Volume 8, Issue 1, January 2020 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Physiological Computing | The What and How []

Advancing world requires computer systems that are operated beyond hand-based or touch-based controls. The emerging technology that addresses this need of world is termed as “Physiological Computing” which sense, biocybernetic loop, bioelectrical,biomechanical, biophysical or biochemical signals from the human nervous system and decodes them into computer understandable instructions which are then processed by a computer machine and are executed to perform certain tasks. Physiological computing is now being used in medical sciences wildly. Here is the discussion about what is physiological computing? How it works? Where it is being used and it can be used.

A Review on Extraction, Isolation, Characterization and Some Biological Activities of Essential Oils from Various Plants []

Abstract Essential oils are aromatic and volatile liquids, mixtures of organic compounds extracted from plant materials and characterized by a strong and generally pleasant flavor. The essential oils have been widely used as safe flavoring agents or preservatives in foods, in cosmetic or pharmaceutical products. In recent years, variety of Extraction techniques has been introduced for the recovery of organic compounds. Extraction Methods are widely used in various Industries for Separation of components and has wide range of applications. Essential oils and their volatile constituents have been widely used since the middle Ages, to prevent and treat human disease. They have been widely used for bactericidal, fungicidal, antioxidant, allelochemical, medicinal, cosmetic applications, pharmaceutical, sanitary, cosmetic, agricultural and food industries. They contain some volatile constituents, such as phenol-derived aromatic components, aliphatic components, terpenes and terpenoids. In vitro evidence shows that essential oils can act as antibacterial agents against pathogenic fungi and bacterial strains. Today, it is very crucial to develop effective and selective methods for the extraction and isolation of essential oils. The focus of this review paper is to provide a comprehensive view on the analytical methodologies, which include extraction, isolation, characterization and also some biological activities of Essential Oils from various plants.

Gender Diversity and Employee Performance of Hotels in Port Harcourt, Nigeria []

This study examined the relationship between relationship between gender diversity and employee performance of hotels in Port Harcourt. The study adopted the cross-sectional survey in its investigation of the variables. Primary data was generated through structured questionnaire. The population for the study was 565 employees of ten (10) selected hotels in Port Harcourt. A sample size of 234 was determined using Taro Yamen’s formula. The reliability of the instrument was achieved by the use of the Cronbach Alpha coefficient with all the items scoring above 0.70. The hypotheses were tested using the Spearman’s Rank Order Correlation Statistics. The result showed that there is a significant relationship between gender diversity and employee performance of hotels in Port Harcourt. The study therefore recommends that it is important for hotels that effective workplace strategies and policies be designed, implemented and monitored, in order not only to eliminate racial discrimination but also to support a more diverse workforce.


The need for vitality productive, bio-climatic and ecological, thought of engineering structures have caused, a totally different logical order called bio-climatic structure This proposition expects to exhibit procedures and investigate the benefits of adding bio-climatic ideas to arrive use plans for the Urban occupants of Lekki, Lagos contains individuals from various foundations, organizations, exercises, callings and philosophies that have a tremendous enthusiasm for living, working, relating, and general business exchanges. Bio-climatic ideas, these are ecological and financial trademark, which in contemporary world and the present dimension of progress of science and innovative comprehension go together, that we can't talk on monetary way to deal with the issue and in the meantime does not mirror the effect of the watched events on nature.

A Discrete Time Markov Chain Model using Maximum likelihood for the Assessment of Inflation Rate in Pakistan []

Markov chains epitomize a class of stochastic process for a wide range of applications. Specifically, discrete time Markov chains (DTMC) is employed to model the transition probabilities between discrete states with the help of the matrices. To examine and forecast the time series the Markov chain model is applied. The most important indicator in macroeconomics is inflation, which persisted in double digits in 1970s and also in last several years. Different states are checked with the model by using inflation rate data form July 2000 to April 2015. A simulation technique is used for random sequences of inflation predefine states for one year and take 1st quarter data from it and then model the estimates by maximum likelihood then checked the equilibrium distribution.

Computer based power Analysis []

Abstraction: The aim of this Computer based Power Analysis has focused at building a compact scheme for monitoring the parameters and to protect the generator by replacing the relays into various transducers and are interfaced with the Personal Computer (PC) and the generator protection is implemented by means of a single computer using the time sharing scheme. In Thermal power plants various inter locks and protections are used for safeguarding generator, boiler, turbine, coal feeders etc., Hard-wired logic gates are used in the most of the existing power plants.In the present scenario of computer era, even the core electrical parts have been replaced with the help of computer. So, in my PC based power analysis I have replaced some of the core parts such as generator protection relays with help of transducers and computer. The input circuit comprises of Transducers and A/D converter, the output circuit comprises of dividing circuit for buzzer, Siren for the generator breaker. The input and the output circuits are connected to the PC through the interfacing card .All the transducers are connected to the PC through an A/D converter. The out of the transducer has analog signals; these are converted into digital signals through the A/D converter. From the PC, address has assigned to each of the transducers so that the PC can identify the signal from the transducers. The transducers always interact with the PC”s so that all the parameters of the generator can be monitored, when over a fault arises that will be intimated by the corresponding transducers and the PC identified that signal or fault by the addressed assigned by it. When the PC identifies a fault, the status of the fault has sensed according to the status the PC commands the driving circuit to drive the buzzer, Siren, and breaker. If any fault initiated then the PC gives command to the buzzer driving circuit to give annunciation. If the fault has at emergency state then the PC gives command to the Siren driving circuit to get alert. If the fault has severe it automatically trips the generator by commanding the generator breaker driving circuit, so that the generator will be protected. Implementing the PC in the field of generator protection improves the reliability, sensitivity and fault clearing time


Environmental issues have been frequent and feature as a topic for discussions on both national and international forums. In the past decade, managing and sustaining the environment has become one of the most important problems that organizations have to face globally. Most of the current environmental problems are caused by human social-economic activities and environmental damage, as a result of these activities which affect the earth as a whole both now and in the future. The purpose of this study is to analyze the opportunities to implement OCBE in the Center for Public Finance, analyze the challenges of implementing OCBE in the Center for Public Finance, and analyze the implementation and implications of the application of OCBE in the Center for Public Finance. This study uses a qualitative approach with a case study method. The data analyzed are the results of document review, observation and indepth interviews with employees at the Public Finance Training Center. This research is descriptive analysis research, using primary data sources in the form of interviews and other documents related to OCBE. Challenges of applying OCBE to the Public Finance Training Center are more about common perception or views of the importance of environmental concern, building awareness of the environment and civilizing environmentally conscious behavior, willing to act extra in pro-environment behavior, and other technical challenges. The implementation of OCBE in the Public Finance Training Center related to the environmental initiative dimension can be concluded that most employees have considered their actions before doing something that affects the environment. They have also taken pro-environment initiatives at work and most have persuaded others to behave in an environmentally conscious manner. The implications of OCBE implementation at the Public Financial Training Center are still having an impact on the level of budget performance and changes in employee behavior that has positive contribution tothe environment. Namely, the implementation of OCBE in the Financial Training Center contributes to budget efficiency.

Socio-Economic and Cultural Characteristics of Fishermen in Babakan village, Pangandaran District, Pangandaran Regency, West Java []

This research aims to determine the socio-economic and cultural relationship to the welfare of fishermen income in Babakan Village, Pangandaran District, Pangandaran Regency, West Java. 2019. The method used in this research is descriptive method. The sampling technique uses accidental sampling method with a total of 50 respondents each. Data collection using observation techniques, struc-tured interviews, and documentation techniques. The results showed that the influence of variable X to variable Y simultaneously was equal to 98.4% which showed the meaning that the variables age (X1), education (X2), health (X3), experience (X4), capacity of the ship (X5), kinship and kinship system (X6) and local belief (X7) have a simultaneous influence (together) of 98.4% dependent variable, namely fisherman income welfare (Y). While the remaining 1.6% is influenced by other factors that are ignored by the author. Can be known factors that significantly influence the welfare of fishermen's income are experience (X4) and vessel capacity (X5).

The incidence of early surgical site infection in orthopaedic implant surgery: a study of two tertiary hospitals in Nigeria []

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Surgical site infection (SSI) is a common complication in surgery. It is the third most common nosocomial infection. It places a significant burden on the patient, surgeon and the hospital resources. The presence of implants, also, increases the risk of SSI and makes the management difficult. OBJECTIVE: The aim is to determine the incidence of early SSI in Orthopaedic implant surgeries in the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital (UATH) Gwagwalada and National Orthopaedic Hospital Dala (NOHD) Kano. To specifically determine the infection rate, distribution of the causative organisms and the pattern of antibiotic sensitivities. METHODS: A prospective descriptive study of early SSI in UATH Gwagwalada and NOHD Kano over a period of one year from May 2016 to April 2017. Clinically fit patients with no comorbidities were enrolled. Post-operatively, wounds were inspected on days 5, 14 and 30 for evidence of early wound infection. Wound swab was taken for microscopy, culture and sensitivity. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 42.17 years. One hundred and five (66%) were males and 54 (34%) were females. The overall early SSI rate was 10.69%. The early SSI rates in UATH Gwagwalada and NOHD Kano were 8.2% and 11.8% respectively. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common causative organism sensitive to Augmentin and Levofloxacin in UATH Gwagwalada and NOHD kano respectively. CONCLUSION: The incidence of early SSI in Orthopaedic implant surgeries in UATH Gwagwalada and NOHD Kano is 8.2% and 11.8% respectively, which is high for clean implant surgeries. KEY WORDS: Early surgical site infection; implant surgery, Nigeria


This study was carried out to determine the relationships between soil seed banks and the standing vegetation in four contrasting sites (oil palm plantation, natural forest, taungya system and teak plantation) in Ondo East and Ondo West Local Government Areas of Ondo, Ondo State, Nigeria. Eight study plots measuring 25 m x25 m and comprising of four plots from each local Government areas were used in each of dry and rainy seasons for the study. Ten replicates soil samples were randomly collected in each of the two seasons from each site to a depth of 0-15cm and were subjected to seedling emergence test for six months in each case. The differences between the soil seed banks and standing vegetations were analyzed using Sorensen’s similarity index while Two- way ANOVA was used to determine the variation in the seedling emergence seasonally and the total seed bank among the plots. Results indicated that the similarity between the soil seed bank and the standing vegetation was very low. Sorensen’s index of similarity (%) indicated that site A(Oil palm plantation) and site D (Teak plantation) had 0%,Site B( Natural forest )had 8.5% while Site C (Taungya system ) had 12.5%.It can be concluded from this study that high dispersal rates and persistence of the extant vegetation are strong determinants of the seed bank composition. Open forest canopies enhance dispersal of seeds while closed forest canopy can reduce the seed rain that may reach the ground which can be corroborated by the fact that three out of the four sites used for this study had closed forest canopies.


Suggestion directs today in most advanced countries, most savings are made in the area of information processing and ICT as a key device and within the area of education in the learning- teaching procedure. Therefore, how this tool is learned should be at first measured and then to understand how to teach by means of this tool logically and this issue assumes a thematic importance, where in this paper it has been advanced by way of library studies and using researches by way of modern and arithmetical methods. While defining thoughts affecting to the role of ICT in the learning-teaching process, we have wanted to study thee nature, appearances benefits and difficulties in relative to ICT within the learning and teaching process. Lastly, it will be complete that while getting schools and teachers familiar with ICT and instruct them how to use it and intelligent utilization of this modern tool, single can create the appearance of interactive learning-teaching process in the process of teaching attractive quantitatively and qualitatively and thus make it unfixed. This means in the up-to-date creation, obligations to ICT, we are handled with a new development based on which we can participate our learning and teaching measures while regarding cultural issues and objects as well as approaches and thus attain new forms accept production in more innovative forms by placing learners and mentors in the face of a large part of enabling, revolutions and promoted information along using limited schoolroom times optimally. Keywords: ICT, procedure, learning and teaching, learner and teacher

Evaluation of Antibacterial Property of Chitosan and Modified Chitosan from Cuttlefish (Sepia spp.) Bone Against Vibrio spp. []

Cuttlefish bone is a common by-product that is considered waste in the environment without knowing the benefits it can offer. Cuttlefish bone is a good source of chitin by which chitosan is derived from. Chitosan is popularly known for its promising activity in inhibiting the growth of a wide range of microorganisms. This study further investigates the antibacterial activity of chitosan and modified chitosan, Chitosan-Glutaraldehyde Crosslink (CLCG), prepared from cuttlefish (Sepia spp.) bone. Test microorganisms were isolated from live fry and juvenile shrimp samples viz. Vibrio cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus or V. vulnificus. The structure of chitosan and modified chitosan were characterized through FT-IR spectroscopy. In this study, three different concentrations of filter paper discs of both chitosan and modified chitosan solutions (1.25mg ml-1, 3.75mg ml-1 and 5mg ml-1, repectively) soaked at 90mins were used to determine its antibacterial property against the test organisms by disc diffusion method and the Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC) was then determined. Results from this study indicated that chitosan and modified chitosan solutions affect the inhibition zone at p<0.01 in V. cholerae and p<0.001 in V. parahaemolyticus or V. vulnificus. The antibacterial property of chitosan is said to be efficient at not greater than the concentration level of 3.75mg ml-1 while in modified chitosan, the activity was found to be different with different bacterial strains. This indicates that chitosan and modified chitosan can be a possible antibacterial agent against the pathogenic human and animal bacteria.


Wetland ecosystems as natural resource are the most diverse and productive ecosystems on earth that support livelihood strategies, such as fishing, agriculture, craft materials, clean drinking water and medicinal plants. In many part of however, developing countries institutional failure, government interference on indigenous wetland management, failure in identifying, negotiating, and implementing trade-offs between the interests and claims of multiple stakeholders; associated anthropogenic interferences have depleted wetland resources. This study was in initiated to assess the role of social capital in natural resource conservation so as to insure the sustainability of ecosystem service from wetland. A total of 168 household were selected from four kebeles adjacent to Abaya Lake using simple random proportional sampling technique. Descriptive statistics was used to assess types &role of social capital and narration was employed to explain community based institutional arrangement in the use and management of Small Abaya Lake. Econometric binary logit model was employed to identify determinants of household willingness to participate in the conservation of Small Abaya Lake & its catchment. Results of the study showed that most respondents were willing to participate in the conservation of Small Abaya Lake &its catchment. The existence of long term social capital (trust, mutual support community based bylaws, informal organizations & indigenous conflict resolution mechanism) enhanced the local community to conserve &manage Small Abaya Lake & its catchment. Nevertheless, the fragmentation of wetland in to agricultural land was also observed. The result of binary logit model revealed that Education, mutual support, effectiveness of institutional arrangements and awareness have positive and significant effects on willingness to participate for the conservation so as to sustain natural resource and associated ecosystem service provision, while, age and income have a negative and significant effect. for each increment of year of schooling ,the probability of willing to participation in conservation of wetland increased by 5.3%.people who perceived the existence of trust within the community 29% more likely to participate in the conservation of wetland. a birr increase in total income of the household, the probability of participation in conservation decreases by 0.05%. The findings show that the importance and strength of social capital has been getting less attention over the last decades. Consequently, this has been resulted in degradation of the small Lake Abaya and its surrounding. Hence, this calls for integrating social capital (indigenous with the formal institutional environment). Key words: Bylaws, Logistic regression, natural resource conservation, social capital, willingness to participate

An Analysis of a Family Business Operation within the Context of Entrepreneurship []

This case study addresses the progression of a family business operation which involves with the diversified business activities in the western province of Sri Lanka. The study considered the entrepreneurial process of the business operation, and helped to identify the activities conduct by the family business operators within the context of entrepreneurship to expand their business operation. The business operation diversified into three different types of business activities other than the lead primary income generation activity. Traders, friends, bankers, experts and societies play a major role in the social network of this business operation. Managerial capabilities, time and market orientation of the family members also play a significant role to carry out the business operation. Keywords: Family business operation, opportunity identification, Social network

Transparency and Corporate Performance of Beverage Companies in Rivers State, Nigeria []

The study examined the relationship between transparencyand Corporate Performance of selected beverage companies in Rivers State, Nigeria. The study used the cross-sectional survey design method. The population of the study was 100 managers and a sampling size of 74 managers was obtained from the purposive sampling technique was used. After data distribution, only 54 respondents were finally used for data analysis. Descriptive statistic and Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Coefficient was used for data analysis and hypothesis testing. Empirical results confirmed that there is a very strong positive and significance relationship between transparency and corporate performance. The study concluded that transparency bears a positive and significance influence on corporate performance. The study recommends that organizations should increase emphasis on transparency as a way to achieve organizational core values among others.


This study examined and analyzed the relationship between Talent Retention and Employee innovativeness of construction companies in Rivers State. The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between Talent Retention and Employee innovativeness in construction companies Rivers State. The study adopted Quasi-experimental research design method. The main data collecting instrument used in the study was questionnaire. Cronbach Alpha Coefficient technique was used. Descriptive and inferential statistics, using Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Coefficient to analyze the data, with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Science version 22.0. The population is 250. The findings revealed that there is a strong positive and significant relationship between Talent Retention and Employee Innovativeness of Construction Companies in Rivers State. The study concludes that Construction companies should improve in retaining the most talented employees that will lead to an increase in creativity and proactiveness in the companies. This study recommends that construction companies should make use of talent retention strategies to recruit, retain and develop the most talented employee available in the job market to enhance employee innovativeness in the organization.


Abstract / resumen / résumé In the psychology of school education there is a clear position in relation to the internal epistemology of educational psychology and its disciplinary coordinates, particularly with regard to its location within the psychological and educational disciplines. In other words, a series of academic and professional activities related to the psychology of education and oriented to research and conceptual elaboration, to the proposal of programs and plans of intervention and to the intervention itself appear, reflecting the constitutive dimensions of its disciplinary identity . Keywords: psychology of education, education, psychological development.

Government Participation and Workplace Employment Regulations in Nigeria []

This study examined the relationship between government participation and employment regulation in Nigeria. The study adopted cross sectional research design. The population for this study includes 179 respondents from the Ministry of Labour and Employment (MLE), the Trade Union (TU) and employer’s associations.The sample size of 124 was determined using Taro Yamene techniques. The hypotheses were tested using the Pearson Moment Product Correlation Coefficient with the aid of the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 23.0. The result revealed that government participation positively affects and relates with employment regulations in Nigeria. Relying on this finding, this study concludes that government participation significantly influences workplace employment relations through wage determination, rulemaking and conflict resolutions in Nigeria. The study thus recommends that government participation in economic tripartite arrangement should be to set policies and regulate laws on wage determination, conflict resolution methods, and make rules that will engender harmonious workplace and good working condition in Nigeria. Also it recommends that that government participation should not be on setting policies and regulate laws on employment alone, rather government should participate to provide avenue for effective practice of tripartite arrangement by addressing the employment contract and regulation that affect workers properly and set parameters that will not harm the trade unions and the employer’ associations in order to improve workplace employment relations in Nigeria.


The over dependence on fossil fuel for power generation is an itching issue to the ears of contemporary scholars in the field of science and engineering. Thus, the way out of this; is a continuous search for cleaner, hazardous free and environmentally friendly energy. Therefore, a study of x – raying wind energy availability and sustainability in the coastal region of Nigeria is one route to the use of brighter energy in our days. Hence, study reveals availability of wind energy across the breadth and length of Nigeria. It attests that the coastal region of Bayelsa State generates up to 5.37 average wind speed during the period considered for the study. Conversely, an average temperature and humidity at the range of (25 – 27)℃ and (63 – 90)% respectively for the wind was recorded .Also, results confirm that optimum wind velocity is obtained during the rainy season, that is between late April – early November of the year. Nevertheless, results affirmed that the coastal lines in Bayelsa State are possessed with stormy wind which will create wind energy sustainability. Therefore, harvesting into wind renewable energy will curb the erratic and epileptic power situation in Nigeria.

Case report: An acquired hemophilia A revealing a rheumatoid arthritis []

Acquired hemophilia A (AH) is a rare autoimmune haemorrhagic disorder. It occurs secondary to the appearance of anti-factor VIII autoantibodies. The hemorrhagic manifestations are sometimes very serious, noisy and brutal in a patient with no personal or family history of hemorrhagic disease. A regular monitoring should be provided to detect the occurrence of associated neoplasia (leukemia, lymphoma, solid carcinoma, ...). Its association with RA remains a rare entity but should be kept in mind. We report here the case of a patient in whom acquired hemophilia revealed RA.

First data on the macroinvertebrates structure of the Atrous source (sector of ribaa) (the plain of sais, Morocco) []

Macroinvertebrates of the source Atrous(Sector of ribaa) were studied using samples taken seasonally between October 2015 and August 2016. The fauna listed in this work is made up of 3584 individuals corresponding to 21 species belonging to 5 classes (Gastropods, Bivalvia, Arachnids, Malacostraceae and Insects). These classes are divided into 10 orders. The size of the benthic population has shown that those are the Malacostraca taxon is the most representative (2849 individuals) followed respectively by insects (558 individuals), Gastropods (121 individuals), Arachnids (50 individuals) and Bivalvia (6 individuals). the taxon Gammarus gauthieri is numerically the most inventoried while the remaining species are represented in small percentage. The values of the specific diversity index H and the specific fairness index revealed that the specific diversity of macroinvertebrates populating this source is is relatively low. The results obtained in this study highlight an alarming state of the ecological state of the source Atrous(Sector of ribaa).

Modelling of Multipath Errors from GNSS Observations in Urban Environment of South East, Nigeria []

In the context of reliability, the general approach to satisfy some level of navigation integrity is to detect and exclude (or de-weight) distorted measurements when exclusion does not degrade measurement geometry significantly. In this way, Signal Quality Monitoring (SQM) techniques were developed to detect GNSS multipath distortions by incorporating monitoring correlators at the tracking level. References incorporated different early-late correlators to define symmetric and asymmetric delta and ratio metrics to detect multipath distortions in the tracking correlation peaks. References investigated an asymmetry test statistic called the Slope Asymmetry Metric (SAM) to evaluate signal quality in the presence of multipath. SAM compares the left and right slopes of the correlation curve and provides the receiver with timely alarms when one slope is steeper than the other as a result of multipath. References exploited the Carrier-to-Noise-density ratio (C/N0) as a quality metric to weight GNSS measurements and improve positioning performance in multipath environments. Beside C/N0, investigated a multipath detection approach using SAM and the DLL discriminator output to monitor the correlation peak quality. The correlator output samples are evaluated and integrity warning is set when the SQM metrics deviate from their nominal values. Based on a multi-correlator structure, a signal quality index was developed at the tracking level to evaluate the quality of GNSS signals and improve the performance of Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) modules under multipath scenarios.


Situ Gunung Putri is a small lake located in Bogor Regency, West Java. The purpose of this research is to determine the sediment deposition rate that occurs in Situ Gunung Putri and its effect on community structure of macrozoobenthos. The research method was using survey method and samples determined by using purposive sampling method. This research was conducted from March to June 2019 in five observation stations once two week and three times for each stations. The measurement of sediment deposition rate was conducted using sediments traps, while macrozoobenthos sampling is conducted by using Eckman Grab. The result shows that the sediment deposition rate in Situ Gunung Putri ranged from 76.95 to 1264 grams/m2/day. Abundance of macrozoobenthos ranged from 89 to 1321 individuals/m2. Shanon-Wiener Diversity Index ranged from 0.62 to 1.78. The analysis of linear regression show that sediment deposition rate in Situ Gunung Putri has a positive effect on abundance of macrozoobenthos with a value of 36.5%. Sediment deposition rate does not affect on diversity of macrozoobenthos.


This paper proposes a conceptual model to determine the effect of workload and non-physical work environment on the performance of employees of the Directorate General of Training, and Productivity Development of the Ministry of Manpower of the Republic of Indonesia (Ditjen Binalattas). Work fatigue is defined as a mediating variable. The study uses a quantitative approach using saturated sample techniques to 85 employees. Data would collect using a questionnaire. Data analysis was performed by path analysis using the Structural Equation Modeling SEM. The literature review, conceptual model, hypotheses development, and research methodology are discussed. Practicing this paper instantly would provide information about the relationship of workload, non-physical work environment, work fatigue, and employee performance at the Directorate General of Training and Productivity of the Ministry of Manpower of the Republic of Indonesia.


Computer operator employees at the Inspectorate General of the Ministry of Manpower have high workload. This situation every computer employee have to try to increase his productivity for the sake of the implementation of effective and efficient internal supervision within the Ministry of Manpower. The situation at the Inspectorate General of the Ministry of Manpower in Indonesia shows that workload, physical and mental exhaustion are factors causing fatigue those results in a decrease in labor productivity. Workload and job stress on employees can also affect fatigue. This paper set out to develop a conceptual model for testing the effect of workload and job stress on fatigue and its impact on the productivity of computer employees. Literature review, conceptual model, hypotheses development and research methodology are discussed. Practicing this paper instantly would provide information about the relationship of workload, job stress, and fatigue on employee performance at the Inspectorate General of the Ministry of Manpower in the Republic of Indonesia.


This paper is intended for constructing a conceptual model in understanding the effects of conflict role and the workload of work on the performance of internal auditors in Inspectorate General of the Ministry of Manpower of the Republic of Indonesia with variable pemediasi that the stress of work. The conceptual model was designed with a quantitative approach using primary data obtained from questionnaires and observations as well as the data of secondary that is obtained from the study of literature. Sampling was done with a saturated sample of 64 internal auditors. The analysis was suggested will perform with a path analysis using the Structural Equation Model (SEM). Practicing this paper instantly would provide information about the relationship among work conflict, career development, and job stress and employee performance at the Inspectorate General of the Ministry of Manpower.


In the era of industrial revolution 4.0, organizations especially in the government are required to have competent employees for achieving their targets. Misplaced employee, unsatisfied employee, lack of motivation, and low evaluation score are currently problems that organizations are facing. This paper provides a conceptual model on how leadership styles and motivation influence employee performance moderated by competence through a study in the General Directorate of Guidance for Placement of Workers and Expansion of Employment Opportunities. The study is a quantitative study with a total sample of 70 employees and analyzed using Partial Least Square (PLS) method. Through this model, organizations are expected to have better employee performance and a higher target accomplishment overall. This study aims to determine the effect of Leader Member Exchange (LMX) with organizational citizenship behavior (Organization Citizenship Behavior / OCB) in Jakarta Water Company (PDAM). The mediating variable is organizational commitment while the moderating variable is motivation. The approach that is used is quantitative with the collection of data through questionnaires are given to a sample of 128 employees. Partial Least Square analysis is done by using validity test, reliability test, and hypothesis testing with a comparison between the results of the path coefficient shown by the t-statistic value with the t-table.

Physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity determination of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) beverage with crab chitosan []

Post harvest interventions have been the key to transforming the jackfruit pulp into other food products to increase its economic value. In order to increase its shelf life, modern methods of preservation have been applied including the use of biopolymers. Chitosan because of its biological and chemical properties has been utilized and studied in different fields and industries. In this study, chitosan was added to the processing of jackfruit beverages at different levels. The physicochemical properties such as pH, TSS, and Titratable Acidity of jackfruit beverage with chitosan were determined for fifteen days at different storage conditions. The results showed that chitosan significantly affects the pH, TSS but not the Total Titratable Acidity of the jackfruit beverage at ambient condition. Moreover, chitosan significantly affects the pH, TSS and Titratable Acidity of jackfruit beverage stored at the refrigerated conditions. Consequently, the jackfruit beverage with increasing chitosan levels regardless of the storage periods and conditions showed an increasing free radical scavenging activity. The jackfruit beverage with 3g chitosan stored in refrigerated condition had the highest antioxidant activity from 421.94 to 470.71 µmol TE/100g after five days of storage. The study revealed that chitosan, when utilized, provides stability and consistency to the jackfruit beverage thereby enhancing its functional properties regardless of storage conditions. The jackfruit beverage that contains 3g of crab chitosan is more stable compared to other treatments and the presence of E. coli and Salmonella has not been detected.

Volatile Compound Composition of Conventional Methods Flavour Powder from Narrow-Barred Spanish Mackerel’s Bones []

The volatile flavour is a sensation that is obtained when smelling food that is felt by the sense of odour. Volatile component are groups of compounds affecting overall product’s flavour and consumers acceptance due to their effect on the aroma characteristic. The objective of this research was to identify the volatile components com-position of flavour powder from mackerel’s bones by drying the conventional method. Solid-Phase Microextrac-tion carried out to extract the component on 800C for 30 minutes. The volatile compunds were detected and indentified using Gas Chromathography/Mass Spectrometry. The research results were analyzed in a comparative descriptive. The volatile compounds analysis has successfully detected as much as 145 volatile compunds from flavour powder mackerel’s bones. Most of detected component derives from aldehydes, ketones, alcohol, hydrocarbons, organic acid, esters, and other grup of compounds. The highest proportion of volatile compunds detected in the sample was maltol (11,43%).

Floristic Composition, Structure and Distribution On Closure Area in Dara woreda, Sidama Zone, Southern Ethiopia []

ABSTRACT Floristic composition, vegetation structure and distribution on closure area were carried out in Dara woreda Sidama Zone, South Nation Nationalities People Regional state (SNNPR), with the objectives of to investigate floristic composition, structure and distribution and provide information on sustainable management of the vegetation. To determine and record floristic composition, structure and distribution, (20x20x42 quadrates: 1.68ha), from the closure area was used. For the collection of herbaceous species subplots of 2mx2m at the four corners and the centre of the large releve /sample plots/ was laid for each study site. Height and diameter at breast height of all woody species greater or equal to 2 m and 2 cm were measured respectively. We recorded a total of one hundred twenty nine species of plants, representing 106 genera and 55 families were recorded. Out of total plant species, 22% were trees, 39 % shrub, 29% herbs, 7.0 % lianas/climbers, 3 % were ferns. Of the total specie 3 (only 2.3% ) species are endemic to Ethiopia. Three community types are described:- Terminalia schimperiana- Protea gaguadi -Dodonaea angustifolia, Syzygium guineense- Comboretum molle- Clutia abssinica, Eucalyptus saligna community type. The general arrangement of all species was found to show high density at lower height and DBH classes. Density of woody species varied considerably among species. The total densities of matured woody plant in the study area were 3287 stem hectare-1, density of sapling 972 stem hectare-1 and density of seedling were 508 stem hectare- 1 . The most species diverse families were Fabaceae represented by 17 species (13.2 %), Rubiaceae by 10 species (7.8%), Asteraceae by 9 species (7.00%), Acanthaceae by 6 species (4.7%), Lamiaceae by 5 species (3.9%), Celastraceae, Combretaceae, Moraceae and Myrtaceae represented by 4 species and the remaining families were represented by one to three species. High dependency of the people on firewood, construction, medicine for human and livestock from the closure area and the lack of fencing and conflict of wild animals and local people are the major problems that could pose series threat to the vegetation of the closure areas .Moreover, excavation of a part of the closed area for road construction and income generation activity by local people that could jeopardize future existence of closure area vegetation .Therefore, to address these problems and enhance the sustainable utilization of the closure area resource the collaboration of government, nongovernmental organizations as well as the local communities is a pillar to conserve vegetation of the study area .