Volume 9, Issue 6, June 2021 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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The Factors Affecting The Performance Of Work From Home Employees In BPO Industry []

This exploratory paper aimed to review various articles that explain the different factors affecting the performance of work from home employees in the BPO industry. Specifically, it aims to identify the research gap pertaining to affecting factors of employees on work from home set up. It reviewed articles published in online international journals from 2016 to 2021. The review focuses on the findings and conclusions of the articles reviewed. The paper revealed that several factors were affecting the performance of the employees in various ways. However, the literature reviewed showed that there were insufficient findings on the resiliency of the employee’s performance on the different affecting factors they encountered at home as a workplace. Keywords: Affecting factors, performance, work from home

Understanding salutogenic design approach in hospitals []

ABSTRACT Salutogenesis is the term used to refer to factors that enhance human health and wellbeing, instead of factors that cause ill health, known as pathogenesis. It is agreeable that quite a number of factors contribute to the mental and the physical wellness of an individual, as well as the ill health they experience. This work is aimed at taking a look at how the salutogenic approach has helped facilities like hospitals to improve on the health of her patients, instead of focusing more on the disease itself. Architects have taken advantage of this concept to come up with designs that will not only be functional and aesthetically pleasing, but also, contribute to the mental and physical wellness of patients. Hence, the author seeks to investigate the effectiveness of the salutogenic approach of design in hospitals and how much the well-being of users. To achieve success in this work, the author has conducted case studies, informal interviews, as well as the review of relevant literatures. On completion of this work, Architects and scholars would have understood the relationship between salutogenesis and architecture, and how their design can contribute to the well being of patients and users. Key words: salutogenesis, salutogenic, design approach, functional, Architects, wellbeing,

Assessment of knowledge and practices regarding hand hygiene among health care workers in private hospitals, Lahore []

Introduction: Hand hygiene is a significant healthcare concern worldwide, which is an affordable and cost effective practice that declines the ratio of infection in health care set-up as well as decrease the risk of infections among health care providers. Furthermore the latest research studies showed these infections can lead to fatal situation and also prolonged the hospitalization of patients approximately five to ten percent during their stay in hospitals in developed countries, so it is obvious that in developing countries these infections would be increased and affects all the dimensions of health. Objective: To find out knowledge and practices of hand hygiene among health care workers. Methodology: A cross sectional study was used in this study conducted in BIHL and UOLTH. Sample size was 148. Data was collected through using convenient sampling. Data analyzed by using the SPSS version 22. Frequency percentage and mean standard deviation calculated. Results: in this study mostly participants response to YES and 4.1% respondents response to NO. First analysis was demographic analysis. It gives us details of demographic questions. Descriptive analysis was used for 2 variables knowledge, and practice. It tells us judge the knowledge, and practices of regarding hand hygiene among health care workers in private hospitals, Lahore. Conclusion: The purpose of this study was to assess knowledge, and practice among health care worker at BIHL and UOLH among 148 health care workers. The participants mostly have good practice about hand hygiene and perform daily before patients touch, contact with patient environment and or perform any other procedure and mostly participants have good knowledge about hand hygiene. Key Words Hand Hygiene, Hospital acquired infections, Health care workers


Background: Personal protective equipment (PPE) is protective equipment intended to protect the health of employees by reducing exposure to a biological agent. PPE use is a key method to avoid the spread of disease in health-care environments where nurses come into close contact with infected patients. Objective: The objective of study was to evaluate knowledge and attitude of nurses regarding PPE. Methodology: Study design was descriptive cross sectional. Convenient sampling technique was used. Sample size was 110. Study instrument was adopted from previous research studies. The questionnaire was divided into three sections. Section I contain demographic characteristics, section II contains 13 questions on knowledge with response ‘Yes’ and ‘No’ and section III contain 5 questions on attitude with response ‘strongly agree, agree, don’t know, disagree, strongly disagree’. Data were analyzed on SPSS version 25. Results: 57.3% participants were male and 42.7% participants were female in the study. 70.9% were agreed with that wearing gloves reduce the need of hand wash. 52.7% respondents were not agreed with that double glove decrease the chance of cross infection. 41.8% respondents were agreed with PPE is compulsory for employees. There was association between participants qualification level and knowledge level. Chi-Square = 16.7 and p value is .002 which is less than normally value highly significant). Conclusion: In this study, only 13% participants had good knowledge level, 27% had moderate knowledge level and majority 60% had poor knowledge level. Attitude level 2 towards use of PPE was negative as < 50. Educational programs should be conducted for employees to enhance their knowledge. Key Words: Personal Protective Equipment, Knowledge, Attitude, Nurses


Introduction: Study was conducted at Combined Military Hospital, Lahore. In which sample size was 375 out of 6000 populations within duration of one month of Gynaecology and Paediatric OPD. It is found that majority of the respondents are from army background as the hospital is located at Lahore Cantonment Board’s Territory and visitors are normally the army personnel and their immediate family members or servants. Objective: Assessment Of Maternal Behavior Regarding Supplementation (Folic Acid) Usage During Pregnancy Background: In Pakistan a study conducted in 2009 revealed that only 49% of women use folic acid in pregnancy while only 38% % of women are aware of use of folic acids in pregnancy. In most cases women didn’t know what is the safe range of folic acid dose do they need to be used. They don’t know the minimum/maximum boundaries regarding their health. In 2017 another research is conducted in Karachi, Pakistan in which data of 170 married women are analyzed and it is found only 54% women known about importance of this vitamin in pregnancy and only 30% women give correct answer about deficiency of this vitamin lead to neural tube defect or congenital disease. The purpose to conduct this research was the assessment of knowledge of pregnant women about the folic acids Results: It is observed that 76% of the respondents are having urban living as their social background while only 24% are from rural social living. A clear majority of the respondents are recurrent patients while about 11% of the total sample identified as new visitors. There is clear age group which is found to have visited the hospital with pregnancies in Gynaecology ward or after pregnancies with their kids at Paediatrics ward, nearly 77% of the respondents were of 28-47 age category. About 95% of the mothers were happily married while just over 5% were either divorced/separated or widowed. Academic qualification of the respondents has outclassed the figures as nearly 84% of the respondents fall under higher education category, this is the main reason behind the updated knowledge of folic acid among the respondents of CMH visitors. vii Conclusion: It is interpreted from Chi Square findings that the respondents with higher academic qualification have greater chance of having compact knowledge about food supplementation due to having more awareness of such health related information. The respondents with higher age group have greater chance of having compact knowledge about food supplementation due to having more awareness of such health related information

An Ecocritical Analysis of Khaled Hosseini’s A Thousand Splendid Suns []

This study is an ecofeminist analysis of Khalid Hosseini’s A Thousand Splendid Suns focusing on how the novelist utilizes various techniques to foreground the oppression of women and Nature. The novelist also emphasizes Nature to blur dialectical pairs. Cartesian dualism is extended to the culture/nature dichotomy. Symbiotic relationships of Nature gather strength as they are foregrounded by Hosseini through relations of metaphor exhibiting underlying principles of kinship. Eco-feminism, which combines ecology and the idea of feminism, opposes anthropocentrism and androcentrism as well as criticizes the values of patriarchy. Hosseni also focuses on the female subaltern characters which are marginalized by culture and male dominated society. This paper uses the theory of eco-feminism to reveal the control and oppression on women and the devastation of Nature in the patriarchal society. It tries to demonstrate the ecological and feminist consciousness in the novel and to show the author’s rumination on the relationship among Nature, men and women. The survival instinct of the female characters is allocated through the language of ecology and emblematizes the dismantling of boundaries in the culture/nature dialectical pair. Keywords: Eco-feminism, anthropocentrism and androcentrism, patriarchy, ecological and feminist consciousness.


The History of Sharīʻah Maxims is a derived from the detailed study of Islamic jurisprudence (Fiqh), in the scheme of distinct statements. These doctrines are such universal policies that influence not only the law and its derivations. These are the outlines that the jurists assume to find the elucidation of complications in the reference of Islamic Law. These maxims are designed as golden words that can be perceived, or induced and stirred with any sort of believe, philosophy, values, and temper. Similar to otherIslamic trainings these are tending and relating the unchanged compatibility with nature and its objects. Professional Muslim jurists with striking Islamic understanding of AL-Qur’an, AlHadith, Al-Fiqh, Quranic, Hadith and Fiqh Sciences, had framed these pinpoints. Voyage of centuries from the origin of Islam to the present is involved in this exertion. In such documentation approach that not only Monotheistic Religions fairly each well-educated human creed or thought can pledge with it. The drive of reporting these maxims was in fact to transport the solid and prominent rules to public performance. Not only have to record these rules but pretty making operative in life.


The economic impediments and social narratives brought by the pandemic: a “navigation” of change such as, 1) Inflation reveal that the government needs to strive more in finding strategic approaches so that effective and efficient solution of controlling the evidence of a general increase in the price of a commodity can be achieved right in time, in such a way, the promising economic recovery gradually be attained, 2) Unemployment suggest that government should explore all possibilities to facilitate those victimized by the occurrence of this pandemic who lost their source of living and struggling to the environmental adjustment, while they are focusing on controlling the virus spread. It is imperative that since employment is the major source of people in any field, addressing this constraint will somehow bring a threshold of societal future hope 3) Earning factor is more likely recommended that government agencies will regroup and brainstorm so that in-depth structural analysis can be drawn among them. The overstaying pandemic crisis will derail all valued government resources in which allowing this to happen tantamount to a draining economic slope and a major recession, 4) Business constraints found out that the existence of these eventualities will result in a feeling of being dormant when it comes to creating further development. Although they remain pragmatic in their views that business will somehow prosper and reborn the possibilities if decisions will not be procrastinated, 5) Social services are viewed as temporal but affect their endeavor and the meaning of business existence. While it is true that the whole universe experiences the same claims of different degree, it is a must for the government to limit its provision although it is vital and primordial but rather, concentrate on finding long-term, ultimate, and sustainable but friendly mechanisms in solving this shortcoming we had, 6) Travel restrictions draw a negative perception by them as this initiative hampers the normal and natural being of every individual. Businesses alike find it unfavorable for them since the prolonged classifications of essential and non-essential instead of giving time and space to play in the environment lose its hope and become incapable of having time to explore. This restriction from the government is a very human initiative but on the contrary, many are made to be sacrificial lambs in their quest. Travel ban activity and the like cripples downs some domestic sources.


The local governance perspective amidst the pandemic: a social dimension of trust are among the many considerable factors that require provision to constituent such as, 1) Food assistance viewed by the society that it will happen again due to the severe effect of this pandemic, hence, it is suggested that for everyone to avail on it, local government should review the list of beneficiaries. 2) Health care support is likely increasing hence, it is suggested to local government units (LGU’s) to find some remedial interventions to intensify the use of isolation facility and increase its number to answer the need of innocent victims, 3) Financial support garnered conflicting views on its provision, some are in favor while others are not. This suggests that instead of giving financial support to people during the pandemic, it could be better enough to convert it into a commodity in a way, problem-related to abuse of its intent and malpractices can be avoided. Further, it suggested that for the sake of fairness, no one is exempted to benefit the government aid, 4) Control measures viewed by the society in general that they lost their patience on the implemented limitations imposed by the local government units, while the government insists with their stand that all will adhere to the government marching orders.


The learning paradigm and intervention facility towards the new normal considers some elements such as 1) Delivery mode reveals that there is a conflict between learning and health interest where the government wants to look into, suggest that the desired learning process should be stabilized to maintain quality education. 2) Feedback mechanism is likely to aid the social media platform in making feedback which is very important to students. It is suggested that this building block should be resolved so that benefits can still be enjoyed despite pandemics. 3) Connectivity reveals that government should strengthen the connectivity as the new normal invaded the educational paradigm to sustain the learning needs. 4) Learning quality reveals that the top management level of every educational institution should come up with a plan by collecting some pieces of recommendation and design a learning intervention facility to enhance the student’s claims and address this pitfall of delivering quality. 5) System drawback finding reveals that the administration should find some alternatives in addressing students' queries so that their interest in learning amidst the pandemic becomes normal behind its abnormality. 6) Attention span suggests that institution should draw a roadmap that direct the students actively and initiate a program that will energize and motivate their immersion to the new normal.

behavioral problem of preschool children among working and non working mother []

ABSTRACT Preschool period is the period in human development during which several dramatic changes at biological, social, psychological and cognitive levels take place. The objective of this study was to find out behavioral problems among preschool children of working and non-working mothers. A descriptive comparative research design and Probability Stratified Random sampling technique was applied in which 155 (81 working and 74 non -working mothers’) preschool children were selected from two private Montessori schools of Bhaktapur district. Structured questionnaire and Preschool behavior Checklist (PBCL) were administered. Data was analyzed by using IBM SPSS version 23 and frequency, t-test and chi-square test were applied. This study showed that preschool children of non working mothers’ (37.84%) had slightly more behavior problems than working mothers’ (37.04%). Male respondents of non working mothers experienced more problems (29.4 %) than female (4.7%). Prevalence of behavior problems was found among preschool children of both working and non working mothers but there is no association between the behavior problems and employment status of mothers. Thus maternal employment status is not the exclusive reason behind the development of behavior problems among school children. Key words: behavior problem, preschool children, working and nonworking mothers.


Background: NSI is the wound or cut caused by the needles that unintentionally tear/puncture the skin that may results in exposure to contaminated blood and the body fluids. Nursing workers are on high risk of exposure of Blood borne germs i.e HIV, HBV and HCV. Objective: To assess the knowledge and practices of needle stick injury among nurses Methodology: A cross sectional was done on nurses practicing in hospital. Simple random sampling technique was used on 360 nurses practicing at Bahawal Victoria hospital Bahawalpur. A quantitative instrumental questionnaire(Zia, Afzal, Sarwar, Waqas, &Gilani, 2017) was used to collect the data about knowledge and practices of needle stick injury among nurses Results: Results indicates that 76.6% of nurses have good knowledge that needle stick injury is a percutaneous injury while 57.8% have poor knowledge that it is the risk of transmission of blood-borne disease. Half of the nurses population agrees that Needle stick injuries are unavoidable things for nurses. Chi square for nurses knowledge and age group represent strong association with for different questions like Needle sticks injury cause transmission of pathogens P value<0.0001, Improved engineering control devices reduce the risk of needle stick injury P value=0.03. Conclusion: It suggested that 49.1% of nurses have good knowledge while 46.8% of nurses agrees with practice regarding needle stick injury. Age group and stay in organization has association with knowledge and practice of nurses regarding needle stick injuries. 6-10 years of experience showed that highest category for good knowledge and practice so increased stay in organization affected knowledge and practice of nurses. Key words: Needle stick injury, nurses, knowledge, and practice

Economic Analysis []

Abstract Economic analysis is used in many situations. When British Petroleum sets the price for its Alaskan crude oil, it uses an estimated demand model, both for gasoline consumers and also for the refineries to which BP sells. The demand for oil by refineries is governed by a complex economic model used by the refineries and BP estimates the demand by refineries by estimating the economic model used by refineries. Economic analysis was used by experts in the antitrust suit brought by the U.S. department of justice both to understand Microsoft's incentive to foreclose (eliminate from the market) rival Netscape and consumer behavior in the face of alleged foreclosure. oil is a commodity it is very important for state of Kuwait. Then and so, I will take this commodity and explain how oil price influence for all commodities when the oil price higher or depression. Many different subjects were once regarded as a part of economics. Political science and even sociology were once considered part of the field. Economic principle, theory and problem solving. And communication, research and technology skills. These subjects still play a major role in understanding economics

Assessment of the supply chain management practice using SCOR model in floricultural products of Ethiopassion Agro PLC []

ABSTRACT The general objective of this study was to assess the factors affecting supply chain management performance in Ethopassion Agro Plc. The study employed descriptive and explanatory type of research design with qualitative and quantitative approaches by using stratified sampling and simple random sampling. The target population of the study was employees of Ethopassion Agro Plc. Both primary data and secondary data were used to collect the data. The collected data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics with the assist of SPSS version 24.as specific findings on supply chain management practices were indicated, supply chain management was moderately practiced in organizations. Finally, t the researcher recommends that the organization try to have updated and flexible planning, delivery, return, make, and source to be best in the class. Keywords: supply chain management, floriculture, SCOR model

Statistical Analysis of Water Aand Leachate Samples Close to Some Dumpsites in Imo State, Southeastern Nigeria []

The water samples close to some dumpsites in Imo state were studied to assess the water quality for domestic purposes and to characterize the spatial variability of water quality. Multivariate analysis: principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) with univariate techniques; mean, standard deviation, and Pearson correlation matrix were used in this study to provide better insight and understanding of the dynamics of the geochemical parameters in the water and leachate samples. From the one-way covariance, the null hypothesis was rejected for a statistically significant difference was found in the chemical properties of water from the three geographical locations. The correlations among the bacteriological parameters show that the total bacteria count is strongly positively correlated with the Total coli count, r = 0.939, N = 24, p = 0.000. Strong positive correlation exists between Total faecal count and Total E coli count, r = 0.967, N = 24, p= 0.000. Similarly, for the chemical parameters, strong correlations exist between them. Strong positive correlations were observed between Conductivity and TDS, r = 0.875, N = 24, p = 0.000 and Alkalinity, r = 0.931, N = 24, p = 0.000.. Two main clusters were distinguished in the dendrogram. The first cluster is derived from mixed sources: anthropogenic and lithogenic sources. Cluster 2 contains only total bacteria counts derived from anthropogenic sources, specifically from decaying organic matter.