, Applied and Natural Sciences, the struggles, the conflict, the search and the efforts are in no way different. Though, the anxieties, discomfort, dissatisfactions, stress and strains arising from the supposed link between Education, Employability and Productivity and other numerous life issues are evidently worse in developing and the underdeveloped societies. The unabated desire to create a more robust relationship between Schooling, Education, Employability and Productivity at work places appears to be the driving force in the creation of the new concepts of Over Schooling, Over Education, Required Schooling, Needed Schooling etc The question is, since the birth of these new concepts in the education industry; it has created the lacuna between Education, Employability, Employment and Productivity in the society. The Concept of Schooling The study of the origin of words by known Linguists such as Naom Chomsky and Pier Paolo Pasolini in Mordi, & Jike, (2005) strongly affirmed that the concept of Over Schooling took its origin from the simple concept of School which means an institution that promotes teaching and learning process in all human environments, (Wikipedia, 2010). In these systems, students progress through a series of schools usually from the lowest to the highest level of schooling. While Schooling is a process, School on its own is a Physical Structure where schooling takes place over a period of stipulated time. There is thin line between education and schooling. Schooling is an organized process of teaching and learning which takes place in a four wall of an institution. This process (schooling) if properly executed or carried out is supposed to midwife into education. Ideally, schooling ensures that learners are equipped with knowledge of theories, models, concepts, facts, figures and certain physical skills in the case of technical education. All these if learnt are potential tools in the hands of the possessor. However, most times, these things are not properly learnt by the supposed learners. On the other flank, education is much more than schooling in that education can happen anywhere and anytime. It is broader and deeper than schooling because it is change-based. It is all about application and problem-solving. If what schooling offers cannot be applied to solve societal problems, then, education has not taken place. If what schooling offers cannot instigate change in personal or group behaviour, then, education has not occurred. Indeed effective and productive schooling is expected to beget education but the big question is; what type of education does our school system in Nigeria today beget? The Concept and Philosophy of the Social Sciences The philosophy of the Social Sciences is the study of the Logic, Methods, and foundation of the Social Sciences (Comte, in Mordi & Jike, 2005) . Social sciences according to Mordi & Jike (2005) are important category of academic disciplines concerned with the basic understanding of human society and the relationships among individuals within a society. Social science as a whole has many branches, each of which is considered a social science, (Wikipedia, 2009) Social science is, in its broadest sense, the study of society and the manner in which people behave and influence the world around them. Social science tells us about the world beyond our immediate environment and experience, and can help explain how our own society works - from the causes of unemployment or what helps economic growth, to how and why people vote, or what makes people happy (Robert,1999). It provides vital information for governments and policymakers, local authorities, non-governmental organizations and others. Disciplines in Social Science The specialties, disciplines and subject areas within the family of the social sciences according to William, (1988) include amongst others; Sociology, Social Studies, Economics, Political Science, History, and Geography are considered as Social Sciences. Social science as an academic field of study developed out of the Age of Enlightenment (or the Age of Reason), which flourished through much of the 18th century Europe. The frontline Philosophers whose works remain as compass in the field of the social sciences till date as quoted by Giddens, (2006) are Adam Smith, Voltaire, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Denis Diderot, Immanuel Kant, David Hume and others. These Philosophers were among some of the giant intellectuals at the time who laid the foundations for the study of social sciences in the Western World. Individuals began to take a more disciplined approach to quantifying their observations of society, and over time similar aspects of a society, such as linguistics and psychology, were separated into unique fields of study, (Giddens, 2006). Formal Education in Social Sciences In the U.S according to (Wikipedia, 2009), the early education of social sciences took off from the elementary school, and progresses throughout middle and high school with an emphasis on core Social Sciences such as Sociology, Social Studies, Economics, Political Science and History. At the college level in the United State of America, more specialized disciplines are offered. The Philosophy of the Social Science The Philosophy of the Social Sciences according to Giddens, (2006) can be conceptualized as that aspect of the Social Sciences that examines the rationale behind the birth of the Social Science. The phrase, the philosophy of the social science can be broadly descriptive unearthing the fundamental conceptual tools in social science and relating them to the tools employed in other human endeavours. It also considers the various concepts, methods, and logic of the Social Sciences for the ease of understanding the subject area. To achieve their aim, the Philosophers of Social Science investigate both the practice of the social sciences and the nature of the entities that the Social Sciences study, such entities as human beings themselves. Historically, according to Giddens (2006), many philosophers of Social Sciences have taken the basic question of their discipline to be whether the Social Sciences can be “Scientific” in the same way that the Natural Sciences are. The approach that answers this question affirmatively is called Naturalism, whereas that which answers it negatively is known as Humanism, though a number of theories attempt to combine these two approaches. Given this framework, the term Philosophy of social sciences is arguably not restrictive. The branch of the Social Sciences that figure most saliently in Humanist Approach, which centrally feature the interpretation of meaning and consciousness according to Mordi & Jike (2005), are Anthropology, History, and those parts of Sociology that focus on the margins of mainstream society. Moreover, these disciplines strikingly confronts a host of questions that bothers on man and his immediate Social, Cultural, Economic, Religious, Political environment that trouble Philosophers of Social Science on how to fruitfully understand and decently make more comfortable and convenient decisions for man. The questions that are grouped around the topic of Relativism (the Doctrine that either experience, assessments of value, or even reality itself is a function of a particular conceptual scheme. These views are called epistemological, moral, and Ontological Relativism) Mordi & Jike (2005). But not all Philosophers of Social Science, Mordi & Jike (2005) insists, believe that meaning is something on which the Social Sciences should focus. Despite the fact that human actions and reactions are clearly meaningful on the surface, some Philosophies of Social Science have denied; that meaning ultimately has (or should have) a fundamental role to play in the Social Sciences. One of the most noteworthy of these approaches is Behaviorism, which dispenses with inner mental states and cultural meanings altogether. Instead, human behaviour is conceived as a series of responses to external stimuli, responses that are regulated by the patterns of conditioning that have been inculcated into the organism. A Social Scientist Social Science is a discipline that covers the studies of man and human environment. The result of the constant interaction between man and his immediate environment is a major area of concern to the field of Social Sciences. On the other way round, one who studied any of the disciplines in the field of social sciences is termed a Social Scientist. Giving credence to this understanding, WikiBook (2010) asserts that a social scientist not only studied social science but is seen as one who conducts research within his or her field within the family of the social sciences and makes recommendations about how research findings can be used to improve human relation and the entire human society. In order to effectively report their own and interpret the findings of others, successful Social Scientists have excellent writing and oral communication skills. Career options in the field of Social Sciences Careers options in the world today according to wikibook (2010) are numerous and are in upward multiplication daily since the beginning of the 21st century but the ones within the family of the Social Sciences include but not limited to the following: Teaching and Lecturing Advertising/Marketing Banking and Insurance Business Management Management Consultancy Market research Media and Politics Tourism Town Planning Over Schooling and the Crises of Unemployment: The Nigerian Experience It is no longer a moonlight tale that the unemployment crises in Nigeria today is choking and terribly frustrating nearly every sector of the economy without any hope for imminent recovery. It has truly become evidently clear that the crises of unemployment and employability in Nigeria remain one of the major causes of Nigerian youths devising several means of survival today and one of such survival strategy is Over Schooling among the graduates of but not limited to Social Sciences. This means of survival are descent while many of it cannot be said to be that descent. Movie industry is one of such careers that can be said to have grown out of the heat of unemployment in Nigeria. The comedy industry, Okada ridding philosophy, and even “Europe by land venture” and volunteer works all emanated from the ugly tail of unemployment crises. Others include touting, pilfering and criminality of all sorts, music and dance industries, drug and narcotic peddling and many other emergency careers. The sudden popularity of Entrepreneurship Education and the upsurge of Skill Acquisition Centers are all part of the issues. It may not be totally a fallacy to insist that the crises of unemployment in Nigeria is not totally a catastrophe but has acted advantageously to some extent in bringing out the best from Nigerians who are desirous in earning a living decently. Unemployment is one concept that though has variously been defined by scholars in Commerce, Economics, Business Education, Trade and other disciplines known for job and wealth creation. Despite the constant search for the postulation of single universally acceptable definition of the concept of unemployment, the meaning and implication does not exceed the simplest fact that – Unemployment means a situation and that, when an individual has no job or work to do. Underemployment is a more pleasant better situation than unemployment. Underemployment is a job situation, where one has a job or work that is far below ones certification. In looking deeper into the concept of unemployment, Ogunsanya (2007) defined unemployment as a condition in which one has no job to do on a regular basis. It is a situation where a strong, healthy and qualified adult has no job or work to do. Hornby (2010) asserts that unemployment is state of not having a job. Unemployed people according to Iwegbu,( 2018) do not include young people who are still in school or those who are mentally incapable or ill. Those who passed out from Universities, Colleges of Education, Polytechnics, Trade and Technical Centers without jobs are said to be unemployed. According to the ILO (2009) 160 million people in the world today are unemployed, and many more subsist on the margins of the economy or have jobs that do not provide them with adequate means to ensure their survival. Asserting further, ILO (2009) affirm that nearly 40 per cent of those without work are young people, and levels of unemployment tend to be two to three times higher for this group than for the adult population. The situation of unemployment is particularly grievious for young graduates in most developing and underdeveloped economies of the world, as studies suggest a huge imbalance between the supply of young workers and the demand for their labour (ILO, 2009) While critically looking at the problems created by the painful unemployment situation in the present day Nigeria, Iwegbu, (2018) asserts that unemployment has caused, to say the least extreme havoc to Nigeria and Nigerians at large. Unemployment has led to the increase in crime rate and sudden eruption of all forms of vices in Nigeria that were unheard of in this part of the world. Many of the unemployed youths indulge in crimes such as armed robbery, kidnapping, assassination, prostitution, insurgencies. Some of the unemployed youths had forced themselves into drug trafficking to get money for survival. Solutions to Unemployment Problems The issue of Over Schooling remains one of the most misconceived strategies through which people planned to escape from the harsh unemployment condition but the reverse has remained the case. In permanently curbing the problem of unemployment in both Nigeria and other developing nations of the world, practical and functional education is an enduring panacea where every individual will end up practicing what he or she has learnt in school Iwegbu, (2018). Situations where graduates keep waiting for government employment after graduation is no longer fashionable in these present times of population explosion and heavy graduate turn out from various tertiary institutions. People should be trained in such a manner that after graduation, they set up business outfits and offices in relation to what they studied in schools and as their creativity and businesses enlarge, they will certainly end up as employers of labour, this is ultimately the way to go is the Nigeria nation must develop to its full capacity. The educational sector should be restructured to encourage self reliance. In other words our educational system should lay more emphases on skill acquisition. There should be proper management of the economy by the government. This will make her to have enough money to provide jobs for the people who are unemployed. People should focus on agriculture instead of depending on the government. Nigeria has enough fertile land. Government should provide machines and train the youths on how to operate the machines for farm work as the educated youths would not like to work with native hoe and machetes. This will create employment for many youths. Government should make rural towns and villages a conducive place to dwell and hospitals and other social services should be provided. This will make the youths live and do agricultural work there instead of moving to the big towns in search of job. Schools should teach subjects which will help the students to be self reliant when they leave school. Such subjects like Agriculture Science, Computer Science, Pure and Applied Sciences, Home Economics, Arts and Crafts and others truly should be made more practicable than what it is today so that they can start life after graduating from school. More factories and industries should be built to accommodate unemployed graduates. The scenario were an a graduate of Electrical and Electronics Engineering in Nigeria can fix an electric bulb in his house is most ridiculous and unfortunate. Nigeria educational planners truly need to grow up in their planning and implementation techniques. Our leaders should be neutral in the case of employment. They should give employment based on the order of merit and practical experience irrespective of one’s ethnic group. They should see their Citizens as one Nigeria and not one ethnic group. It is important to note that unemployment is something that is not new but the only difference is the rate of increase. Unemployment is something that cannot be wiped out entirely from any nation. The causes and remedies were discussed in the body of this work. The government (the policy makers and curriculum planners) should restructure the educational system in the country to include and encourage skill acquisition which will help to minimize unemployment rate. The Crises of Unemployment and Under Employment in Nigeria: Is Over Schooling a Way Out? Over Schooling is never an answer to the crises of unemployment and underemployment in Nigeria. The crises of unemployment and under employment threatening the Nigerian nation to its foundation today has became entrenched into the Nigeria national life from poor policy initiative of the government. This indeed is visibly evident from the government show of total lack of commitment and dedication coupled with lack of political will to overhaul the entire machinery of the state (Okorie, 2014). Asserting further, Okorie, (2014), insists that if it took poor policy initiative to plunge the Nigerian nation into the dungeon of unemployment and underemployment, policy reversal and reorientation is all it will also need to change the trend. Until the right policies that will translate into wealth and job creation is put in place, while making the environment conducive for business growth, Nigerian graduates will continue to lament over unemployment crises. It is most erroneous, frustrating and indeed ridiculous for any serious academic to think that Over Schooling is a way out of the present choking unemployment rate in Nigeria. Over Schooling in this regard can be said to be illusory and more of a mirage in outlook. It is simply the act of acquiring certificates upon certificates which may never be used in the work life of a public or civil servant. To say the least, most of the certification, knowledge, skills, abilities and competence acquired through Over Schooling by the holder of these certificates may not even be necessary or needed in the line of duty of the individual. Think about a Practicing Medical Doctor acquiring ICAN, ANAN, ASCON, Diploma in Journalism, M.Sc in Labour Relation, M.Sc in Dispute Resolution and Conflict Management, Ph.D in Peace and Conflict Management and so on. This is a simple case of Over Schooling and the question is, in which Office will the Medical Doctor going to use these certificates, Labour Room of his Operation Theater?. Also considering a Primary School teacher acquiring a Ph.D with less than three years in service and this teacher is already sixty years of age. Is such Schooling not laughable? What about Dangote Trailer Drivers with MS.c and Ph.D Certificates as reported early last year, in which area of driving will the Certificates improve their driving skill (Eruogi, 2012). Over Schooling does not create job, it does not enhance productivity neither does it promote employability. The end result of Over Schooling in most cases is usually frustration, depression and poor work attitudes. Functional and Productive education is the only way out of the unemployment crises ravaging the Nigerian nation today. Conclusion / Recommendation Over Schooling in Arts and Social Sciences and in every other discipline experiencing it today among Nigerians cannot be said to be a tea party. The cost of Over Schooling among those deeply involved in it is heavy, Over Schooling is time consuming and energy sapping. Over Schooling in the most sincere language is draining and frustrating considering the huge investment in money and time. Over Schooling practically, may make one versatile but has little or no impact on productivity and employability. It therefore means that, if a concept has minimal or no impact on employability and productivity, it will have minimal or no impact on the issue of employment, unemployment or underemployment as the case maybe. The issue of unemployment in Nigeria today that is already a canker worm plummeting the Nigeria nation into a near irredeemable dilemma can only be addressed effectively using practical education as a panacea, only if the policy framework of the Nigerian Educational System can urgently be reversed to make schooling more practicable and functional. Practical and Functional Education where Knowledge, Skills, Abilities and Competence acquired through schooling are put into practical use in industries, businesses and institutions even to the extent of individual graduates establishing themselves into practicing what they learnt in school. This is the surest way of fighting unemployment and underemployment to a standstill. Today’s employers in Nigeria need employees who can put into practical use the education they have acquired through effective and functional schooling and not graduates who only parade chains of Degrees. To the employers, that is only when the employee is employable and productivity guaranteed. In conclusion therefore, if the chains of degrees acquired by an individual through Over Schooling cannot culminate into practical realities, that is, increase in productivity at work place, then the overall aim of schooling and education may have been largely defeated. Reference Eruogi,I.E (2012) Matching Schooling, Education with Employment in Nigeria: The New Focus in https://en.m.wikipedia.org › wiki › School, retrieved 25/08/2018 Giddens, A (2006). Sociology: Meaning. Concepts, Theories and Practice. Oxford, UK: Polity. p. 714. ISBN 0-7456-3379-X . Hornby, A.S. (2010). Oxford Advanced Learners’ Dictionary of Current English (8th Edition). Oxford: Oxford University press. International Labour Organization (2009) Schooling, Education and Employment: The Missing Link; Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Iwegbu, C.J ( 2018) Earning a Living outside Government Paid Job in an Unemployment Ravaged Economy in Leadership Training and Career Prospects For Students Of Social Studies in press Ogunsoya, M. Onyenze J.N & Sankara, A. (2007) Macmillan primary Social Studies Education. Macmillan Nigeria Publishers Ltd, Okorie, (2014) the Crises of Unemployment and Underemployment in Nigeria: A Product of Policy Failure in Nigeria in www.assefn.com retrieved 10/09/2019 Robert A (1999). The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy (Second ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 704. William, H. (1988) Key Contemporary Thinkers , Polity Press (Second Edition 2009), ISBN 978-0-7456- 4328-1 p.19 WikiBooks (2010) The Teaching and Practice of the Social Sciences in https://en.m.wikipedia.org › wiki › School, retrieved 25/08/2018 Wikipedia, (2009) Principle and Practice of Social Sciences 25/08/2018 in https://en.m.wikipedia.org › wiki › School, retrieved Wikipedia, (2010) School and Education: Similarities and Differences 5/08/2018 in https://en.m.wikipedia.org › wiki › School, retrieved Mordi, A.A & Jike, V.T (2005) Introduction to Philosophy of the Social Sciences, Abraka, Faculty of the Social Sciences, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria.


Analysis of a Mathematical Model for the Dynamics of Smartphone Virus Propagation: a guide from epidemiological model []


Virus attack is a serious threat in smartphone network environment and is still multiplying as time continues to pass. There are many virus applications in smartphone and users may not be aware of most of these virus intrusions. Thus, controlling these virus attacks in smartphone become necessary, hence we proposed an SVEIQRS model for the control of the virus attack in smartphones through vaccination and quarantine of infected smartphones prior to treatment. The model has a globally asymptotically stable virus free equilibrium when R_0<1 and a unique endemic equilibrium when R_0>1. The numerical analysis of the different properties was conducted in MATLAB and the result showed that in other to suppress the propagation of smartphone virus attack in the network, vaccination rate should be increased.


SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY OF AZO DYES DERIVED FROM 4-METHYLANILINE AS THE DIAZO COMPONENT USING N, N-DIMETHYLANILINE AND BETA-HYDROXYNAPHTHIONIC ACID (BON ACID) AS THE COUPLING AGENTS []


Azo dyes were synthesizedvia diazotization and coupling reaction using 4-methylaniline as the diazo component, Bon Acid and N, N-dimethylaniline as the coupling component, where the wavelength of maximum absorption is at 358.00 nm on the solvent Ethanol, and 444.00 nm on the solvent DMSO for dye A While 390.00 nm on the solvent Ethanol, and 455.00 nm on the solvent DMSO for dye B. FT-IR spectroscopy studies shows that dye A has the following functional group and Vibrational frequencies; 3362.1 cm-1 NH Stretch, 2914.8 cm-1 CH - stretch, 1654.9 cm-1, 15804 cm-1, 1543.1 cm-1 N=N stretch. While dye B has the following; 3276.2 cm-1, OH- stretch, 2814.1 cm-1 CH-stretch, 1654.9 cm-1, 1625.1 cm-1, 1513.3 cm-1 N=N Stretch. The electrical conductivity of the synthesized dyes were observed to be within the range of 10-6-10-9 S m-1. The electrical conductivity of the dyes lies within the range of electrical conductivity for semiconductor which is between 10 12 102 S m-1 (Aziz et al., 2002). However, Dye B was observed to have the highest electrical conductivity of 2.61x-10 -6 S m-1 at 60 Hz. This can be attributed to the fact that dye B have continuous conjugation due to the presence of betahyroxynaphthionic acid and hence have higher electrical conductivity.


Research (Meningococcal disease in children in a pediatric hospital Benghazi-Libya ) []


Abstract: Bacterial meningitis remains a very important disease worldwide. WHO estimates, approximately 171,000 people worldwide die from bacterial meningitis each year. The mortality of untreated bacterial meningitis approaches 100% and, even with optimum treatment, mortality might happen. unregulated use of antibiotics in the general community is common and clinicians may have limited access to more effective, broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. The present study aimed to explore the magnitude of the disease and identify the type of bacteria that causes meningitis in children. Using data available from the children's hospital, Benghazi. Gram-negative bacteria were fo.und to be responsible for the highest contribution to bacterial meningitis in Infected Children, the highest infections rate of bacteria K. pneumonia (35.6%) next comes an S. aureus (17.8%). Due To the facts that overall aim of the study was to decrease the morbidity of bacterial meningitis through, control or limit infectious by increasing health awareness and improve healthy lifestyle, as well as continues surveillance to detect changes in the microbiology of organisms causing bacterial meningitis or their sensitivity in our community is essential. Keywords: Meningitis, Acute inflammation, Children hospital, Antimicrobial activity, Bacteria.


ON A MODIFIED HIGHER ORDER FORM OF CONJUGATE GRADIENT METHOD FOR SOLVING SOME OPTIMAL CONTROL PROBLEMS []


In this paper, we embed a control operator in a modified conjugate gradient method. The embedded control operator in the modified conjugate gradient method was used to solve the Lagrange form of optimal control problems. The solutions obtained in all the problems converged appropriately in just few iterations by considering the repetition of the functional values and gradient norm as the basis of convergence.


INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY: A STRATEGY IN HEALTH CARE SERVICE DELIVERY IN PRIVATE HOSPITALS []


Due to an ever increasing number of healthcare facilities across Kenya, the quality of healthcare service being given to patients has become a key factor that has led to huge performance gap among the existing private healthcare facilities. Healthcare facilities across the world are now putting service delivery quality as a priority towards enhancing patients’ satisfaction. This study findings form additional literature to existing body of knowledge, benefit information communication technology service providers as well as healthcare service recipients. The specific objectives of the study were: to determine the effect of telemedicine; to establish the effect of mobile health as well as to assess the effect of wearable health technologies on health care service delivery. This study was guided by Unified Theory of Acceptance Use of Technology and SERVQUAL model. The target population was 720 hospital staff of Tenwek and Kaplong mission hospitals in Kenya.The sample size of 215 respondents were selected using stratified simple random sampling technique. Descriptive and explanatory research designs were used in the study. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data. The collected data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences. To test the extent to which Information. Mobile health, telemedicine and wearable health technologies had significant and positive effect on health care service delivery. Each of the technology tools including telemedicine, mobile health and wearable healthcare technology are important in ensuring quality in health care service delivery. The tools are supported by use of advanced technology, effective medication, qualified and competent human resource and sufficient doctor-patient ratio, effectiveness, efficiency and affordability of medical services. There is need for a comparative study on the health care service in faith-based healthcare institutions and Non-governmental organizations’ operated healthcare institutions as a result adoption of information communication technology. The hospital management should procure equipment and install infrastructure necessary in treatment and management of chronic illnesses. Research can be replicated focusing on other information Communication technology innovations and a targeting hospital patients.


Design and implementation of an incident reporting mobile application for android phones []


Abstract- Recent developments have witnessed increased activities in the mobile communication, be it the evolution of mobile devices, mobile applications or mobile based business solutions. This has brought about transformation of our world into a digital world. One of such mobile applications is the Incident Reporting Application (I.R.A). The incident reporting application assists with the incident management process with regard to work-related injuries at construction sites, schools or practically anywhere you or your employer work. This digital application enables you to capture right from your mobile device specifics including: the injured person, witness information, weapons used, threats, suspect and police details and more. This research work was carried out to design and implement an incident reporting application for android phones. The following programming languages were used for the design of this application CSS, JavaScript, Bootstrap, jQuery, Cordova, MySQLi while the Html text editor was used to input the programs. Two applications were developed, one for the android phone and one for computer. The application is installed on an android phone where an eyewitness of an incident uses it to record and report to the appropriate authority. The one installed on computer is for the administrator to receive reports from eyewitnesses. The exact location and scene of incident is automatically uploaded to the administrator. This application is very important because it helps to curtail deaths that occur in our schools, workplaces, highways and other places where accidents take place.


Can fuels be pollution free and produce zero emissions? []


This report is about searching whether fuels used in cars can actually be pollution free and produce zero emissions both in production of the fuel and its usage in cars. This question is important because when burned, some fuels produce harmful greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and sulphur dioxide, that cause global warming to occur as well as multiple health issues especially lung diseases to become more common.


INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY A SUPER GAME CHANGER IN EDUCATION SYSTEM []


Information and Communication Technology offers new technology in all areas of our lives and the education sector is not left out. In this information age, we can now talk to each other in ways we never imagined. Looking at how technology has affect the world today; information technology will positively affect the educational sectors. The authors discussed the benefits of learning with computing tools when employed into teaching.


SAND MINING AS A VERITABLE INFORMAL SECTOR ACTIVITY FOR RURAL LIVELIHOOD IN ABAK, AKWA IBOM STATE, NIGERIA. []


This paper examines sand mining as a veritable informal sector activity for rural livelihood with a view to enhancing sustainable informal sector development in Abak Local government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. To generate a data for the study, field reconnaissance survey was done which identified 16 mining sites within 8 communities in Abak. 400 copies of structured questionnaire were distributed to 20 members of the Tippers Businessmen Association 80 sand miners and other stakeholders in the area. This was complemented with focused group discussion with stakeholders in the different communities. It was hypothesized that sand mining is a veritable informal activity that enhanced rural livelihood in Abak. The hypothesis was tested by multiple regression of sand mining component and rural livelihood attributes revealed that the effect of sand mining on rural livelihood is significant as job creation accounted for 0.75, increase in miners’ income had 0.55, funding children education had 0.60, early marriage by sand miners had 0.59 and revenue generation for household had 0.64 respectively. Findings on employment status revealed that 60% of miners were engaged on fulltime basis while 40% accounted for part-time. There are marked variations in the volume of sand mined per site ranging from 360-680 tonnage daily in the region. It was revealed that part-time workers take to other informal activities like farming, fishing, trading, carpentry and building to augment for family income. The activities of sand miners in the region are regulated by Association of Tipper Businessmen with legal backing from government. Therefore, this paper recommended that sustainable mining activities should be employed by miners and stakeholders’ collaboration with government assistance will attract more informal activities like food vendor for sustainable employment generation in Abak, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria


OIL SPILL ANALYSIS USING ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY METHOD AND GIS: A CASE STUDY IN OSHIE COMMUNITY, IN AHOADA-WEST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF RIVERS STATE NIGERIA. []


The investigation of oil spill analysis was made to determine the level of pollution in an oil spill site in Oshie community, in Rivers State Nigeria. A two-dimensional resistivity survey of seven profiles and one VES was acquired using ABEM Terrameter, SAS 1000 with Res2Divn, IPI2win, and Surfer 16 software for processing, in which five profiles are polluted and two are control profiles. The Wenner configuration was used to achieve vertical and lateral resistance distribution for the location under investigation. The results indicate that Contaminated zones were detected in layer 1, 2, and 3, with topsoil, consist of brownish-black, poorly sorted clayey sands with depths ranging from 2 to 3 m, and contaminated zones correspond to high resistivity near the surface, with true resistivity ranging from 40 to 109 Ωm. The oil spill migrates through the dry sandstone and coarse formation of the first layer into the second layer. The second layer, which contains a thickness ranging from 2.2 to 5.38 m, displays resistivity ranging from 20 to 250 Ωm. It is a permeable layer and it does not prevent the vertical infiltration of crude oil. The third layer with a depth ranging from 5 to 8.6 m is partially contaminated while Layer 4 shows no contamination plumes. The path of migration of the crude oil on the surface reveals that the oil spillage is moving toward the Orashi river which has a lower altitude. The 3D modeling indicates that communities along the Orashi River is affected by oil spill.


The Use of Architectural Components in Minimizing Maintenance of Buildings for Benue State, Otukpo. []


Buildings are designed with the intention of lasting a long amount of time. Building maintenance is characterized in various building typologies as multifaceted tasks that include planning, managing, regulating, and coordinating resources to maintain the physical, functional, and organizational efficiency of the building. The study focused on how minimizing maintenance was achieved, successfully, with the use of architectural components. Data from educational institutions' maintenance departments is collected and evaluated. According to the findings of the report, building maintenance culture can be either positive or negative depending on the nature of the construction technique used. The study advises that organisations planning to erect building structures conduct a thorough analysis of building codes and legislation in order for builders to adhere to established requirements and minimize maintenance. The research finally instructed the social control of maintenance integration in design necessities in youth development centers and planning authorities, it also proved that correct maintenance considerations throughout the design stage can save the building from failing, it also shows the extent to which maintenance options may be integrated into youth development center buildings in Benue state's Otukpo local government district.


The sovereignty of dint pulse shocked of LSP relations on AHSS-DP 350/600 []


Fatigue crack growth test was executed to determine fatigue behavior in the metallic door/gate plates of AHSS-DP350/600 however, this material is widely used in security manufacturing industry henceforth controlling fatigue character is a major challenge in the production unit. The influence of laser shock peening with multiple choice of pulse energies on AHSS-DP350/600 was investigated and its improvement of material properties was the ultimate objective. Measuring compared of both residual stress and fatigue cycle behavior, observation of morphologies, impact hardness of fracture surfaces and roughness/damage fractal was performed. Conduction attitude of Fatigue experiments on specimens was done, the microstructure of fracture surface hardness and roughness of specimens were characterized by analysis. It resulted that the compressive residual stress can be injected into the outer layer of the door/gate specimen with LSP pulse energy of S20J and D20J and without LSP specimen. It was indicated that specimen D20J significantly revealed a higher influence among other specimens. However, it significantly revealed again a clearer difference of increment of 102,076 seconds before fracture as compared to without LSP respectfully.


Reading Habits Among Students and Their Effect on their Academic Performance: A Study of Students of a Public School in Al Ain City in the UAE []


Abstract The study aimed to explore the reading habits among students and their effects on their academic performance. The study was conducted in a school in a remote are in Al Ain city, in the UAE. The study used the qualitative approach and data was collected. Interviews with six students were used to present the results of findings. The findings showed that most of the interviewees acknowledged the importance of reading, they read scientific books as well as stories and novels. Only one student said that he read for the sake of passing examination. The study assured that the reading habit has a significant influence on academic performance. There is also a relationship between the reading habit and the academic performance of students. The study recommended that students should be encouraged by their teachers to use the library for reading and to assign extra reading for students. Keywords: Reading Habit, Academic Performance, Library, Students, Extra Reading


The Role Of Nanotechnology Applications In Construction As A Tool To Reduce Materials []


The tremendous technological development in the late twentieth century and persistent scientific research led to the emergence of nanotechnology, and its applications were quickly linked in the daily life of individuals through small and high-speed computers, and it was also optimized in the field of construction and building by improving the properties of raw materials. Which make surfaces resistant to scratches or prevent dust and waste from sticking to them, and additives to concrete self-treat cracks, and it is a tool for sustainability and building development because it offers its ability to increase the life span of the building to five times the normal life without depleting resources and environmental pollution in addition to the process Operation that gives you a faster picture and a lower cost.


Analysis by comparison of the measurements of two different automatic weather stations in Akure, Ondo state Nigeria. []


This paper presents the characterizing measurement of the two automatic weather stations (AWS), Campbell Sci Inc (control) and Trans African Hydro Meteorological Observatory (Tahmo). The paper examined by comparison the relationship between weather parameters (Wind speed, wind direction, Relative humidty, air temperature and solar radiation) observed from the two AWS, which reveals similar variation all through the period. the results of the analysis based on actual sensors (Campbell and Trans African Hydro Meteorological Observatory (Tahmo)) data comparisons in Akure for hundreds of hourly observations clearly illustrate that there is little statistical difference in the measured parameters between the Campbell Sci Inc (control) versus the Tahmo station (measured) as they were found to be significantly correlated in all cases.