Volume 8, Issue 1, January 2020 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Catfish (Clarias sp) is one of the most popular freshwater fish in West Java. This research is about the relationship between length and weight of catfish which were fed with household waste. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the growth patterns and condition factors of catfish in waste-based feeding. Sampling is done using a net. Fish samples used were 70 catfish with a composition of 31 females (44.29%) and 39 males (55.71%). The allometric linear model (LAM) was used to calculate parameters a and b through weight and length measurements. The bias correction on the change in mean weight of the logarithmic unit were used to predict the weight of the length parameter according to the al-lometric equation based on DeRobert & William [18]. The results showed that catfish have negative allometric properties, where it grows long-er faster than it grows heavier. R2 value of 0.3462 and 0.5883 means that the associative level between the length and weight of the fish is moderate. The interval 145-154 has an optimum condition factor with a value of a condition factor of 1.05 where the condition of the fish is good but on the thin side. Differences in values of b, R2, r, and K were thought to be influenced by biotic and abiotic factors where the fish live.

Composition of Volatile Flavor Compound from Raw Material of Mackerel Waste by Conventional Drying Method []

Volatile components are a group of volatile compounds that affect the flavor characteristics of a commodity and its overall acceptance by consumers because of its effect on the aroma characteristics. The purpose of this research is to identify the composition of volatile compounds that make up the flavor powder components of mackerel waste by drying conventional methods using Teflon. This research was carried out by extracting volatile flavor compounds by boiling (temperature 650, ± 90 minutes), drying using the conventional method, extracting samples using the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) (800C) method and identifying volatile flavor compounds using the Gas Chromatography tool -Mass Spectrometry (GC / MS). Data analysis was discussed in a comparative descriptive manner. The results showed that 161 volatile compounds were detected in mackerel waste, the highest value of proportion is pentanal (8.25%). Most of the components detected were from aldehydes, alcohols, hydrocarbons, organic acid ketones, esters, and other compounds.

Structure and magnetic properties of Copper, Gallium substituted Manganese ferrites []

Manganese Ferrites MnFe2O4and the system Mn1–xCuxFe1.7Ga0.3O4(x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1) were prepared by solid -state reaction method. Where, the effect of replacing Cu2+ for manganese as well as substituting iron with Ga3+on the physical properties were investigated. X-ray diffraction measurements clearly showed the formation of single phase cubic spinel structure(fd3m)for all the prepared samples.The compositions Cu Fe2 O4and CuFe1.7Ga0.3O4 were formed with a tetragonal structure with space group (I41/amd). The magnetic properties were studied using vibration sample magnetometer (VSM) and the magnetic parameters were determined. The saturation magnetization (MS) was found to increase up to Cu content x = 0.5 and then gradually decrease with further increase of x content.

Bearing capacity and settlement assessment of the soil of Kotto (North-East of Douala) using static penetration and laboratory testing []

This study reports on the assessment of the bearing capacity and soil settlement in Kotto, located, in the north-east of Douala (Cameroon) where modern buildings are rising daily. The methodology entails in the analysis of the results from soil identification, direct shear, oedometric and static penetrometer tests. Three objectives were envisaged, firstly, the knowledge of the geotechnical nature of the soils of this area, secondly the knowledge of the mechanical properties of these soils, and finally, a comparative study of the results of laboratory and in-situ tests. The testing procedures adopted were in accordance with French norms NF P 94-113 for the static penetrometer test, NF P 94-071-1 for the Casagrande shear test box, and the XP P 94- 090-1 for the oedometer test. The Terzaghi principle was utilized in calculating the bearing capacity. The results are quite expressive in terms of the difference between the results of laboratory and in-situ mechanical tests: the initial effective vertical stress between the depths 2 and 2.30 m is 23 kPa, while the average bearing capacity at 2 m depth is 322.5 kPa. In general, the bearing capacity of this area is low and requires soil improvement for structures with a load greater than 245 kPa. The settlement increases with depth, at the depth of 2 m, it can atain a value of 4.80 cm.


The study set out to identify agglomeration externalities in Ghana’s soybean sector, assess soybean output elasticities with respect to input-use, analyze the technical efficiency levels and determine the effect of agglomeration externalities on the productivity and technical efficiency of soybean farms. The paper identifies some components of agglomeration externalities across the soybean sector and defines agglomeration externalities by two indexes; industry size, captured by whether the farmers belong to Farmer Associations (FA) and if they do, what their Farm Densities (FD) are - measured by the number of smallholder farms per square kilometre that the individual farms belong to. A stochastic frontier model, with the agglomeration indexes FA and FD, and a technical efficiency model are specified to ascertain the effects of agglomeration externalities on the production frontier and efficiency of soybean farms. The estimation of the frontier model is carried out on data collected from 393 soybean farms in the Upper East and Upper West Regions of Ghana. Hypotheses tests carried out using Log-likelihood ratio estimates indicate that the translog stochastic production model is the best fit for the data. The results show that, for the production frontier, FA and FD (with coefficients 1.02 and 0.03 respectively) have a significantly positive relationship with productivity. The positive relationship between productivity and farm density suggests the presence of positive congestion externalities. FD has a positive influence on efficiency but FA was found to have a negative relationship with the technical efficiency of soybean farms. The results of the Maximum-Likelihood Estimates of the stochastic frontier model show that a percentage increase in seed, capital, labour and fertilizer, respectively, will increase the soybean production frontier by 0.14, 0.14, 0.28 and 0.41 percent. The soybean sector exhibits diminishing returns to scale (0.98 percent increase in output with one percent increase in all input) with the mean technical efficiency index of the sector estimated at 0.52. Age and gender have a negative relationship with efficiency, indicating that younger farmers are more efficient than their older counterparts and female farmers are more efficient than the males. Increase in frequency of farmer-extension agent interactions also leads to increase in the efficiency of the farmers. The findings of the study confirm that FA and FD have significant influence on productivity and technical efficiency of soybean farms. The implications of these results are that there is the need for government(s) and stakeholders to help improve productivity and efficiency in the soybean sector by helping farmers to better access positive agglomeration externalities.


ABSTRACT A model of some Nigeria socio-economic problems: multiple regression approach is a research aimed at employing regression diagnostics in solving Nigeria socio-economic problems. A secondary data was collected via the World Bank Golden Jubilee edition and Fact-Fish Data Base in the International Monetary Fund (IMF) bulletin, with a sample size of 12 years ranging from 2005-2016. The data set was analyzed with SPSS 20.0 at 5% level of significance. It was discovered that the model PPP GDP = 1985.365 – 34.862 Unemployment rate x1 – 14.741 inflation rate x2 + 0.027 electricity consumption x3 was adequate; this was seen via the ANOVA, coefficient of determination R2 = 71%. It was also observed that the data set follows or met the regression assumption of linearity, normality and residual mean which was zero. Conclusion was drawn. Keywords; Multiple Regression, Model Adequacy, Residual, Socio-economics, Coefficient of Determination

Synthesis and characterization of Mn ferrite nano crystalline by sol - gel method []

Nanocrystalline ferrite samples having the chemical formula (Mn1-xCuxFe1.7 Ga0.3O4), where (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and1) was prepared by sol-gel method. The XRD pattern confirmed the formation of cubic spinel structure of ferrite. Only for the composition (Cu1-x MnxFe1.7Ga0.3O4), impurity peaks were observed. Also the infra red spectra were recorded at the room temperature using FT-IR for all samples in the range (4000 cm-1 to 400 cm-1). The FTIR spectrum exhibited υ1 and υ2 fundamental bands, corresponding to octahedral and tetrahedral sites of the ferrite structure.

Semigroup with Bi-ideals []

In this paper we introduce the strongly prime, semi prime, strongly irreducible and irreducible bi-ideals of semi groups. The space of strongly prime bi ideals is topologies,the notation of (m,n) ideal of semi groups ,(m,n) bi ideals and generalized (m,n) bi ideals and that of generalized (m,n) *- bi ideals . We also characterized these semi groups for which each bi-ideal is strongly prime.


This study was aimed to determine the effectivity of Indonesian bay leaf and kaffir lime leaf, each with 12.5% and 25% concentrations on Trichophyton mentagrophytes with a positive control of Miconazole. T. mentagrophytes is a type of molds, which is included in dermatophyte group. The disease that it most often causes is dermatophytosis or ringworm. This study was conducted using experimental method and post-test only design, in which the samples were taken with purposive sampling technique. Effectivity assessment of bay leaf and kaffir lime leaf extracts on T. mentagrophytes was conducted using disc diffusion technique, by measuring inhibition zone diameter of fungi on disc papers moistened with bay leaf and kaffir lime leaf extracts and Miconazole as positive control. The results found in this study was analyzed using One-Way ANOVA, followed by Post Hoc. The results showed that there were significant differences between all treatments given with 95% confidence interval. In 12.5% bay leaf group, the effectivity on T. mentagrophytes was higher than 25% kaffir lime leaf extract and both were above Miconazole. The inhibition zone of 12.5% bay leaf extract was 12.5 mm, with similar antifungal effect as 25% kaffir lime leaf extract with 10 mm and Miconazole showed 8.5% inhibition zone on T. mentagrophytes growth. Keywords: Antifungal, bay leaf extract, kaffir lime leaf extract, Tricophyton mentagrophytes.


Management of education is a series of successful activities in completing education so that it is able to manage schools properly. There are excellent human resources, infrastructure that is in accordance with the standard, and the target of students increases in quality and quantity every year. The quality of education is not only seen from the grandeur of the facility but also in graduates (output) and how services are provided by educational institutions. SMK Islam Al-Hikmah Jakarta as an educational institution faces problems that affect the quality of education. These problems include; a decrease in the number of students, teacher / employee salaries do not match with the minimum wage, problems related to work discipline, and problems related to service quality. This study aims to examine the effect of salary on service quality with work discipline as a mediating variable. This study is a qualitative research. The population in this study is all teachers/employees of SMK Islam Al-Hikmah Jakarta as many as 40 people. The research sample was taken by census technique. Data will take through observation, documentation, and use of questionnaires. The questionnaire used contained a Likert scale (1-5). The data obtained were then analyzed by Partial Least Square (PLS) analysis using SmartPLS software.


Globally, energy consumption in buildings take up the largest proportion of world‘s energy production. This consumption is more in developing countries including Nigeria and the least developed economies than the developed worlds. Researches are currently geared towards reducing energy consumption due to the global problem of insufficient energy needed to meet the demand and the attendant environmental issues associated with the production based largely on fossil burning. In Nigeria, energy consumption in buildings takes up about one third of the total electricity production with Lagos accounting for the larger percentage of the total energy production due to the fast rising population, crawling economic growth and increased rate of construction across the state. This paper investigates the energy consumption in residential buildings (Golf Estate, Trans-Amadi), Rivers state. Survey analysis approach was adopted in this work. Field trips to the study area were conducted, measurements were taken and the design features of the buildings were analyzed. The household equipment were also taken into consideration. The work also analyzed the present electricity use in residential typical buildings of high income households in Port Harcourt and the possible energy saving by adopting certain energy efficient features in the building studied. The Enveloped Thermal Transfer Value (ETTV) equation was utilized to account for the quantity of heat taken into the building through the buildings envelop. Results obtained indicates that doubling the thickness of external walls, reduces the cooling load of the building and its total energy consumption. The study established that Perlite plaster has a lower thermal transmittance value when compared to that of Cement screed hence a better energy reducing material option in building construction.

Review on Biotechnological Perspective of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Mediated Stress Tolerance in Plants []

Abstract This review covers recent advances in biotechnological perspective of reactive oxygen species. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been considered for a long time as undesirable by-product of the cellular metabolism, but recently the role of ROS in molecular signaling processes has been reported. Consequently, the cell must keep a fragile equilibrium between ROS production and the antioxidant defenses that protect cells in vivo against potential damages (oxidative stress) and, alternatively, allow the inter- and intra-cell communications. This equilibrium may become disturbed under different array of adverse conditions by an excessive generation of ROS or by an impaired antioxidant defenses. All environmental cues lead to develop secondary stress conditions like osmotic and oxidative stress conditions that reduce average crop yields by more than 50% every year. The univalent reduction of molecular oxygen (O2) in metabolic reactions consequently produces superoxide anions (O2 ) and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) ubiquitously in all compartments of the cell that disturbs redox potential and causes threat to cellular organelles. Over the last decade our understanding of the role of ROS has progressed from the classical view of adverse toxic metabolic byproducts inadvertently associated with aerobic life to include the newly emerging role of biotechnological approach to regulate and coordinating responses to abiotic and biotic stress. A recent series of discoveries have given scientists new insights into ROS-dependent gene activation and the molecular mechanisms involved. The majority of information of the regulatory role of ROS on gene expression derived from experiments using: i) transgenic plants over expressing or suppressing antioxidant genes in order to reduce or increase the intracellular ROS levels, respectively; ii) mutants impaired in ROS generation or scavenging; iii) direct application of ROS; iv) application of ROS generating compounds. Results of these experiments provided significant information on ROS-dependent signaling pathways and ROS-responsive genes. A number of genes involved in defense, signal transduction, transcription, metabolism as well as cell structure have been identified revealing a highly dynamic and redundant network of ROS-producing and ROS-scavenging genes. The present review describes different biotechnological perspective of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated stress tolerance in plants and their consequences under a biotic stress conditions and also described the approaches to overcome oxidative stress through genomics and genetic engineering. Finally, how all this wealth of information is being used with biotechnological purposes is revised. Key words Antioxidant, biotechnological, Genomics, ROS, and Stress


The research work is carried out on an assessment of senior secondary schools mathematics curriculum implementation in Federal Capital Territory Abuja. Research design used for this study was descriptive survey. Population of the study comprised of 917 mathematics teachers which include supervisors from inspectorate, out of which 270 mathematics teachers and 30 inspectors totalling 300 respondents were randomly selected for this study. Data collected were analyzed using simple frequency and percentage for demographic information of the respondents and chi-square statistics for research hypotheses which were tested at 0.05 level of significance. From the findings, suggested methodologies in mathematics curriculum were not appropriate for the effective implementation of mathematics curriculum; most of the suggested instructional materials were not suitable for mathematics contents; teachers’ qualification had significant effect on implementation of mathematics curriculum and over-crowded classroom also had effect on implementation of mathematics curriculum in senior secondary schools Abuja, Nigeria. Based on the findings, it was recommended, among others, that schools should have all the means necessary for a curriculum to be implemented the way it is originally intended. Hence, teachers should be supported with rich and satisfactory conditions in classrooms.


The protein needs of the community can be done through aquaculture activities. Commodities of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). much in demand by aquaculturist. However, in the process of cultivation, it is still often found the problem of fish mortality caused by disease. Efforts are usually made by farmers to overcome the attack of pathogenic bacteria is to use antibiotics. How-ever, the present of antibiotics to fish can cause negative effects, especially long-term use. Efforts are made to control infections caused by bacteria that cause disease, one of which is to prevent by increasing the fish body's defense system, including by utiliz-ing probiotics. Bacteria Bacillus sp. including one of the probiotic bacteria, which has been widely used as a bacterial inhibitor of pathogenic bacteria. Spores of the genus Bacillus can be used as commercial products that are useful for biological agents. Endo-spores produced from Bacillus bacteria have a strong resistance to chemical and physical factors. Probiotics Bacillus sp. can be applied in a variety of ways, one of which uses mixing feed. The provision of Bacillus sp. into the feed has been done by many researchers. Bacillus sp. can be used as a probiotic to increase endurance of common carp. Based on several studies that have been conducted, it can be concluded that giving of Bacillus sp. into the feed can overcome the disease attack on common carp.


The performance of any structure highly controlled by the underlying soil geotechnical characteristics. Soil is a base of the struc-ture, which actually supports the structure from beneath and distributes the load effectively. Problematic soils such as expansive clay cause major problems in the design, construction, and maintenance of civil structures. Enhancing the strength of the soil is essential for successful analysis intended to support structures. Soil stabilization is a mechanism in which the existing properties of soil are im-proved by different methods. The main objective of the study is to enhance the strength of expansive soil by using the industrial waste product (bagasse ash) as stabilizing material. To meet this objective, a review of related literature had been carried out. Dis-turbed and undisturbed sample collected from Bole airport expansion project. The strength characteristics of expansive soil were evaluated for different proportions of bagasse ash in replacement. Basic laboratory tests conducted were, atterberg limit, uncon-fined compression strength (UCS) test, compaction, California bearing ratio (CBR) tests. The results of laboratory tests indicated that, as a bagasse content increases, the plasticity index of the soil decreases, the maximum dry density of black cotton soil increases and further decreases, unconfined compressive strength increases and further decreases and California bearing ratio increases and again further decreases. Based on this finding, the study forwarded conclusions and effective recommendations


Terminal buildings are among the key components of modern railway transportation systems. In the design of railway terminals/stations, one of the key issues that confront architects and engineers is how to achieve effective circulation for passengers and goods at the point of interchange between the different modes of transportation systems. Therefore, the aim of this article was to assess the importance of effective circulation spaces with a view to identifying the attributes of internal and external circulation spaces and elements that can promote easy flow of pedestrian traffic in railway passenger terminals/stations. This article further addresses pedestrian circulation conditions, as well as observing features of good circulation space/element on rail terminals and good railway terminal circulation designs. The focus of the interior station circulation analysis is on pedestrian facilities directly affected by the terminal designs, including public space within the railway station (train hall, connecting passageways, vertical circulation and street entrances), and the street connector linking the terminal buildings to the existing streets and other subway stations. This implies that in order to achieve effective circulation spaces, architects and engineers should pay adequate attention to these aspects in the design and development of circulation spaces in railway terminals.


Summary The bean is one of the most important food products for human health because it is very rich in protein nutrient, cellulosic in lipid ... In the local markets of the city of Lubumbashi, we can meet a variety of common bean varieties (Phaseolus vilgaris). This varietal diversification leads to uncertainty about the nutritional composition of each variety so that consumers can obtain it according to their income. It is with the objective of quantifying the content of protein, fat and cellulose that this study was conducted. Four varieties of beans (RCB Red, D6 Kenya, Guanratino and Black NCB) were subjected to a nutritional analysis according to Kjeldahl's method in the quality control laboratory of the Center for Agribusiness Research (CRAA / DRC). the results show that the variety D6 Kenya contains a high content of protein (21.17%), whereas the Guarantino variety contained a low concentration (16.55%). on the other hand, the variety D6 Kenya had a higher fat content (2.1%) than other varieties. .the results of this study demonstrate that the four varieties analyzed contain an acceptable amount of nutrients analyzed and can be recommended to consumers of the integrated in their food chain. Keywords: Phaseolus vilgaris, Kjeldahl method, protein, lipid, cellulose, variety.

A Summary of Challenges, Faced by Lady Health Workers (LHWs) in District Sheikhupura (Pakistan). []

This investigation was made to find out the difficulties faced by lady health workers in district Sheikhupura and summarize working conditions of them. A sum of 263 LHWs are working in district Sheikhupura. Review technique was utilized to gather information from respondents. Then again there are a few difficulties which appear as exact moment in nature yet in all actuality when these minor issues include, they transform into a huge issue. The greatest test looked by LHWs is of intemperate remaining task at hand; LHWs need to work a ton and a portion of the workers have complaints against annuity framework and significant lion's share of respondents are of the supposition that they are come up short on. Because of overwhelming remaining task at hand they become focused and this pressure is expanded when lady health workers subsequent to being exhausted they can't give appropriate time to their family. Dominant part of respondents feel that workers are not given due regard from society notwithstanding of the way that they work in field with commitment. Generally, workers are of the sentiment that lady health workers are socially vilified. When they go in get-togethers and present themselves as lady health workers, individuals are uncertain how to react and a few people even pass bothersome remarks. Greater part of lady health workers likewise faces issues because of tight plan, particularly those with new conceived infants, it turns out to be incredibly hard for them to make balance between their activity and childcare. A large portion of the workers guarantees that their in-laws don't see their activity with deference and don't comprehend the issues related with LHWs calling and don't participate with them; lion's share of these workers were liable to inappropriate behavior and some were pestered based on race and religion. A portion of the lady health workers were not fulfilled by the move made by experts against individuals who submitted provocation. In this research, we analyzed daily life and bio-graphic information of LHWs, most prevalent problems faced by them and suggesting some possible solutions to their problems. Data was collected and analyzed, statistics were compared and solutions were funneled.


The terms Total Quality Management and Continuous Quality Improvement are no longer used to show high class or feel good attitude but are practices put in place to gain an edge in the business, and have become woven into the very fabric of hospital operations. The role of Total Quality Management in a firm is to ensure integration of all organizations functions and processes to achieve customers’ satisfaction and meet organizational objective. This study sought to examine critical attributes for TQM implementation in Kenyan healthcare industry. The research study investigated the internal factors that drive quality then identify and describe the key ingredients that have contributed to the achievements of a high performing hospital. It was guided by four specific objectives; To identify the extent to which top management involvement affect implementation of TQM, find out how staff training affect implementation of TQM, determine the extent to which organizational culture affect implementation of TQM and determine how communication affects TQM implementation. A cross sectional research design employed. The study population was made up of staff working in Aga Khan University Hospital, Nairobi. Proportionate sampling was used to determine the sample size and select the study subjects. Primary data was collected from management, Medical doctors, nurses, allied health workers, hospitality, finance, Marketing, procurement, maintenance, and Quality assurance staff using a semi structured questionnaire. Data analysis was done with aid of statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 20, in conjunction with computer excel programme. Inferential statistics will be calculated using regression analysis done at 95% confidence level to determine the relationship between the study variables. The findings of the study indicated that all the four variables had a significance influence on the implementation of total quality management in Aga Khan University Hospital. Analysis from a regression output of the entire four variables is considered valid (F (5, 224) =97.656, P<.0001) which means that the Total Quality Management factors (Top Management Commitment, Employee Training, Organization Culture and Communication) can be used as predictors explaining differences in the implementation of Total Quality Management at Agha Khan University Hospital. The study recommended that as much as there is top management involvement in TQM, it is important for the facility top leadership to establish how best they can be involved in the implementation of Total Quality Management and find out how to implement TQM at all levels of operations. There is need to ensure that almost a quarter of the staff that has not been trained in quality management to be trained in order to ensure that all staff at all levels are aware of the role and obligation in delivering quality in internationally acceptable standard. The training needs to be designed in a way that it recognizes the present quality expectations in health organizations. Finally, there is need for improved communication of quality expectations in service delivery that include effective dissemination of information at every levels of management.


The development and condition of the road environment are very essential for economic growth. Roads, in general, are classified in to paved and unpaved based upon the way of construction and surfacing material used. The larger percentage of Ethiopia road network is covered by unpaved roads. Any roads which are surfaced with gravel and earth are called unpaved roads. The most seen problems of unpaved road types are that these roads rapidly deteriorate and lost the surface material. This study was aimed to evaluate the surface material loss and deterioration for the unpaved road. Wide-Ranging literature about the factors of road deterioration was reviewed. The combined effects of excessive traffic loading, Poor material quality, poor drainage and road geometry ware taken as the main causes. The important maintenance activities which were necessary to keep a road and associated road structures in an acceptable condition for road users have been discussed.