Volume 8, Issue 1, January 2020 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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This study aims to determine the effect of the number of the workforce and investment on performance in the fisheries sector in North Jakarta. This research was conducted in North Jakarta in August 2019. The method used was a quantitative descriptive method using periodic data (time series). Secondary data obtained through desk study study to collect information about research that has been done before and the latest developments regarding the number of labor force, investment and PDRB in the fisheries sector in general. Data analysis used correlation test, multiple linear regression analysis, F and t test, and coefficient of determination. The results showed that the fisheries investment and PDRB of the fisheries sector had a significant impact on the performance of the fisheries sector. Keywords : Investment, Labor Force, PDRB, Performance

The Influence of Islamic Organizational Culture, and Islamic Corporate Gevornance on Islamic Ethical Behavior with Supervision as a Moderation Variable []

Abstract- This study aims to examine the influence of Islamic Corporate Governance and Islamic organizational culture on ethical behavior of Islam which is moderated by supervision. The number of respondents examined in this study was 292 respondents, all respondents were employees of several agencies of the Ministry of Religion of South Sulawesi province. The instrument used in this study was a questionnaire. The questionnaire had passed the instrument test phase and was declared valid and reliable in measuring all research variables. The method used in this research is a quantitative research method. The research data were analyzed using SEM analysis technique based on PLS with the help of the SmartPLS program. Based on the analysis of research data, the results show that partially the culture of Islamic organizations and Islamic corporate governance affect the ethical behavior of Islamic employees, this shows that the better the application of Islamic organizational culture and Islamic corporate governance in the environment of the ministry of religion in South Sulawesi, the higher ethical behavior of Islamic employees, in addition, the results of the analysis also show that supervision is proven to moderate (strengthen) the influence of Islamic organizational culture and Islamic corporate governance on Islamic ethical behavior. The implementation of Islamic organizational culture and good Islamic corporate governance within the Ministry of Religion, if supported by good work supervision can increase the high ethical behavior of Islam. Keywords: Islamic organizational culture, Islamic corporate governance, Islamic ethical supervision and behavior.

Humanitarian Military Intervention and its Impasse: Its Legality and Legitimacy []

This article aspires to present the entire academic debate about the idea of HMI in a comprehensive picture as possible and to present how extremely complicated it is to take sides in this normative argument. The article elucidates the paralysis of the moralists and lawyers in solving the dilemma surrounding the right of HMI. This article examines particularly this indecisiveness of the normative sciences has served as a main impetus for initiating an effort to evaluate the concept of HMI on the empirical basis, making a daring attempt to tame the justice-based rhetoric into the more structural and measurable terms. Through a deep hermeneutic elucidation, this article concludes that the legality and legitimacy of MHI is an open idea for academic debates.

Assessment of Gender Influence in Household’s Responsibility and Supervision (In Mbeya Rural Utengule-Usongwe Ward-Tanzania) []

The aim of this study was to assess gender influence in household and resources allocation in Mbeya Rural District. The process of resources allocation at household level involves two different genders whereby male dominates female in all sphere of life. It was discovered through many literatures that women were discriminated, oppressed, not access to, control and inherit of land by customary law. The study was carried out in Mbeya Rural District at Utengule-Usongwe ward, which involved 196 households, comprised of married, widow/widower, cohabiting and divorced. The data were collected using questionnaires, interview, Focus Group Discussions and documentary review. The data were edited, coded, and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 computer program. The qualitative data were analyzed and integrated in the report according to the objectives of the study. The findings of the study revealed that, the majority of the respondents had knowledge about the cultural influence in the household which discriminate and oppress women’s rights and favour men as superior over women. The respondents were also aware about the tendency of the societies to allocate the available resources at household level more to boys than girls. The study revealed that the majority of decision makers and heads of the households were men. However, the study confirmed that culture plays a great role in discriminating and oppressing women at household level. The findings show clearly that gender inequality is mainly based in relation to access and control over domestic resources in the household, whereby men are still dominating all sphere in the households. Basing on the findings, the study recommends that there is a need to filter and alleviate the harmful elements in culture which lead to ill-treatment of women and hinder women’s rights at household level. Also there is a need to teach statutory laws in primary and secondary in order to raise awareness about gender equality and empowerment.


Quality and safe fishery products can be produced by implementing a quality assurance and fishery product safety system. According to PERMEN-KP / 51/2018 that the requirements for the quality assurance and safety system of fishery products have basic requirements, namely the application of good fish handling and / or processing methods and standard operating procedures for sanitation (SSOP). Therefore, a good way of producing processed food (CPPOB) is one of the important components in producing processed food, especially in processed fisheries. This study aims to analyze the extent to which the effectiveness of the implementation of Good Processed Food Production Methods (CPPOB) and the process flow in making tuna ice cream nuggets in producing good quality food and safe for consumption. This research was conducted from August - September 2019. This study aimed to evaluate the application of CPPOB (Good Processed Food Production Methods) in Mamazy Mitoha Yogurt and Frozen Food UKM based on KEPMEN-KP / 52A / 2013. The research method used is the study of literature, by directly going to the field and following the flow of the process, looking at the state of SMEs to obtain data. The data analysis method used is a comparative descriptive analysis method. The results showed that the CPPOB in Mamazy Mitoha Yogurt SMEs and the Frozen Food identified, CPPOB in UKM contained several components that did not meet the standards of Good Processed Food Production Methods so that there was a need for improvement.

The preferred method of identifying business successors among Small and Medium Enterprises in Ghana []

Across the globe, Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) drive economic growth both in developed and developing economies. Sadly, most SMEs do not exist pass the first or second generation due to poor business succession management to ensure the business continuity. In effect, there is the need to understand the issue of succession planning among SMEs so as to promote the effectiveness of SMEs. In effect, this paper sought to examine the preferred method of identifying business successors among Small and Medium Enterprises in Ghana. The paper used the pragmatic research paradigm and mixed methods approach. The cross-sectional survey was utilized to gather data from SMEs domiciled in five regions of Ghana. The survey precisely targeted middle level employees, management staff, Human Resource and Admin departments, as well as CEOs. The study utilized 237 valid quantitative data for analysis. More so seven respondents (i.e. CEOs, HR/Administration Managers) were purposively selected and interviewed on the subject matter. Using both quantitative and qualitative data analysis techniques, the result indicated that employee performance evaluation rating(s) is the most preferred indicator used in identifying potential business successors among the SMEs. The paper recommends that SME owners and management should proactively invest and engage in effective succession planning so as to ensure their growth and survivability

Bioethanol Production from Brewery Spent Grain using Cellulases Enzyme Hydrolysis []

Large amounts of brewery spent grain are generated from beer factories in Ethiopia. Its high source of cellulose, but discharge into environments cause environmental and health problems, This study was aimed to quantify reducing sugar and bio-ethanol production from brewery spent grain, using cellulases enzyme hydrolysis. The sugar content of the hydrolysate quantified using a spectrophotometer measuring its absorbance. The best yield of reducing sugar was found at 40 0C temperature, 4.5 pH, and 48 hrs time and 1.5 ml enzyme loading. 2.5 % Saccharomyces cerevisiae and at 30 ºC temperature, 5.0 pH and 72 hrs time Fermentation was performed Hydrolysate. Then 96.55, %w/w and 53.68 % per 6.58 g barley spent grain of reducing sugar and bio-ethanol respectively obtained.

Technology Orientation and Corporate Innovativeness of Quoted Manufacturing Firms in Rivers State []

This study examined the relationship between technology orientation and corporate innovativeness of quoted manufacturing firms in Rivers state. It adopted the cross-sectional survey in its investigation of the variables. Primary data was generated through self- administered questionnaire. The population of the paper was 20 managers of four (4) manufacturing companies in Rivers state and due to the small population, the census method of sampling was adopted. The research instrument was validated through content validity while the reliability of the instrument was achieved by the use of the Cronbach Alpha coefficient with all the items scoring above 0.70. Data generated were analyzed and presented using both descriptive and inferential statistical techniques and the hypotheses were tested using the Spearman’s Rank Order Correlation Statistics. The tests were carried out at a 95% confidence interval and a 0.05 level of significance and findings revealed that there is a significant and positive relationship between technology orientation and corporate innovativeness of the quoted manufacturing firms in Rivers state. This study recommends that manufacturing firms should make use of technology orientation to develop artificial intelligence to enhance their work process and add more value to their products in order to compete on a global scale.

Growth Pattern of Silver Barb, Barbonymus gonionotus (Bleeker, 1950) in Downstream Cimanuk River of West Java Province []

Silver Barb (Barbonymus gonionotus) is one of the original fish in Indonesian waters, an important economical fish. Cimanuk River is one of the second largest rivers in West Java Province, upstream of Cimanuk River is in the Papandayan Mountain in Garut Regency and downstream which empties into the Java Sea in Indramayu Regency. Silver Barb are native fish of Indonesia, Silver Barb classified into species protected according to the IUCN red list with the category LC (Least Concern). Silver Barb in nature is difficult to find, allegedly due to drastic changes in environmental conditions. The research aims to analyze the growth pattern of Silver Barb in the downstream of the Cimanuk River in West Java Province in December 2018 until February 2019. This research uses field observation methods and census sampling techniques, sampling at coordinates between 6°39'38.01 '' LS 107°13'52.33 '' BT to 6°16'25.26 '' LS 108°14'5.17 'BT. Silver Barb caught in the waters of the Cimanuk River consists of seven size classes. The smallest size has a size between 70-93 mm by 16% is a fish that is still in the growth stage. Fish growth patterns follow the regression equation Log W = 3.2933 Log L – 5.5068. Value b = 3.2933 Silver Barb growth pattern is positive allometric, weight gain is faster than length increase. Condition factors of Silver Barb range from 1.05 to 3.17, fish with a total length between 94 mm - 117 mm have an optimum condition factor, with a condition factor value of 3,17. Silver Barb with a length of more than 117 mm, the condition has decreased.

Apoptin as a promising bio-weapon against transformed cells: A review []

The menace of cancer is a growing problem world-wide affecting all categories of persons. For more than a decade, the development of a potent anticancer agent with the specificity of attacking transformed cells (malignant cells) without affecting normal cells (untransformed cells) have remained a holy grail clinically as it is proven to be fully successful in only a limited number of cancers. Targeting the transformed cells without affecting the normal cells is extremely difficult. The chameleon nature of transformed cells has been one of the hallmark limitation to the development of a clinically viable therapeutic agents for cancer patient as transformed cells (malignant cells) acquires biochemical properties such as been insensitive to anti-growth signals, self-sufficiency in growth signals, limitless replicative potentials, evasion of apoptosis, sustained angiogenesis, tissue invasion and metastasis. Thus, this review focuses on a novel emerging gene product with a unique feature of selectively targeting transformed cells (cancer cells) while sparing normal (untransformed) cells. The discovery of a viral protein 3 derived from Chicken Anemia Virus called Apoptin has attracted attention as it possesses an inherent ability to specifically attack transformed cells without affecting the normal cells independent of p53 tumuor suppressor gene status. The mechanistic insight for apoptin specificity against transformed cells has come from studies of cells in culture and genetic animal models. The selective apoptotic induction by Apoptin in transformed cells are mediated through the mitochondrial death pathway independent of the p53 tumour suppressor status. One of the principal difficulty in developing an efficient anti-cancer agent has always been in the therapeutic agent specificity to transformed cells (malignant cells) without affecting healthy bystander cells. In this review, we elucidate at the molecular level, the mechanistic event of apoptin specificity for attacking transformed cells without affecting normal cells. We also discuss the basic cellular processes and signaling pathways associated with apoptin’s cancer selective toxicity.

Funding and Operating Community Radio in Ghana: The Case of Tawasul Radio in the Tamale Metropolis. []

This study investigated funding and operation of community radio station in Ghana with the Tawasul community radio being the case. The qualitative case study was adopted focusing on key informant as respondents for the study. Findings revealed that financial and managerial constraints have bedeviled Tawasul community radio leaving it in a state of apology of its classification. The station lacks competitive edge and financially limping as it could be shut down any day. Again, the weak regulatory irresponsibility is another bane of the fortunes of the station. Tawasul is a pale shadow of a community radio. Urgent steps including financial could salvage its collapse. The National Communication Authority must enforce its regulations on community radio to sustain the concept for the citizenry.


The objective of this study is to 1. Determine number of patients with thyroid dysfunction in pregnancy 2. Determine the obstetric outcome and neonatal outcome of thyroid dysfunction in pregnancy Methodology A retrospective study was conducted in Hospital Sungai Buloh from the data obtained by the hospital registry. Data from July 2013 to July 2016 was reviewed and information regarding the patient’s socio-demographic data, anthropometry of the neonate, the variation of the neonatal birth weight and maternal thyroid disorder was recorded in a designed data collection form with the sample size of (n=166). The inclusion criteria for this study are all patients age from 20-40 years old and do not have chronic diseases such as hypertension, heart disease, diabetes mellitus, and neonates are born at term 37 weeks to 42 weeks without congenital anomalies. The exclusion criteria are patients age less than 20 or more than 40 years old, having chronic diseases such hypertension, heart disease, diabetes mellitus, and neonates born preterm less than 37 weeks of gestational age or with congenital anomalies. The collected data was analyzed statistically using IBM Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. Independent t-test was used to analyze two variables in which one is categorical and the other is numerical. Chi-square was used to analyze two independent categorical variables. All statistical analyses will use P< 0.05 as a significant value. - Material Method and sample size All pregnant mother with impaired thyroid function in pregnancy were included from July 2013 to July 2016 . The association of hyperthyroid and hypothyroidism in pregnancy with the following outcome were studied: 1. Thyroid disorder with antenatal complications such as anemia, Gestational Diabetes, Gestational Hypertension, Preeclampsia, Preterm Prelabour Rupture of Membrane and Antepartum Haemorrhage. 2. Gestational age of delivery and mode of delivery 3. Baby’s Apgar score and birth weight - Flow Chart Patients with thyroid dysfunction in pregnancy less than 40 years old were identified from delivery book collected July 2013-July 2016 Patient’s data collected in patient’s data form and data entered in SPSS version 20 CONCLUSION Based on our study, thyroid disorder in pregnancy did not significantly affect obstetric outcome and neonatal birth weight.


Contrary to the common belief, egoistic behaviours like other behaviours may be profitable or unprofitable for individuals as well as for some of their neighbours depending on circumstances. Some of the advantages in the novel are admiration, determination, self-confidence; optimism, dignity, happiness, self-adjustment, curiosity whereas certain of the disadvantages are arrogance, rebellions, heartlessness, unhappiness, criminality, sorrow, etc. So if an egoist can adjust his behaviours to some new situations, he can greatly participate in his country and continent’s development.It is apparent then that an egoist may be ambitious which presupposes he has to have the self-motivation necessary to reach some important goals. When submitted to Freud’s psychoanalysis, the conclusion turns out to be that an egoist can be well integrated in a society and contribute to his country, continent and world’s development if he is capable of self-adjustment. This is the positive side of egoism which also has its drawbacks in Daniel Deronda.


This research aims to analyze the feasibility of seaweed business (Gracilaria sp) Pantai Mekar Village, Muara Gembong, Bekasi Disctrict, West Java. This research began in January 2019 until January 2020. The research method of survey method is the research carried out by taking samples from a population and using questionnaires as a primary data collection tool. The sampling technique used was snowball sampling by using the recommendations of the farmers to determine respondents in each marketing institution so that the total number of respondents was 18 people. Data analysis included marketing channel analysis and marketing efficiency analysis including business profit analysis, payback period,. The results showed that there were marketing channels and seaweed marketing institutions consisting of 10 farmers, 4 collectors, 4 large traders. The marketing institutions that have the highest level of efficiency are large traders with a BCR value of 2.16, with a business feasibility has a profit of IDR 261,923,125 in 1 year and has a payback period value of 0.17.


This paper aims at power system restructuring in Nigeria. It exposes the problem associated to electricity market in Nigeria, its limitations, effects on consumers and how it got there. Two power stable country was studied to ascertain if there is something Nigeria has to learn to stabilize it power; they are United States and Germany. In US market structure controlled by states was seen. The state determines majorly how the market operates. Germany proposed a market where anybody who is willing to participate can invest. This will attract so many investors of which their major source of power is through renewable energy. This market structure will bring in a lot of competition that will beat down the price of electricity and also create a better service if the market players want to remain in the market. This can also be proposed to Nigerian market. The market whose problem is majorly political interest and sentiment can be restructured to attract investors who know the best way to handle the network for customer’s satisfaction. Keywords: Restructuring, electricity market, competitive market

Load Flow Analysis of Ordinance Area Trans-Amadi Port Harcourt Using Gauss Seidel Technique for Improvement. []

Power flow analysis is the backbone of power system analysis and design. It is important for planning of future expansion of power system as well as determining the best operating condition of the existing system. The principal information of power flow analysis is to find the magnitude and phase angle of voltage at each bus and the real and reactive power flowing in each transmission lines. This study examined the existing electrical power network for Ordinance area, Trans-Amadi Port Harcourt distribution network which consists of four (4) 11kV distribution feeders namely; Waterworks, Fimie, Ndabros and Rivoc. The distribution network was modelled in Electrical Transient Analyser Program (ETAP) using Gauss-Seidel power flow equation. Power flow analysis was conducted for both existing network and modified network using transformer tapping and capacitor bank optimization method. The results were analysed, under-voltage buses, overloaded transformers and feeders were identified. Voltage level below 95% was taken as under voltage and transformer loading above 60% are taken as overloading. The reasons for the under-voltage and overloading were identified and two (2) optimization techniques were used to improve the network and to know which of the techniques is better. According to the simulation results, the effects of all bus voltages changed and improved above the acceptable range which is 100% because of varying of the best condition of tap ratio. When the capacitor bank under optimum value was installed at the weakest buses, the voltage of those buses were increased between 97.65% and 100.94%.


Completeness basic immunization is an effort that aims to reduce morbidity and mortality of children with improving immunity to the child at an early stage by providing a useful vaccine to prevent diseases that can be prevented through immunization. This study aims to analyze the factors associated with the completion of basic immunization in children aged 12-23 months in Pulau Telo Public Health Cen-ter, Selat Sub-District, Kapuas District in 2019. This research method is a cross-sectional study. The sample in this study was 106 mothers who have children aged 12-23 months. The sampling technique uses proportional random sampling technique with the proportional stratified random sampling formula. The independent variable is the mother's education level, mother's occupational status, family in-come, number of children in the family, affordability of health facilities, religious and cultural facilities and completeness of basic immun-ization for children aged 12-23 months as the dependent variable. Statistical analysis using the chi-square test showed p-value of moth-er's education level (p=0.828), mother's employment status (p=0.701), family income (p=0.384), religion (p=0.281), number of children in the family (p=0.031; Exp.B=0.396), affordability of health facilities (p=0.013; Exp.B=2.649), and culture (p=0.044; Exp.B=2.617) on the completeness of basic immunization for children aged 12-23 months. There was no relationship between the level of maternal education, maternal employment status, family income, and religion with complete basic immunization of children aged 12-23 months and there was relationship between the number of children in the family, the affordability of health facilities, and culture with complete basic immuniza-tion of children age 12-23 months in Pulau Telo Public Health Center Selat Sub-District Kapuas District 2019.


This study aims to examine agricultural sector budget policies, fertilizer subsidies and irrigation infrastructure that affect farmers' income through the variable productivity of agricultural land in the food crops sub-sector in the 8 districts of Bosowasipilu which were food buffer advocates in South Sulawesi during the 2014-2018 period. Qualitative and quantitative analysis is carried out to illustrate the relationship between land productivity and farmers' income. The Cobb-Gouglas production function is applied by multiple regression models using path analysis for policies that affect the production and productivity of the agricultural sub-sector of rice. The results show that only irrigation infrastructure policies that have a significant effect on land productivity directly, however, do not have a direct effect on farmer's income but through land productivity as an interpening variable, it has a significant effect on farmer's income.

Effluent Treatment Plant on dyeing of Textile []

The biological activated sludge treatment, is based on the use of bacteria and micro organism, which, if kept in determinate environmental circumstances, are able to destroy polluting organic matter. From metabolism of organic matter, growth and developing of an activated bio mass, CO2 production, water, mineral salts and inorganic products of biological waste, are determined. This process is similar, under a certain point of view, to what normally happens in a water course, but quicker and in less space. It is easy to understand that all contributing to environment forming in which bacteria develop their action, must be rigorously balanced and related, to offer a greater opportunity of development, in no way inhibiting any of the treatment phases. So we understand that a biological activated sludge plant is to be compared to a micro ambient with proper chemical physical factors (temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen etc.) in which the microbial biomass develop its proper vital cycle (reproduction included) and tends to establish its own regime; by means of this equilibrium the best efficiency conditions of the plant will be achieved.

Effectiveness of the Astaxanthin Addition in Commercial Feed to Oscar (Astronotus ocellatus) Color Intensity []

The research was functioned to understand the effectiveness of astaxanthin addition with color intensity change and to understand the optimal astaxanthin concentration which is added to commercial feed to increase oscar color intesity. This research was done in Hatchery of Fisheries and Marine Science Faculty of Padjadjaran University in September to October 2018. The research method that has been used was experimental with completely randomize design (CRD) with six treatments and three replications. The treatments of astaxanthin addition are 0 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg, 30 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg, and 50 mg/kg feed, it was based on the amount of feed. The parameter observed was color score as a main data that using Toca Colour Finder (TCF) whereas the weight addition and survival rate as supporting data. The data from color observation was analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test, if there is a real difference, the Z test will be done. On the other hand, the weight addition was analyzed using ANOVA F test. The F test was conducted to find treatment effect toward parameter, if there was a real difference, the Duncan test will be done. The result conclude that 30 mg/kg astaxanthin addition to the feed is the most effective treatment toward oscar with color intesity score 5.69.


Pangandaran Regency is one of the regencies in West Java with the capital of the Regency located in the District of Parigi. Pangandaran coast and sea is one of the areas included in the 573 Fisheries Management Area (WPP) zone, WPP 573. This area is a mainstay for capture fisheries. So that the capture fisheries sector contributes greatly to the regional economy and society in the Pangandaran region. Therefore a regional government policy strategy is needed as an effort to develop capture fisheries in Pangandaran Regency. This research aims to describe the profile of local government policy strategies in the past five years as an effort to develop capture fisheries in Pangandaran Regency and to analyze the policies that have been implemented so that they can be recommended in the field of capture fisheries. The research method used in this research is a descriptive method on the basis of case studies. Analysis of the data used in this study uses the Soft System Methodology approach. Based on an unstructured problem-solving approach, it represents an exiting condition. Exiting conditions include technical or production aspects, institutional aspects, and aspects of Human Resources. Keywords : Pangandaran, Policy, Capture Fisheries, Soft System Methodology.


Pangandaran Regency is a division of Ciamis Regency on October 25, 2012 according to Law No. 21 of 2012 concerning the Establishment of the Regency of Pangandaran. Pangandaran Regency itself is one of the districts with superior tourism potential in West Java. As one of the districts that has considerable tourism potential, as with the vision & mission of Pangandaran Regency according to the Tourism and Culture Office of Pangandaran Regency which is making Pangandaran as a world-class tourist destination, Pangandaran Regency is expected to be able to excel in all sectors, especially the tourism sector. Marine Tourism is a tourism activity that is oriented to the territorial waters and the sea by utilizing the potential available for recreational activities and other marine activities. What is done under the sea or at sea level, such as snorkeling, banana boat, or just enjoying the beauty of the beach. Therefore a regional government policy strategy is needed to improve the welfare of coastal communities in Pangandaran district. This research aims to describe the profile of local government policy strategies in the past five years as an effort to develop marine tourism in Pangandaran Regency and to analyze the policies that have been implemented so that they can be recommended in the field of marine tourism. The research method used in this research is a descriptive method on the basis of case studies. Analysis of the data used in this study uses the Soft System Methodology approach. Based on the problem approach, the unstructured problem illustrates the exiting condition. Exiting conditions include technical or non-technical aspects, aspects of governance, and aspects of Human Resources. Keywords: Pangandaran, Policy, Marine Tourism, Soft System Methodology.


Pangandaran Regency is one of the regencies in West Java Province with the capital of the Regency located in Parigi District. The Pangandaran area produces aquaculture ponds, marine fish culture, and also produces fresh fish culture which mainly comes from pond water, swift water ponds and floating net ponds. Therefore a regional government policy strategy is needed to improve the welfare of farmers in Pangandaran district. This research aims to describe the profile of local government policy strategies in the past five years as an effort to develop aquaculture in Pangandaran Regency and to analyze the policies that have been implemented so that they can be recommended in the field of aquaculture. The research method used in this research is a descriptive method on the basis of case studies. Analysis of the data used in this study uses theapproach Soft System Methodology. Based on the problem approach, the unstructured problem illustrates the exiting condition. Exiting conditions include technical or production aspects, institutional aspects, and aspects of Human Resources. Keywords: Pangandaran, Policy, Aquaculture, Soft System Methodology.


The welfare of the population in Indonesia can be measured through the level of economic growth (GDP). The open economy implemented in Indonesia indicates trade between countries, which in turn has an impact on the rupiah exchange rate, export-import activities, world oil prices, and foreign investment to carry out a policy. As a result of the existence of a trade war between China and America that made Indonesia's economic growth also affected. This study aims to examine how the influence of the exchange rate, world oil prices, China's economic growth, American economic growth, and foreign investment on the level of economic growth in Indonesia through agricultural exports, industrial exports and imports. The data used is the annual time series from 1975 to 2018. In this study using the method of simultaneous regression analysis with E-views program 8. The results of this study indicate that all variables have a significant effect on the level of economic growth in Indonesia except American economic growth. This study suggests that the policies undertaken can stabilize the exchange rate of the rupiah, investment, international trade which in turn has an impact on productivity so that it can increase Indonesia's economic growth.

Quantitative Analysis of Digitopalmar Dermatoglyphics in Fifty Male Psoriatic Monoarthritis Patient []

By the quantitative dermatoglyphic analysis, one the genetic method, we have made research 25 variable in number of epidermal ridge on palm and finger in fifty male psoriatic monoarthritis patient: on all ten finger, on five finger separately and their sum all together, between triradii a-b, b-c and c-d on both palm, their sum on one and both palm, atd angle on one and both hand and their sum all together in degree. Obtained were compared with control group of 200 healthy men from the Zagreb area, in Croatia. Statistically significant to control by the Student's t-test in 20 variable in the sense of increasing number of epidermal ridges on each of ten finger, their sum on five and all together, between triradii a-b both palm, in decreasing number of ridge between c-d triradii on both palm, and finally in increasing atd angle on both palm in degree. Accordingly a polygenetic system identical in some loci to polygenic system predisposing to male psoriatic mono- arthritis susceptibility, might be found responsible for a change dermatoglyphic pattern development simultaneously, because oftheir common ectodermal origin.


Identification of risk factors is an important step in project success. It is the way toward recognizing, ordering, and breaking down and surveying inborn hazard factors in a task. Due to the nature of the construction projects, which consist of many related and non-related operations, many risk factors will contribute in a project. To have an effective study about risk factors in any project, as a first step the key risk factors were identified through literature review. Then, these factors were classified concerning to key construction parties such as contractors, consultants, clients, subcontractors and government bodies. Our project is intended to find out different risk factors in water and waste water projects especially in KPK. We study different articles, research papers and books from which we identified twenty risk factors. A questionnaire was designed and distributed to target parties through mail, email, social media and by hand. About 96 people responded to our questionnaire. Based on their feedback the collected data were analyzed statistically through reliability test, normality test, and relative importance index. According to relative importance index following are the top five risk factors in water and waste water projects in KPK. a) Cost overrun; b) Political; c) Time overrun; d) Corruption; and e) Availability of finances. Key words:Risk management, Water and waste water projects, Risk factors, Relative importance index, Normality test, Reliability test.


This research aims to analyze the hazards and determine the critical control points in the process of handling WGGS gurame at Kurnia Mitra Makmur Purwakarta Ltd, West Java. The research began in July to November 2019. The research method was carried out with a case study method and then analyzed descriptively. The research data consisted of hazard analysis, CCP, microbiology, organoleptic, and chemistry. Hazards that may occur in the handling of WGGS gurame are biological, physical, and chemical hazards. The result of the hazard analysis obtained by the critical control point is in the washing II. Microbiological test results for raw materials worth 3.6 x 102 and the final product worth 2.0 x 102 so that they still meet quality standards and are safe for public consumption. Organoleptic testing of raw materials for WGGS gurame products showed that the raw materials used for gurame fish have good physical characteristics, odors, and textures that are still good and accepted, which is then continued for the next process. Chemical test results for raw materials are acceptable because there was no detection of antibiotic residues and small amounts of metal contamination.

Practice and Future Prospects of Direct Democracy in Switzerland []

The economically modernized and politically stable state with a population of around 8 million people, including foreigners and minorities, Switzerland is that the part of world where direct democracy is efficiently being practiced. It is the country with the centralized structure, distributed into twenty-six cantons and three thousand autonomous municipalities. The citizens of Switzerland are highly empowered in contrast to many of their European and trans-European contemporaries. It is a state where the role of citizens in national participation is empowered to the extent that they can propose any amendment they wish in the constitution by voting for it. The most important of the decisions within the structure of direct democracy in Switzerland have been made possible through an active inclusiveness of the Swiss public. The current study entitled Practice and Future Prospects of Direct Democracy in Switzerland, however, reviews the existing literature regarding the historical background of the Swiss direct democracy and probes into its background story. It also discusses the important facts about it and critically analyzes the features of direct democratic system in the Swiss state. The findings of the study, derived through extensive theoretical research, suggest that the direct democracy of Switzerland have proven to significantly affect not only the policies but also the political environment of the state. Keywords: Direct democratic system; Direct democracy; Role of citizen’s amendments, Municipalities, cantons.

Patients’ Preferences for Attributes Among Health Care Providers in Karachi, Pakistan: A Cross-Sectional Study []

Knowing which attributes constitute an ideal doctor according to patients will help build stronger doctor-patient relationships, increase trust and compliance, and benefit the overall health care system. This cross-sectional study was conducted from January – June 2018 in order to identify, evaluate, and assess the preferences of patients and attendants regarding attributes of health care providers in Karachi, Pakistan. Non-probability purposive sampling was carried out by administering a structured questionnaire at two hospitals in Karachi. Out of 400 adult participants (aged 18-70 years) approached, 384 agreed to fill out the questionnaire. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 21, frequencies and proportions were done for descriptive analysis, and chi-square test was carried out for comparison between groups (p< 0.05 considered as significant). Males constituted 38.3% of the participants and females 61.7%; 30.5% were uneducated while 69.5% participants had at least some formal education. The options among the most frequently preferred included being polite/friendly (48.7%), speaking the same language as the patient (40.6%), more experienced/older trained (56.8%), and caring about the total cost (31.5%). The last two were also frequently selected in all three of the top preferences at the end of the questionnaire, emphasising their importance. Thus, this study illustrates the most important characteristics of a doctor to this population, and the strength of its application lies in its ability to be imperative in helping current physicians in Karachi create deeper bonds of trust and in preparing future medical students to deliver a higher quality of healthcare in Pakistan.

Analysis of Preference Marinated Osteochilus hasselti on Soaking Fermentation Cabbage Media []

This study aims to determine the level of panelists' preference for marinated Osteochilus hasselti for five differences in immersion duration. This research has been conducted at the Laboratory of Fisheries Product Processing at the Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Padjadjaran University which began in July 2019 until completion. The research method was carried out experimentally consisting of S long immersion treatments, namely for 10 minutes,20 minutes, 30 minutes, 40 minute, and 50 minutes with 20 semi-trained panelists as repeiions. The parameters observed were organoleptic characteristics including appe arance, aroma, texture, taste, and pH value testing. Analysis of preference tests used the Friedman Test and to determine the most important characteristics used the Bayes Test. The hedonic test and the pH test were analyzed descriptively. The panelist's most preferred product was a marinated Osteochilus hasselti with a soaking time of 40 minutes which has a brlliant white appearance with a sarvonry taste and has a pH value of 6.3.


Tanning is a process of turning raw skin into leather and aims to stop the rate of skin decay so as to make the skin resistant to physical, chemical and biological disorders. One of materials that can be used as a vegetable tanning is areca nut. The purpose of this research was to determine the concentration of areca nut extract that has the best physical characteristics and appearance of tilapia skin tanning. The parameter tests are physical tests (tensile strength, tear strength, elongation and shrinkage temperature) and organoleptic tests (texture, appearance and aroma). The method used in this research is a complete randomized design method, which consists of one factor and five levels with three repetitions (triplo). The treatment of this research is addition areca nut extract for 60 minutes with the following concen-trations, 0% (control); 5%; 7.5%; 10%, and 12.5%. The results of the research showed that areca nut extract with a concentration of 7.5% was the best treatment with tensile strength of 224,72 ± 6,57 kg/cm2, elongation of 68.12 ± 3.68%, tear strength of 36.88 ± 16,68 kg/cm, and the shrinkage temperature of 91.67 ± 0.577oC, for organoleptic assessment has an average score of 9 for appearance, 8.2 for odor/smell, and 9 for texture.


Tanzania has been experiencing climate variability extremes such as drought and floods. The spatial distribution and the intensity of these extremes exceed the expected weather events and said to be aggravated by global climate change. Floods and drought are known to affect socio-economic activities. This study has investigated the role of indigenous agricultural knowledge systems for adaptation to the effects of climate variability in Kondoa district, Tanzania. The study used questionnaires and focus group discussion as basic tools for gathering information. A total of 109 respondents were involved in this study. 94 respondents were involved in questionnaire survey and 15 were key respondents.The study revealed that local people have both indicators and practices which are used in minimizing key climate based vulnerabilities that are related to agriculture. The common indicators used for forecasting are birds, plants and insects behaviors and thundering. The common soil management practice revealed was the use of animal manure. These practices correlate well with modern climatic information gathered in the study area.This study concluded that indigenous knowledge used by the local people in Kondoa district has significant effect in reducing key climate vulnerabilities in agriculture.


The main target of this work is to design and implement a “Distributed Application system for Microfinance management system (SACCO)” to help solving problems relating to saving and Cash flow and movement of funds -up in the microfinance. This Application offers the ability to register Clients, Creating their account , credit delivery information Deposit information and withdrawing information ,report and print information about all operations listed above, and finally it lets the users know how many hours are remained and how many are finished for every operation . The users in one department cannot access the data of the other department. But the users in the same department have the provision to access all departments’ information. In implementation of this research is the “Prototyping Model”. Using this methodology, developers receive quantifiable user feedback and this facilitates system implementation since users can know what is expected. PHP with its Remote Method Invocation technology, Xampp as A mySQL based Integrated database management system and Dream weaver as Integrated Development Environment (IDE), To implement this application, package are created and some are hosted locally on the server side and the other is locally hosted on the client side. Keywords: Analysis, Modeling, Conception, Cash flow management, Information management system


The research aims to identify volatile compounds and proximate flavor powder prepared from white shrimp boiled water broth. The white shrimp were collected from the local fish landing site in Karangsong, Indramayu, West Java. This research uses an experimental method by testing the composition of volatile flavor compounds and then undertaking proximate test-ing. The method was to identify using Gas Chromatography /Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) on flavor powder sample with Soil Phase Micro extraction (SPME) (80°C, during 30 minutes) to extract volatile compounds. The result of analysis detected 96 volatile compounds. Volatile compounds detected were mostly derived from hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters, and other compounds. The highest proportion of volatile compounds detected in aldehydes groups was butanal, 3-methyl- (14.881%). The proximate analysis results showed that flavor powder from white shrimp boiled water broth sample had a moisture content of 6.19%, ash content of 3.03%, protein content of 16.45%, and lipid content of 0.20%.

Data Rate and Remaining Power Based Multi hop Routing Protocol []

Abstract—Wireless multimedia sensor network (WMSN) is an apparatus equipped with multimedia devices. The sensors have the ability to record audiovisual datas and deliver the multimedia content through the sensors network. Because of multi rate and power, the consumption of devices used in WMSN networks brought more challenges to designing efficient protocols that are both aware of power and transmission rate.A research paper firstly discusses the challenges of routing protocols currently used, and secondary presents a new algorithm data rate and remaining power based multi-hop routing protocol.


Abstract Various countries in the world has resolve conflicts of resources, political or cultural values through using participatory conflict management approach that gives rooms for addressing the emerging needs that led to the conflict. Niger Delta Conflicts has its own history and causes since before Nigeria independence in 1960’s but the argument cannot be separated from failure of government to fulfil on its mandate that what has brought to the escalation of the conflict for a very long time. The paper has reviewed various relevant works on the subject matter to give the work a focus line for investigation and solving a problem. The paper has a major findings that peoples in the Niger Delta Region was lacking some basic necessities for good living, while elite groups both from traditional institutions and political office holders are highly engage in massive corruption where money means for development of the Region are diverted to personal accounts for only individuals needs not public interest in the area. The paper has a suggestion that to addressed the issue of conflict in Niger Delta, Institutions both at Federal, State and Local Government, communities leaders and members of Civil Society Groups must keep awake for their responsibility of providing for basic needs for their peoples through using scientific administrative approach indices of identifying the needs and finding an appropriates means of addressing those demands and lastly government at all level must operates open, transparent and accountable to people needs in the Niger Delta Region through purely engaging them on participatory method of identifying and resolving problems with all-inclusiveness and responsibilities. Keywords: Conflict, Niger Delta, Good Governance, Elitism and Corruption

Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points on Handling of WGGS Red Tilapia at Kurnia Mitra Makmur Purwakarta, Ltd., West Java []

The research was conducted at Kurnia Mitra Makmur Purwakarta Ltd. West Java from July until November 2019. The research aims to identify the hazards and determine the points of critical control of the handling process of WGGS Red Tilapia. The research is done by case study method. The research procedures include observing the flow of WGGS Red Tilapia handling process, potential hazard analysis, identification of critical control points, microbiological test and an organoleptic test. The data was analyzed descritptively. The possible hazards of WGGS Red Tilapia handling process are biological, physical, and chemical hazards. Based on hazard analysis, the critical control points are the stage of washing II. The microbiological test results for the final product of WGGS Red Tilapia is still meet quality standards. WGGS red tilapia products are acceptable and safe for public consumption. The microbiological test results on raw materials and final products estimate the amount of Salmonella sp. and Vibrio cholera which is negative/25 g, Escherichia coli <1.8 MPN / g, ALT on raw materials 3.6 x 102 and on the final product 4.0 x 101. WGGS red tilapia products are acceptable and safe for public use. The organoleptic test results of the raw material that have been compared with the SNI 2729: 2013 scale as a whole are categorized as acceptable with raw materials that can be used for further processing.

Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points on Handling of fillet patin at Kurnia Mitra Makmur Purwakarta, Ltd., West Java []

This research aims to analyze hazards and determine critical control points in the process of handling patin filets at Kurnia Mitra Makmur Purwakarta Ltd, West Java. This research was conducted at Kurnia Mitra Makmur Purwakarta Ltd, West Java from July to November 2019. This research was conducted using the case study method. Research procedures include observing the path of the processing of patin filet, analysis of potential hazards, and identification of critical control points, microbiological testing, and organoleptic testing. The data obtained were analyzed descriptively. Possible hazards in the processing of patin filet in the form of biological, physical, and chemical hazards. The results of the hazard analysis obtained at the critical control point are at the stage of the washing process 2. The overall organoleptic test results of the raw material are categorized as acceptable. Microbiological test results on raw materials are 3.6 x 101 colonies / g and the final product of the catfish filet is 5.7 x 102 colonies / g. The results of the catfish filet microbiology still meet the quality standard that is under 1.0x105 colonies / g. Filet products can be accepted and accepted by the public.