Volume 9, Issue 6, June 2021 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Factors that influencing on charcoal production in lower Shabelle region of Somalia. []

This study critically examines factors that influencing charcoal production in lower shabelle region and examines as its basic problem the lack of interesting and conserving of woodland and rangland of lower shabelle region which my bring Somali environmental degradation without community participation and social wakefulness which towered environmental unsafely. Thus: current study was investigating environmental development and had the following objectives: To establish the influence factors on charcoal production in lower shabelle region. To assess the level of impacts of charcoal burning on local society in lower shabelle. To suggest possible and sustainable solutions to gain rural and agro- pastoralist development in lower shabelle region. It had target population of 100 from some selected charcoal producers,charcoal retailers and household, in lower shabelle region with a sample size consisted of 80 participants. The study concluded that majority of the participants raised that community plays an important role that influencing charcoal production in lower shabelle region and unless that it would not be successful. The study recommends that Public awareness raising and mobilization programmes therefore play an essential part in reducing all hazardous environmental degradations and it is important to increase other alternatives of energy supply instead of charcoal, as well as to reduce any negative impact on environmental improvement. The research ultimately concluded that there is prominent relationship between influencing factors of charcoal production and environmental development.

Terrorism and Translation, An Appraisal of English Subtitles in Shekau’s Video Clips []

This research paper explores the conversion of speeches to written texts and the subtitles in video clips with translation or interpretation. Audio-visual Translation generally, is in a state of ongoing changes and special emphasis is laid on interlingual subtitling; for listeners and/or viewers. The study evaluates the variations of subtitles in the selected video clips of Abubakar Shekau the infamous leader of Nigeria’s Boko Haram terrorist organization. A qualitative research method is applied in the study and an interpretative approach of translation is used to evaluate the inadequacies of the subtitles of the video clips. These inadequacies are a result of the problem of equivalence. This was achieved by analysing the extracted texts as data from the video clips using tabular forms and followed by a comparative analysis of the subtitles. The study finds out that the idea of equivalence is significant as the central issue a translator encounters in the translation process. The paper argues that the variations in the translation from the speaker, the message and the subtitles are due to linguistic factors.


This Bandung District is one of the districts in West Java Province which has a lot of potential, one of which is the fishery product processing sector. Fish processing activities in rural areas are still classified as traditional fish processing and are carried out on a home industry scale. The purpose of this study is to analyze and formulate appropriate policy recommendations for the development of fishery product processing in Bandung. The method used in this research is the case study method. Analysis of the data used in this study using the Soft System Methodology approach. Based on the unstructured problem problem approach by using existing conditions which include technical and production aspects, institutional aspects, and human resources aspects. The research was conducted in April 2020 - January 2021 in Bandung. Respondents in this study consisted of 5 people from 2 processing entrepreneurs and 3 people from government agencies.


This Bandung District is one of the districts in West Java Province which has a lot of potential, one of which is the fishery product processing sector. Fish processing activities in rural areas are still classified as traditional fish processing and are carried out on a home industry scale. The purpose of this study is to analyze and formulate appropriate policy recommendations for the development of fishery product processing in Bandung. The method used in this research is the case study method. Analysis of the data used in this study using the Soft System Methodology approach. Based on the unstructured problem problem approach by using existing conditions which include technical and production aspects, institutional aspects, and human resources aspects. The research was conducted in April 2020 - January 2021 in Bandung. Respondents in this study consisted of 5 people from 2 processing entrepreneurs and 3 people from government agencies.

The Influence of Organizational Culture and Effective Communication on The Performance of State Civil Servants in The Environment Office of Public Works and Department Space Planning (PUPR) Konawe District []

This study aims to determine and analyze (1). The influence of organizational culture and effective communication on the performance of the State Civil Service (ASN) (2) the influence of organizational culture on the performance of ASN and (3) the effect of effective communication on the performance of ASN in the Office of Public Works and Spatial Planning (PUPR) Konawe Regency. The study population numbered 194 people while the number of samples was 138 people who were determined using the Slovin formula. The analysis used is descriptive and multiple linear regression with the SPSS program. The results of this study conclude that (1). Organizational Culture and Effective Communication have a positive and significant effect on ASN performance (2). Organizational culture has a positive and significant impact on ASN performance and (3). Effective communication has a positive and significant effect on the performance of the State Civil Apparatus (ASN) in the Office Environment of the Office of Public Works and Spatial Planning (PUPR) Konawe Regency.


"When there is a choice of Smart, why to choose only Better." Environmental pollution by toxic heavy metal contamination due to rapid industrialization is a challenging problem for maintaining the quality and hygiene of water. The discharges of industrial effluents into aquatic environment cause a potential threat to the aquatic life as well as human health, which is a matter of great concern due to their toxic nature and adverse effect. Techniques used to remove heavy metal are namely physical, chemical and biological, Adsorption treatment. Biosorption is a recent eco-friendly technique which gained importance in this decade. The process of Biosorption has many attractive features compared to the conventional method. The present study investigates that successful use of eco-friendly adsorbents orange peels. orange peels which are discarded as fruit waste and are available as waste in the market were used to prepare environment gentle bio adsorbent for the adsorption of heavy metals from aqueous solution. Fruit peels were washed and dried, before being used for the treatment of industrial wastewater. Mainly different heavy metals solutions were prepared to test whether the fruit peels absorb toxic metals are not. It is found that the maximum efficiency of removal of heavy metal is 75% and 80% respectively

Radiological Health Risks due to Exposure to Gamma Radiation in Okoroma/Tereke, south Bayelsa State []

The radiological health risks due to exposure to gamma radiation in some selected communities in Okoroma/Tereke in the southern part of Bayelsa State, Nigeria was estimated from the radiation exposure rate measured using radiation models. The radiation exposure rate measurements was carried out using well calibrated digilert-200 and Geological Positioning System (Garmin GPS MAP 76S) with a view of evaluating radiological health hazard fallout of oil and gas activities in these areas. The results of measured Background Ionizing Radiation (BIR) levels exposure rate and the calculated health hazards in the entire study area are presented in this text. The mean annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE) calculated for the study area was 0.33 mSvy-1 and 0.32 mSvy-1, while the mean excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) was 0.83x10-3and 0.81x10-3 respectively. The calculated ELCR values indicates that there is chances of developing cancer by residents and oil and gas workers in the study area is high. The dose received by organs was highest in the testes with a value of 0.22mSvy-1, while the liver had the lowest dose value of 0.12 mSvy−1. The effective dose for adult organs investigated can cause any health related problem or can damage the organs from the present exposure rate. The computed mean equivalent dose rate values across the entire study areas was 2.037 mSvy-1 and 2.088 mSvy-1. The results of this work was compared with both control and recommended safe values.


A good number of research studies have been conducted on the framework of teacher/trainer knowledge commonly known as TPACK (Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge). Findings in Africa showed that teachers in TVET are fully equipped with Technological and content knowledge and a few of them are equipped with pedagogical knowledge. In some countries, governments have established the training centers for pre and in-service TVET trainers and results showed that the performance for those who were trained is greater than the one of those who are not yet trained. In our country, Rwanda TVET Trainer Institute (RTTI) has been established to absorb those challenges of staff who are partly qualified. We recommend that the partnerships should not only remain in teaching facilities but also in training of the trainers in this framework which is very important for module deliverers to provide adequate skills. Governments in Africa should establish pre-service institutes dedicated to training of trainers who would teach in technical and vocational schools at all levels of their qualification frameworks. Those in-service teaching staff who are not yet trained should be offered Technological and Pedagogical Training to enhance their teaching activities preparation and implementation. This would stop hiring employees who would not provide ineffective and inefficient output in the institutions’ graduates production. Private sectors across Africa should invest in establishing training and consultancy companies that would upgrade the TVET tutors’ level of TPACK.

Wireless Ev Charging on smart Highway []

Electric Vehicle charging could be done statically or dynamically. To improve EV and sustain the environment. Dynamic changing method like *wireless charging* are used. The main principle of wireless charging is transmits power with the help of by electromagnetic field between the coils. By using this Inductive power transfer battery are recharged through transformer winding placed at the bottom of car and other placed under the road. This would greatly increase the range of EV making it suitable for long drive & efficient too. This paper specially presents an evaluation on how future EV development and Wireless charging methods can be implemented on smart highway.


Abstract This paper dealt with actualizing sustainable development goal four (4) for early childhood education in Nigeria. Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) defined the world we want. They apply to all nations and mean, quite simple, to ensure that no one is left behind. SDGs are a collection of 17 interlinked global goals designed to be a “blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all which was set up in 2015 by the United Nations General Assembly and are intended to be achieved by the year 2030. SDG 4 stated to ensuring inclusive and equitable quality education and promoting lifelong learning opportunities for all. Early childhood/Pre-primary education is the core foundation of any educational system as it is considered by many societies and individuals to be beneficial for educational development of young children from school-entry age. The paper pointed out that if early childhood/pre- primary education is to serve its purposes as stated in the National Policy of Education in Nigeria amongst others for making the children to have an effective smooth transition from the home to the school and prepare the child for the primary level of education, then it should be made free for all children of age, well supervised, staffed, equipped, financed and coordinated. In order to achieve this, this policy requires political will, determination, transparency, accountability and steadfastness and a close interface between policy formulation and implementation. KEYWORDS: SDGs, SDG 4, and Early Childhood Education.


Abstract ─ The study aimed to identify the internal and external factors of coffee industry in Makassar. The study was qualitative and quantitative research by using the methods of IFE, EFE, SWOT, and AHP. The results of the study showed that internal factors at coffee industry in Makassar, such as raw materials, product varians and packaging, product innovations, product prices, location and fasilities, promotion/marketing, production tools/machines, capital/finance, human resources, and processing the product. Then, the identification results of external factors involve the indicators of economic conditions, consumer behavior culture, market share, the role of regulator, the transformation of business, the progress of technology, partners/cooperation, and new competitor. Moreover, analysis results of SWOT and AHP show that The industry of coffee in Makassar was in range quadrant I to quadrant III. Industry Kopi Anoa, Toarco Coffee and Kopirong were in Quadrant I by implementing the SO strategy (Strength-Opportunity). Industry Kopi Setia, Kopi Ujung, Pasar Kopi, Lapak Kopi, and Kopiapi were in Quadrant II by implementing the ST strategy (Strength-Threat). Industry Kopi Inklusi and Marasa were in Quadrant III by implementing the WO strategy (Weakness-Opportunity). Keywords ─ Strategy Analysis; Competitive Advantage; Coffee Industry; Revolution Era 4.0.

Deepening Market Integration In Kenya through Increased maize production []

Market integration promotes effective market reform in developing countries. Where there is a of market integration, markets are competitive and there is no justification for costly government interventions designed to improve market competitiveness. . The supply of maize in Kenya is dependent on prevailing market price; hence maize price integration is critical to the maize industry. To test this, a market integration survey was carried out in five major maize markets in Kenya (Nairobi, Mombasa, Eldoret, Busia and Kisumu). Secondary data was used from the existing data banks to evaluate the transmission of price signals across the country. The study used results from Johansen cointegration and VECM to assess the speed of price adjustment between the markets. Price analysis results showed that despite supply shocks, there exists a long run relationship between the markets in the study area. Increased local production through irrigation increases the number of cointegrated markets through improved long run relationships and market efficiency. However, short run price adjustments in Kenya were slow for all the markets, ranging between 3 and 4 months.. Glut would generally benefit consumers with the lower market price and enhanced food security mission. The study concluded that although the current markets are integrated though with low efficiency. Increased sustainable of maize production from irrigation inn the ASAL areas promotes availability of cheap maize and can increase the number of rural poor.

ACCEPTABILITY OF BLUE PEA (Clitoria ternatea) FLOWER FLAVORED GELATIN (Experimental Research) []

The Blue Pea flower has become abundant not just in Guiuan, Eastern Samar but as well as its neighboring towns since people have learned of the health benefits it provides to those who drink it. Blue pea flower is now commonly drunk as tea. This study was conducted by the proponents to make people realize that there are other ways of incorporating the blue pea flower to one’s food intake without losing all the health benefits that it brings to consumers. The main purpose of the study was to make a blue pea flower flavored gelatin. Specifically, it aimed to evaluate and analyze the product in terms of the following: 1. develop a new gelatin product flavor with the blue pea flower. 2. evaluate the acceptability level of the blue pea flower flavored gelatin through the following indicator. a. flavor b. appearance c. texture d. aroma e. color 3. determine the general acceptability of the blue pea flower flavored gelatin. The development of blue pea gelatin evident to the following characteristics: flavor, appearance, texture, aroma, colour, and general acceptability. A total of 70 individuals considered as the respondents of the study. . The respondents of the study were the thirty (30) selected BTVTED students, BTLED students and BSIT students, twenty (20) from the College of Education, and ten (10) from College of Technology for the benchmark test, and thirty (30) Faculty members in ESSU-Guiuan Campus were asked to become the respondents for the pilot test and ten (10) gelatin makers and vendors for the final test. A score card was used as an instrument to determine the acceptability of the consumers. To quantify the responses, mean was used to know the acceptability of the blue pea gelatin in terms of flavor, appearance, texture, aroma, color and general acceptability. The evaluation result of the benchmark test participated by Thirty selected students from the College of Education and College of Technology, with 10 BTVTED students and 10 BTLED students, and 10 BSIT students. Each indicator has the scale of 1-5. Among the parameters, texture was the highest mean score of 4.7 which means that the respondents were extremely acceptable the product. However, flavor was the lowest mean score of 3.36 and interpreted as acceptable. The overall mean in the pilot test garner the score of 4.48 and was interpreted as extremely acceptable. The pilot test participated by thirty faculty members of ESSU Guiuan Campus. Each parameter has the scale of 1-5. Among the parameters, texture was the highest mean score of 4.92 which interpreted as extremely acceptable, that means the respondents likes the texture of the product. Meanwhile, aroma was the lowest mean score of 4.05 which also interpreted as extremely acceptable. This means that in terms of aroma should be improve in order to attract customers through the smell of the product. The overall mean in the benchmark test got the score of 4.48 and was interpreted as extremely acceptable. Moreover, the final test participated ten gelatin makers and vendors in Guiuan Eastern Samar. Each parameter has 1-5 scale. Among of the parameters, color had the highest mean score of 4.95 which is interpreted as extremely acceptable. This means that the respondents of the final test are pleased with the appearance they feel whenever they eat the rose petal ice cream. In the other hand, the indicator Flavoring ranked lowest among the group and was rated 4.43 but still, interpreted as an extremely like. This just proves that in terms of flavoring, the researcher’s needs to improve the flavor of the product enable to become more palatable for the target customers. Based in the result of the test conducted, Blue Pea Gelatin was extremely liked by the consumer. The blue pea flower is not only good for drinking tea but can also be used for desserts. This is a practical use for the raw products since all are affordable if not free and are available on all seasons. Based on our conclusion the following recommendation is drawn: 1. To the future researchers may conduct another research using blue pea as an ingredient. 2. There are a numerous ways to add flavor to gelatins, healthy even. 3. Lastly, further study is needed to improve the packaging of the product.


Amongst other terms, COVID-19, social distance, quarantine, palliatives evolved as new vocabularies around the world, including the construction sector. It has been exactly ten years since humanity last faced a pandemic. However, the most well-known disease outbreak, Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), was announced, which hit all countries in four months and was declared a global pandemic in March 2020. This outbreak wreaked havoc on businesses all over the world, including built environment ventures. The impact of this pandemic in these extraordinary times also had positive and negative effects on the Architecture, Engineering, and Construction, Owner and Operator industry bringing about innovative and diverse use of technology in an exemplary manner that may change the course of construction even after coronavirus extinction. This study explores the effects of COVID-19 on the built asset procurement and establishes the importance of Photography as one of the oldest existing but most innovative means of monitoring construction project progress in line with the program of works for the Proposed Construction of the Senate building at the Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. With the responses gotten from the construction team, it was concluded that the use of photographs in construction reporting and management cannot be over-emphasized as it gives the team a vivid representation of work done on-site. It has served as an effective tool in the current covid-19 situation and is recommended to be used majorly for project management and reporting post-covid-19 because of the ease it brings for work supervision, its ability for detailed reporting, and its cost-effectiveness in the long term.

The importance of emotional intelligence in improve employee satisfaction on PDO Company []

Emotion intelligence is very important key to enhance satisfaction of any employee. This project analyses and research in-depth details about the relationship between emotion intelligence and satisfaction and their effect on the overall performance of PDO company. This project aims to analyse employees’ responses and compare them to literature review by linking theories to actual employees’ experience. After that, the project aims to provide suggestions and recommendation based on findings to PDO company. Moreover, suggest the best strategies to follow to maximise the performance of the company. One of the recommendations that were presented in the project is implementation online training about the principles of emotional intelligence. Findings showed that not every employee is satisfied and many of them cannot use emotion intelligence properly to overcome work pressure and personal life difficulties.


The concept of Sharīʻah Maxims is a derivative from the detailed study of Islamic jurisprudence (Fiqh), in the technique of defined statements. These principles are such general doctrines that infect not the law or its origin but are such a scheme that the jurists assume to find the solution of problems in the light of Islamic Law. These maxims are shaped as golden words that can be seen, or induced and instigated with any philosophy, race, and temperament. Like all Islamic teachings tending and relating the flawless compatibility with nature and its objectives. Expert Muslim jurists with gorgeous Islamic knowledge of AL-Qur’an, Al-Hadith, Al-Fiqh, Quranic, Hadith and Fiqh Sciences, had formulated these pinpoints. In such a credential mode that not only Monotheistic Religions somewhat each cultured human ideology or thought can deal with it. The purpose of imparting these maxims was in fact to convey the tough fictional rules to common performance. Not only have to connect these rules keyed rather making preferably effective in life


Philippines holds a high rate of employment in Business Processing Outsource (BPO) as the second-highest country next to India. Despite of this situation, there is a 3.15% labor turnover rate last October 31, 2018, according to the survey of the Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA). The study aims to determine what makes the BPO employees stay in the company based on the following factors that may affect their retention decision: intrinsic and extrinsic motivation; human resource and management process; and job satisfaction. Hence, recommendations are discussed to help management sustain their employees in a long run. It would be beneficial, especially to the Human Resource department, on their management approaches and processes in handling people. Employee engagement and open communication can provide a harmonious working relationship between employer and employee resulting to stronger bonds and commitment. The researcher used descriptive correlational research design and gathered data from 500 valid respondents through stratified random sampling at the top 4 locations with the highest number of BPO establishment and employment in National Capital Region (NCR) who have atleast one year working experience in outsourcing industry. The results were measured using Pearson Correlation, Sperman Rho, Point Biseral and Chi Square Test.

Measuring the Status and Extent of Green Industrialization of RMG Sector based on Agro Ecological Climate of Bangladesh []

ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of green industrialization of Ready Made Garment (RMG) in Bangladesh. Two green of Narayanganj District were purposively considered for the study. Data were collected from a sample of randomly selected 263 RMG Workers and Supervisors out of 840 from the mentioned two (2) RMGs. Simple and direct questions with different scales were used to obtained information. The study was conducted during the time from 02 June 2019 to 30 August 2019. Eleven (11) selected characteristics of the RMG Workers and Supervisors were considered as the independent variables. Out of 11 top Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certified factories of the world, eight (8) factories are situated in Bangladesh. Findings revealed that overwhelming majority (84.41%) of the RMG Workers and Supervisors perceived low to medium green industrialization of RMGs in Bangladesh. The mean of green industrialization of green and non-green RMGs were 33.22 and 14.89 respectively as perceived by the workers and supervisors. The calculated value of‘t’ (193.788) was significant at .001 levels which was clearly indicated that green industrialization of green RMGs was higher than non-green RMGs.

An establishment of public sector stakeholder perceptions in relation to public sector performance and reputation in Zimbabwe. []

Stakeholders are a key component in any business setting hence their perceptions should be adequately considered. Traditionally, interaction with stakeholders was confined to private sector entities with the aim of maximising profits through customer loyalty. However, with the advent of new public management (NPM), public institutions have embraced the concept of engaging with their stakeholders. The study sought to establish how various stakeholders were affected by the implementation and amendments of policies pertaining to civil and voter registration in Zimbabwe. Two public sector institutions responsible for civil and voter registration were selected for the study. A pragmatic approach that triangulated data collection and analysis was adopted. A stratified sample of 278 respondents responded to personal interviews conducted through both structured and semi-structured questionnaires. The statistical data were analysed using SEM the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (IBM SPSS) Version 2.0 with AMOS. Qualitative data were analysed using theatrics analysis using the NVivo software package. Lack of feedback between the selected public sector institutions and their stakeholders regarding the various policies implemented influenced stakeholder perceptions. Clients expressed dissatisfaction regarding the application and subsequent processing of civil documents. Corrupt activities emerged as being fuelled by the stringent measures brought about by the amended policies. The public sector employees interviewed cited an environment of fear and threats in their institutions as well as poor remuneration and working conditions. The study concluded that stakeholders have negative perceptions towards the performance and reputation of the selected public sector institutions emanating from the continual amendment of both civil and voter registration policies. This stripped certain rights from stakeholders thereby deterring them from participating in national events. The study contributes to the performance of public institutions by encouraging engagement between the government and various stakeholders over the implementation, monitoring and evaluation of its policies. The study therefore, recommends that every public officer should be considered as a reputation ambassador making an impact on institutional reputation through their interaction with other stakeholders.Key WordsPublic sector; stakeholder perceptions; performance; reputation

Contribution to the anatomical description of tibiofibular syndesmosis []

Abstract Introduction/Objectives The distal tibiofibular joint is a syndesmosis that joins the distal ends of the tibia and fibula. Its primary function is to maintain congruency at the tibiotalar interface, thereby ensuring stability of the ankle joint. Understanding the exact anatomy of the bony and ligamentous structures is important for better management of syndesmosis injuries, hence the interest of this study. Materials and methods Our work was based on the dissection of twenty-four ankles, between fresh and embalmed, taken from anatomical subjects. Results The articular surfaces were devoid of articular cartilage on all the parts studied and a synovial fold prevents direct contact between them. The anterior and distal tibiofibular ligament (ADTFL) had two bundles: proximal and distal, and the accessory ligament was found in 100% of the cases studied. The distal posterior tibiofibular ligament (LFTPD) had two bundles; superficial and deep in 100% of the dissected specimens. Conclusion The anatomical description of the distal tibiofibular joint is brief in the classic anatomy treatises. However, it is currently of great interest given the important role it plays in ankle stability, particularly after osteo-ligamentary injuries. Restoration of congruence of the tibiofibular joint is the guarantee of a good functional result. Keywords: Dissection, anatomy, description, joint surfaces, ligaments.

Community health workers’ knowledge, attitudes and practices on maternal health provision in Huye District, Rwanda []

The Government of Rwanda, in the context of its vision 2020 and related community health sector reforms and policies, has been investing in the essential health interventions for reducing maternal mortality. The maternal mortality ratio in Rwanda has been reduced by 78% from 1,300/100,000 live births (1990) to 210/100,000 in 2016 with fewer women dying from preventable causes of maternal death. The research was to emphasize on how the CHWs put into practices the trainings on maternal healthcare to achieve the target of maternal death reduction, 168/100,000 live births by 2020 as well as 126/100,000 live births by 2024. Objective of the research was to determine knowledge, attitudes and practices of CHWs on maternal healthcare provision in Huye District. The population of the study was 508 CHWs and the sample size was 224 CHWs. Sampling technique was multi stage sampling and data collection tool was questionnaire. Data were analyzed using of SPSS 21 and descriptive statistics using frequencies and percentages were presented. Chi-square test was used to establish factors associated with the dependent variable. Logistic regression was used to identify the independent factors associated with practice. P-value was set at 5%. The present study indicates that, in bivariate analysis, significant socio-demographic characteristics for good maternal health care provision are age (COR=3.930(1.548-9.978) and P-value <0.05), level of education (COR=0.015(0.003-0.083) and P-value <0.001), marital status (COR=0.118(0.043-0.321) and P-value <0.001), occupation (COR=0.015(0.003-0.083) and P-value <0.001) and social economic class (COR=0.103(0.027-0.396 and P-value <0.001). In multivariate analysis, there is a significant association between maternal health provision and education (COR=0.001(0.000-0.032O) and P-value<0.001 as with occupation (COR=110.062(10.265-1180.035) and P-value< 0.001). This study indicates that 42.9% (COR=0.532(0.236-1.199 and P-value<0.128)) of CHWs have high level of knowledge. The positive maternal health provision attitudes is slightly higher at 52.7% (COR =1.299(0.767-2.198 and P-value<0.331) of CHWs. The adequate maternal health provision practices is 52.2% among CHWs. Health care providers should learn and maintain good collaboration with CHWs to strength technical support. Ongoing training efforts on maternal health care provision can be more effectively planed and maintained in multiple formats to provide maximum accessibility and value and to adopt the more appropriate practices, customer care growth to improve maternal health services in the community.


This project aims to explore the issues and challenges faced by SMEs in the Sultanate of Oman during the COVID-19 pandemic. As these are the main objectives of a project that promotes small business development and fosters entrepreneurship, it will be a good strategy to contribute to and enhance economic development. From an economic and social development point of view, small and medium enterprises (SMEs) offer a variety of benefits. Small and medium enterprises are expected to play a major role in Oman's GDP in the future. The researcher also wanted to shed light on the main role that it plays from the challenges that lead to solutions in this problem that it faces, whether it is a positive or negative way. In addition, this research methodology is philosophical, which is set in terms of positivity and one of the purposes of the research is descriptive research. Accordingly, the researcher collects data from issues faced by companies through a questionnaire. So too do the results that lead from Challenging Methods that address in the form of a strategic plan through COVID-19. , The study is revealed that the use of the information system and keep pace with modern technology contributes greatly and effectively. The researcher will present some recommendations in improving the situation and facilitating the current situation, and it may enhance or reduce the problems that SMEs face in the decision-making and problem-solving process. Finally, it may be possible for the researcher to focus on future research in the form of large sample size, thus partially covering problems.


Structural and optical properties of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) doped with silver nitrate (AgNO3) composite Films synthesized by casting method has been investigated by XRD and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Samples were irradiated with gamma rays in the dose range 0-10 Gy and the effects of γ-irradiation and the addition of AgNO3 to PVA matrix were studied. The results indicated that the irradiation of the PVA/AgNO3 composite films with γ-ray doses induced obvious color changes from white (non-irradiated film) to light yellow, golden then to brown and dark brown and the color intensity increased with increasing γ-ray doses. The films showed absorption band peaking at the wavelengths around 230 and 450 nm and the intensity of peaks were found to be in direct proportion with radiation dose; the surface Plasmon band was noted around 430–466 nm. Hence, the appearance of this very weak band may be related to the formation of small quantity of reduced silver nanoparticles. A clear linear correlation between the applied dose and the specific absorbance and the absorption coefficient of the prepared films was noted and the energy gap (Eg) was found to be smaller than that of the bulk silver. The extinction coefficient (K), refractive index (n) and optical conductivity of the prepared samples were measured. XRD results revealed that irradiation and the addition of AgNO3 led to a more compact structure compared to the pure PVA which resulted in an improvement in its structural and optical properties. Thus, this work suggests the possibility of using the gamma irradiated PVA/AgNO3 films in different electronic and semiconductors applications.

The Effectiveness of Motivation on Employees’ Performance Towards Achieving Organizational Goals: “A Literature Examination of Employees' Motivation” []

This study is to determine how engaged employees feel within the organization, to get to the bottom of this issue, employee’s impact to the organization are deeply examined as to whether being positive or negative and the reasons to such impacts within organization. The study shows what it takes to be creative and what the organization does to get employees motivated and get them to achieve organizational goals. Motivation therefore, plays an important role when it comes to taking the organization to another level or simply achieving a goal, the employees are those who make this possible with certain measures being put in place by the organization itself, which helps employees to feel a sense of belongingness to the organization. Moreover motivated employees are like assets they are directly proportional to an organization’s success. The study deployed an extensive use of literature reviews from existing theories, journals and blogs texts so as to give a scholarly views on the meaning of employees' motivation. Thus, this aims at providing a simple and logical information to be easily understood by readers Keywords: Motivation, employees, organization, goals


Abstract Despite the great quantity of studies on determinants of export performance in Ethiopia, however, little is known about the relationship between firm characteristics, management attitudes and export marketing strategies versus export performance. Thus, the aim of this research study is to determine the relationship between export marketing strategies and export performances based on the selected exporting firms in Ethiopia. The study was conducted using Quantitative correlational research methods to investigate the correlation between the variables and a sample of 240 firms were taken from the population of active exporting firms which are operating in Ethiopia as a sampling frame. Pre-tested questionnaires were used to collect primary data and analyzed using Statistical Productand Service Solution software SPSS. The study revealed that firm characteristics, management attitudes and export marketing strategies are vital determinants on the mixed export items which are positioned in the top five categories by their level of transaction. Management of exporting firms in Ethiopia should give due attention to properly deal with the strategies related to firm characteristics, management attitude and export performance. Keywords: Export marketing strategy, firm characteristics, management attitude and export performance in Ethiopia


Democratization of education was ushered into Uganda Primary Education as Reform in 1997 as government respond to the recommendation of Education Policy Review Commission (EPRC) of 1989.The reform aimed at creating opportunities for individual to access education provision through providing enabling policy, ensuring availability and equitable utilization of learning resources and provision of an enabling environment for participation in solving education problems. It was expected that such provisions would yield good learners’ participation that in turn be an indicator of good quality of education. The period from which commencement of reform to date has though been marked with poor learners’ participation. Therefore,aim of this study was to examine the implication of democratization of education on learners’ participation. Pragmatists’ orientations with application across sectional study design were employed in the process of data management. The population of 454 consisted of DEOs, CAOs, head teachers and teachers were considered for the study. A total of 307 people were sampled using both purposive and simple random sampling to participate in the study. Data was collected using specific methods such as questionnaire survey, interview, observation and document review. The finding of the study was that democratization of education has minimal implication on learners’ participation. Increasing learners’ participation would therefore means focusing beyond democratization practices. Key Words; Equity, Enabling Policy, learning resources, Reforms and Primary Education

Quantum Interpretation (Physics) - Information Field []

The paper generalizes and extends the 5 parameters of qualia required to generate subjective experience to physics. It presents the localization parameter and its relation to the collapse of the wave function to arrive at the plausible nature of physical universe. Alternative interpretations are discussed against the merit of Information Field interpretation. Few important quantum experiments are reviewed in the contrast with information field quantum interpretation. Finally, postulates of information field are developed and listed towards the end of the paper. Keywords: parameters, information, quantum interpretation, wave function collapse, decoherence, information field, quantum eraser, delayed choice, quantum mechanics, quantum physics

A Literature Review: Factors Affecting the Adoption of Mobile Payment in the Philippines []

Mobile payments are increasingly being adopted by organizations as a new way of doing business in the 21st century. During the last few years, the use of mobile payments as a new payment channel has resulted in an increase in the volume of literature dedicated to the topic. For this reason, this study aims to cover the importance and use of mobile payments in the current era. It shall also try to identify issues and risks associated with it. The findings will describe the studies taken to identify and further understand the factors affecting the adoption of mobile payments in the Philippines.