Volume 8, Issue 1, January 2020 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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The study on the geomorphology of the basin morphometric attributes for an evaluation of stream flow characteristic at the lower Niger river was achieved by the delineation of the watershed, and determination of morphometric parameters aided by the Geographical Information System. The results of analysis of the Niger Delta geomorphological attributes showed that the watershed has a low relief and elongated shape. The drainage network is dendritic type, indicating homogeneity in texture and requiring less structural controls. This provides inferences on the terrain parameters such as the nature of the bedrock, infiltration capacity, groundwater recharge, runoff prediction and soil erosion. A low drainage density, drainage texture, and stream frequency was observed, which indicate a coarse subsurface formation and permeability rate. Other observed parameters such as low overland flow, low relief and elongation shape of the catchment revealed recharge related measures, surface water augmentation measures that can be undertaken for water resource management and soil conservation structures in the study area.


This research aims to determine the spatial and temporal variability of the thermal front in Pangandaran waters, West Java. This research was conducted from January to February 2018 in Pangandaran Waters, West Java. Aims to find out the location and time of the occurrence of thermal fronts in Pangandaran waters. The data used in this study are SPL derived from AquaMODIS and Geostrophic Flow from ECMWF. The method used is a descriptive method with a spatial and temporal analysis approach. Thermal Front was detected in the sea surface temperature (SPL) raster image data using the Cayulla Cornilon 1992 algorithm with a strong category with a difference of SPL> = 0.5 ° C and weak with a SPL difference of 0.3 ° C. Research results show that the front formed in Pangandaran waters is a temporary front with weak and strong strengths. The most common distribution and frequency of thermal fronts were found in December (west season) with a total of 11 units occurring with an average SPL value of 29.3 ° C and the least distribution was found in April (transition season 1). The highest temperature range of the thermal front is between 30 - 33.8 ° C and the lowest is in the range of 22.8 - 26.5 ° C. Incidents of thermal fronts generally occur in waters off the Indian Ocean.

Corelation Between Sea Surface Temperature And Chloro-phyll-A On Results Of Fishing Catch (Scomberomorus sp) In Pangandaran District []

This study aimed to determine the corelation between sea surface temperature and chlorophyll-a to the catch of mackerel in Pangandaran Regency waters. The method used in this research was a survey method and tested with correlation analysis and discussed descriptively. The research data included sea surface temperature and chlorophyll-a, which were obtained from satellite images as well as catches and capture coordinates obtained from direct trips. The results showed that the temporal distribution of the highest sea surface temperature tends to occur in the Transition season 1 (March-May) while for the highest distribution of chlorophyll-a in the East season (June-August). Sea surface temperature distribution tends to have a colder pattern towards offshore waters and warmer towards coastal waters. Spatial distribution of chlorophyll-a concentrations has a tendency to be smaller in offshore waters and increasing towards the coast.Generally, the correlation between sea surface temperature and chlorophyll-a on the catch of Tenggiri fish was very low. The correlation between sea surface temperature and chlorophyll-a to the catch of mackerel was 0.075.

Organizational Justice and Organizational Trust in the Banking Industry in Port Harcourt, Nigeria []

The issue of organizational trust has been a point of focus with regard to workers behavior, team cooperation and employer-employee relationship success. This study examines using empirical methods the association between organizational justice and organizational trust in the banking industry in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The study adopted the survey research design and data was collected from a sample of 257 participants through the random sampling technique. The reliability of the instrument was achieved by the use of the Cronbach Alpha coefficient with all the items scoring above 0.70. The hypotheses were tested using the Spearman Rank Order Correlation with the aid of the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. The findings support a significant and positive association between the dimensions of organizational justice namely; procedural justice and interactional justice; and the criterion variable, organizational trust measures, namely; openness and concern for employees. In conclusion the study proposes the usage of organizational justice system that recognizes organizational procedures and work relations as tools that enhances openness and cooperation. The study recommends that Deposit Money Banks should provide for procedural justice for all its employees. This is because employees who perceive unfairness in the workplace may exhibit varying degrees of negative behavior and may lack trust for the organization. It is therefore important for employers to provide employees with procedural justice in order reap the positive outcomes of highly committed employees.

Adherence to the Regimen of Care of End-Stage renal Disease-Diagnosed Clients Undergoing Hemodialysis []

ABSTRACT CKD is a global health threat with socioeconomic and public health consequences. Estimates on the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) indicated that kidney diseases were responsible for 2,993,000 years of life lost (YLL) and 38,104,000 disability adjusted life years (DALYs) lost globally. The increasing incidence and prevalence of ESRD seem inevitable. An influx of dialysis patients had resulted in an increase of dialysis centres especially in the private sector. This study was conceptualized to help ESRD- clients undergoing dialysis to enjoy a longer quality of life with their love ones as well as to develop a community based health economic program to address the health needs and other concerns of these clients. The study utilized the quantitative method specifically, descriptive survey with developmental approach. The participants of the study are nurses, patients undergoing hemodialysis and significant others in selected Dialysis Clinics in La Union during the period of June.- December 2019. Purposive-convenience sampling was utilized in the selection of respondents which included twenty (20) hemodialysis nurses, one hundred eighty three (183) patients and one hundred ninety four (194) significant others. It was found out that the level of health status of the respondents were very good, the level of adherence to their regimen of care is moderate and the effect of the identified determinants was high. It is recommended that the formulated community-based health economic guide be adopted. Keywords: End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Dialysis, Adherence, Regimen of care


The concept of Inequality has been lately widely debated based on the observed fact that the gap between the poor class and rich class seems to take huge proportions in our modern world. Inequalities are considered as the hole through which well-being flees, inflicting on society and the economy significant losses; which each country needs and have to plug to guarantee a decent life to citizens. The relationship between inequalities and economic growth still ambiguous. Assuming that inequalities are a brake that slows down any possible economic growth while creating a social evil and an environment hostile to development , this paper attempts to examine the nature of this relationship taking as special study case the impact of income inequality measured by the Gini index on the Algerian economic growth. Two econometric estimated models are proposed to measure the economic impact of the inequalities for a panel of developing countries as a first step. A series of OLS regressions are run to assess the nature of the relationship between economic growth and income inequality, and the weight of each impact for the Algerian economy as second part. Keys words: income Inequality, economic growth, Gini index, panel data, and econometric model.


Introduction: Neonatal period is the most vulnerable life period because of the physiological and immunological immaturity. As a result, neonates frequently affected by various disease, which in most cases are preventable. Globally, neonatal deaths contribute to more than one-third of infant mortality most of which occur in low and middle – income countries (LMICs). Despite significant progress in reducing infant mortality in the past 25 years, neonatal mortality rate remains high especially in sub Saharan Africa. This study aimed at determining risks and factors associated with early in – hospital mortality among neonates admitted in the Neonatal Care Unit (NCU) at prototypical rural hospital in south western Uganda. Methods: This was prospective cohort study among 276 neonates admitted at the Neonatal Care unit of Kampala International University. Prospective neonates were enrolled over a 10- months period and followed for 14 days following admission. Data was collected by administering standardized questionnaires to mothers. Comprehensive clinical assessment done, and treatment data obtained prospectively. Risk ratio (RR) was used to determine mortality and factors associated with neonatal mortality determined using Generalized Linear Model. Results: Among 276 enrolled neonates, the common morbidities were presumed neonatal sepsis (38.8%), prematurity and related complications (31.5%). Incidence of neonatal mortality was 68.8 per 1000live births (95%, CI =44.2- 105.7). The factors associated with in – hospital neonatal mortality were gestational age of 24-28 (adj RR= 1.48, 95% CI = 1.24 -1.76, P=< 0.001) and 29- 32 weeks of amenorrhea (adj RR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.04 – 1.23, P= 0.004); separated mother (adj RR= 1.33, 95% CI = 1.10 – 1.61, P=0.004) and single mother ( adj RR= 1.33, 95% CI = 1.56 – 3.97, P = 0.001). Conclusion and Recommendation: The leading causes of neonatal ICU admissions are presumed neonatal sepsis and prematurity and related complications. The incidence of in –hospital neonatal mortality is high. Prematurity and mothers without support systems are associated with neonatal mortality. Key words: neonatal mortality, neonatal morbidity.


The study examined the relationship between Employee Recognition and Worker Performance of Private hospitals in Port Harcourt Metropolis, Rivers state, Nigeria. The hospitals were selected on the basis of bed capacity, level of care, and year of commencement of operation and the researcher adopted cross sectional survey design. The Population of the study comprised of 479 workers of the selected private hospitals and a sample size of 218 was determined using Taro Yamane’s formula.With the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (version 20), Spearman’s rank order Correlation was used to test the hypotheses.The study revealed that there is a moderate and significant positive correlation between Employee Recognitionand Worker Performance as depicted through its dimensions(Task Performance and Contextual Performance). The study also revealed that the level of Task Performance and Contextual Performance are low in Private hospitals in Port Harcourt Metropolis.The study concludes that Employee Recognition has a significant positive relationship with Task Performance and Contextual Performance. Finally the study recommends, an improvement of the Fringe Benefits for workers as well as Career Development Opportunities. This will translate to improved Task Performance and Contextual Performance.

Risk-Taking Mindset and Organizational Sustainability of Small and Medium Enterprises in Bayelsa State, Nigeria []

This study investigated the relationship between Risk-taking mindset and Organizational Sustainability of Small and Medium Enterprises in Bayelsa State, Nigeria. The study adopted the cross-sectional survey of quasi-experimental design while the probability simple random sampling technique were used to ensure equal chance of being selected. A target population of 426 registered small and medium enterprises in Bayelsa State were drawn from SMEDAN and National Bureau of Statistics, collaborative study, selected findings. Data were collected through the use of structured questionnaire survey from the accessible population of 50 small and medium enterprises from the study population of 1,200 owner/managers and supervisors. A sample size of 300 respondents were obtained using the Taro Yamen sample size determination formula, Data analysis was done using the Spearman Rank Order Correlation Co-efficient with the aid of statistical package for social science (SPSS), version 21. The study revealed that a positive significant relationship exist between the independent variable (Risk-taking mindset) and the dependent variable (organizational sustainability). This was based on the fact that the null hypotheses tested were all rejected giving room for the acceptance of the alternate hypotheses. Based on the revelation, the study concludes that firms, whether small or medium should take seriously the importance of risk-taking mindset as the inability of it has a major effect on sustain business performance. The study therefore recommends that an effective sustainable risk management framework can help entrepreneurs and managers to identify emerging issues of concern that may affect supply chain, operations and production which may affect sustained organizational performance.


In the recent past, the NATREX (NATural Real EXchange rate) approach has formulated a theoretical framework for the long-term natural real exchange rate, the estimation of which is based on a set of behavioral relationships resembling standard macro-econometric structural equations. This approach relates the equilibrium real exchange rate, towards which the real exchange rate is heading, and a set of explanatory variables for the exchange rate. This article attempts to estimate the long-run equilibrium real exchange rate for the Algerian economy from 1980 to 2018 using the Natural Real Exchange Rate (NATREX) using an ARDL model. The model is based on the balance of payments approach, assuming that the real exchange rate ensures macroeconomic internal and external balance of the economy. Keywords : NATREX, Real equilibrium exchange rate, Algerian economy


The purpose of this study is to empirically test a framework identifying the relationships between marketing channel design and sales cycle time duration with special emphasis on table water manufacturing firms in the Rivers State of Nigeria. Data for the study were collected from a sample of 79 table water manufacturing firms operating within the city of Port Harcourt in Rivers State. The research framework was tested using simple regression. The results indicate that marketing channel design has a direct positive and significant impact on sales cycle time duration. This study, therefore, concludes that the outcome of the quantitative assessment of the study’s result is an indication that marketing channel design has a direct positive and significant impact on sales cycle time duration. By developing and validating a construct of marketing channel design and by showing evidence of its value in improving sales cycle time duration of table water manufacturing companies, it provides Table water manufacturing managers with useful tools for evaluating the efficiency of their current marketing channel design policies. The paper recommends that managers should adopt marketing channel design programs that are capable of attracting positive sales cycle duration time for greater efficiency in their organizations.


This research aims to obtained the combination of liquid-powder probiotic concentrations on fish feed for growth, feed conversion ratio and survival of gouramy fingerlings (Osphronemus gouramy). This research used a completely randomized design (CRD) with 6 treatments 3 replications. The treatments that used in this research was concentration of probiotic Liquid 100% (15 ml/kg), 75% (11,25 ml/kg) : Powder 25% (2,5 g/kg), 50% (7,5 ml/kg) : Powder 50% (5 g/kg), 25% (3,75 ml/kg) : Powder 75% (7,5 g/kg), 100% (10 g/kg) and (Control), with each treatments used for 1 kg of feed. The parameters observed were specific growth rate, absolute weight, feed conversion ratio and survival rate. The results showed that the addition probiotic combinations of (Liquid 75% : Powder 25%) had the best result with a growth rate of 1.63±0.09%, absolute weight growth 25.27±2.62 g, feed conversion ratio 1.59±0.02 and sur-vival rate 93.3±5.77%.


The purpose of this research is to analyze the growth of the fisheries sector, analyze the strength of the commodity market, and analyze the strength of the fisheries sector-based sector in regional development in Pangandaran Regency. The method used in this study is a quantitative method using secondary data which is then analyzed using descriptive statistics and qualitative methods using primary data obtained through interviews. The analysis used is growth analysis, Trade Area Capture (TAC) analysis, Pull Factor analysis (PF) and Minimum Needs Approach (MRA) analysis. The results of the growth index analysis show that the GDP of the fisheries sector in the Pan-gandaran Regency increased revenue by 3% within two years. The results of the 2014-2016 TAC analysis showed the value of the TAC> population showed that Pangandaran Regency was able to estimate the trade value of other regional fishery products. The PF value of the Pangandaran Regency fisheries sector> 1 which shows that the Pangandaran Regency region can attract customers from other re-gions. The results of the MRA analysis of Pangandaran Regency obtained the largest base multiplier in Kalipucang District with a value of 32,6 which means that every 320 workers in the base sector are expected to create 6 workers in the non-base sector.


This study was conducted to shed light on travel motivations of domestic tourists to Can Tho City, which would be used to help attract more visitors and develop local tourism. This study employs a five-level Likert scale to evaluate the significance of the travelers’ motivations, together with the Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Discriminant Analysis by using designed questionnaires to interview 140 local travelers visiting Can Tho city recently. As revealed in the findings, tourists coming to Can Tho City are likely to be influenced by seven travel motivations, which could be categorized into push motivations and pull motivations. The former includes (1) relaxation and self-affirmation, (2) prestige, (3) entertainment, (4) social contact. The latter comprises (5) accessibility and reasonable prices, (6) resources and entertainment, (7) history, culture, and gastronomy. Besides, the author also suggests some solutions based on the evaluations of the significance of the push and pull motivations. Keyword: Travel motivations, Domestic tourists, Exploratory factor analysis, Discriminant analysis, Can Tho city


This paper sought to analyze the effect of Competitor focus on success of marketing strategies of Microfinance Institutions in Kenya. The specific objectives which guided the analysis were; to evaluate the effect of Competitor pricing strategies on the success of marketing strategies of Microfinance Institutions in Kenya, to Analyze the effect of Competitor promotion strategies on success of marketing strategies of Microfinance Institutions in Kenya, and to Evaluate the effect of Competitor physical evidence strategies on success of marketing strategies of Microfinance Institutions in Kenya. The target population comprised of; Banks that offer microfinance services, Deposit taking MFIs, and Credit Only MFIs. The Chief Executive officers (CEOs) and the marketing managers /Marketing in charge of the MFIs comprised the study units. Census sampling which entailed studying the whole population was used. Data were collected using a semi structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multiple linear regression was used to examine how independent variables under study contributed to the dependent variable. The main finding was that, the effect of competitor focus on success of marketing strategies of MFIs in Kenya was not significant (.251>.050) The study recommended that MFIs should give greater attention to competitor focus because its effect on success of marketing strategies of MFIs in Kenya was not found to be significant. The findings of this study have been used to provide recommendations to MFIs; Academia and policy makers on how to enhance the marketing of MFIs services. Key Words: Competitor focus, Competitor services strategies, Competitor pricing strategies, Competitor Promotion strategies, Competitor physical evidence strategies.


Due to the increase in living standard and demand, energy conservation has become important in industrialized and developing countries. In respect to rational use of energy, this paper evaluates solar energy in Nigerian buildings with the aid of passive and active solar architecture approaches which makes use of specific building design principles and reduces the artificial energy requirements for achieving indoor thermal comfort. As a climate responsive architecture, building design criteria has been studied with the help of several parameters like geographic location and climatic conditions, building shape, orientation, selection of construction materials, building op enings viz. windows, selection of suitable sunshades, etc. All the salient building design parameters are studied and important findings and recommendations are suggested as the outcome of the study. In our quest for sustainable development and the achievement of a safe environment, numerous alternatives to power supply have been exploited. The challenge of erratic and insufficient power has for decades bedeviled our dear nation resulting in the proliferation of the use of generators in multiple locations within the built environment. This solution apparently is the people’s response to the nations decaying infrastructure but invariably produces an environment which is unsafe to its inhabitants. In recent times, reports have shown that the emissions arising from this practice have caused the death of occupants. It is common knowledge that the use of solar energy as an alternative power source is not yet ubiquitous in this country. In recent times, innovation in the area of thermal solar and photovoltaic prov ides possibilities of its introduction in the building fenestration and facade. This study however examines some existing solar powered facilities in Nigeria . resource persons involved in Key words: Solar Energy, construction activities for designi Environmentally The study is useful for various ng energy efficient buildings. friendly, Passive and Active solar.

Time Assessment and Corporate Sustainability of Money Deposit Banks in Port Harcourt, Nigeria []

The rationale behind this study was to investigate how time assessment relates to corporate sustainability of Money Deposit Banks in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. To delve deep into this task, we shall be looking at time assessment as it relates to economic, social and environmental sustainability being the measures of corporate sustainability. Relative to the correlational nature of this study, quasi-experimental design was adopted. The accessible population comprising of 10 Money Deposit Banks with a total of two hundred (200) management staff were randomly selected with sample size of 133 respondents using the Krejcie and Morgan (1970) sample determination table. The results revealed that time assessment was found positive, strong and significant predictor of corporate sustainability focusing on the antecedent factors outlined earlier. In the light of this, our findings concluded that adequate assessment actually enhances or leads to improvement and continuous growth of banking sector. The evidence highlighted the powerful influence of time assessment on social sustainability in predicting corporate sustainability where rh0 = 0.771. Therefore, we recommend that the strategy and any tool for measurement of performance system must be clear, time bond and follow arrangement which undoubtedly recognize what is anticipated of an employee and in what ways nonconformities should be properly utilized to attain the set goals. Further research may consider other types of business or by applying other moderating variable than culture as used here, as well as consider a different geographical scope.


Weed is a limiting factor to crop production as it hinders the attainment of food security in sub Saharan Africa where hunger is a constant threat. Rottboellia cochinchinensis is tropical weed that usually emerges towards the end maturing of most cereal crops. But with use of some pre and post emergence herbicide Rottboellia cochinchinensis is now emerging early on farms competing with produced corn crops. The study aimed to compare the method in control of Rottboellia cochinchinensis on corn field in Zamfara state. Fifty (50) farmers were selected for the study in four selected local governments out of fourteen local governments in the state. Based on the survey conducted in the maize growing areas it was found that the maize production in these areas suffers greatly due to weed problem, which offers many limitations to crops. The result of the study revealed that there are emergence of rotteboelia cochenchinensis after chemical herbicides spray at the mean of 3.8 and its Severances of Itch grass was also found to be high up to 3.2 and 0.645 standard deviation the effectiveness of post emergence herbicide was found low at 2.16 mean value and standard deviation 0.473 while mechanical weed control furnish continuous and effective weed control at 2.44 mean value lower to that of chemical weed control, thus unyielding emergence of rottboellia cochinchinensis was found to be high at mean value 3.8 and standard deviation 0.408 but occur towards the end rainy season. The study suggests that weed control mechanisms should embrace better understanding of weed biology as tool in weed control.

Leadership Change Management and Firm Innovativeness of Telecommunication Companies in Port Harcourt, Nigeria []

This study examined the relationship between leadership change management and firm innovativeness of telecommunication companies in Port Harcourt. The study adopted the cross-sectional survey in its investigation of the variables. Primary data was generated through self- administered questionnaire. A sample of one hundred (100) respondents was drawn from a population of one hundred and thirty four (134) four telecommunication companies in Port Harcourt Nigeria, using the Taro Yamane’s formula for sample size determination. The reliability of the instrument was achieved by the use of the Cronbach Alpha coefficient with all the items scoring above 0.70. The hypotheses were tested using the Spearman Rank Order Correlation. The tests were carried out at a 95% confidence interval and a 0.05 level of significance. Empirical findings revealed that leadership change management positively and significantly influences firm innovativeness of telecommunication companies in Port Harcourt. The result of the findings further revealed that leadership change, change in technology and change in organizational structure gave rise to product innovation, process innovation and market. The study recommends that the management of these telecommunication companies in Port Harcourt should try other leadership styles and adopt the leadership styles that will seriously improve the innovativeness of the company.

Geological and Geochemical Studies of Granitiod Intrusion, Tagotieb area Red Sea Hills, Sudan. []

The granitoid complexes in Tagotieb area intrude mainly the metavolcanic rocks and the older granites. They are coarse-grained and are highly sheared with numerous faults and joints. Despite a large number of separate granitoid intrusions and the wide range of their lithologies, there is an overall calc-alkaline pattern, which indicates a single, compositionally fairly, and uniform source (Gass, 1977). Isotopic evidence (Kröner, 1991) suggests island arc environment for these granitoids. Petrographically syn-tectonic granitoids are composed of quartz, plagioclase feldspar, alkali feldspar, biotite, hornblende, and accessory zircon, sphene, iron oxides and apatite. According to the quartz, plagioclase, and alkali feldspar contents, the syn-tectonic granitoids are classified into granodiorite and biotite monzogranite. The post-orogenic granites are of pink colour, coarse-grained, non-foliated, and contain quartz, plagioclase and K-feldspar with the little amount of mica and hornblende. The syn-orogenic granitoids show chemical characteristics of calc-alkaline subduction-related rocks and can be regarded as I-type granites. The geochemical data show marked continuities in major and trace element abundances versus SiO2 suggesting that all varieties of the syn-tectonic granodiorite-granite suite are genetically related. The primitive nature of the original magma that produced the studied granodiorite-granite suite is evident from the very low Rb/Sr (0.09–0.35), Nb (3–7 ppm), which reflect either garnet lherzolite mantle source or amphibolites lower crust source. Based on geochemical variations, it is suggested that crystal fractionation and fluid-rock interaction are the main control of the trace element distribution in the studied post-orogenic A-type granites.

Interplay between Cell Proliferation and Cellular Differentiation: A mutually exclusive paradigm []

The developmental processes in living organisms are tightly regulated by series of gene expression (gene switch off and switch on concept) driving both cell proliferation and cellular differentiation. However, the link between cell proliferation and differentiation is poorly understood. Thus, an insight on the mechanistic processes linking cell proliferation and differentiation at the molecular level will drastically increase the knowing of the unknown in developmental biology. Over the years, Cell proliferation (a process that produces two cells from one) and cellular differentiation (the transition of a cell from one cell type to another) processes have been viewed as a separate prodigy in developmental biology. However, it is now clear that in vast majority of cells, cell proliferation and cellular differentiation exhibit a significant inverse relationship occurring in a mutually exclusive paradigm. Cells after birth continues to proliferate before acquiring a differentiated state, thus, the initiation of cellular differentiation is associated with proliferation arrest and permanent exit of a cell from the cell division cycle. The relationship existing between cell proliferation and cellular differentiation are pivotal to a successful biochemical events regulating the development of a multicellular organism from a single fertilized egg to a complex organism. Evidence justifying the inverse relationship between cell proliferation and cellular differentiation have been reported from studies of cells in culture and in vivo models. The mechanistic events regulating cell proliferation and cellular differentiation must be closely coordinated to develop a functional organism, thus, dysregulation in any of the two processes are said to be one of the hallmarks of developmental abnormalities and carcinogenesis. This work reviewed the linked between cell proliferation and cellular differentiation at the molecular level as both processes plays a key role in a successful development of a complete functional living organism.

Association between promoter IL-4 C 590-T polymorphism and asthma in Tunisian patients []

The aim of this study was to investigate the potential link between C590-T, the level of IL-4 and asthma prevalence in Tunisian patients (3) (4). A cohort of 50 subjects including 30 patients and 20 controls was analyzed , IL-4 concentrations were determined by ELISA test and IL-4 C590-T was determined by PCR –RFLP (Polymerase Chain Reaction – Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism) method using BsmF enzyme(5). Serum levels of IL-4 were increased for asthmatic patients exceeding threshold (2pg/ml) reaching 2.665±0.52 for CT genotype and 2.185±0.8 for TT genotype compared to controls.Our findings revealed that IL-4 C590-T SNP (Simple Nucleotide Polymorphism) showed a significant difference between asthmatic patients and controls, when comparing TT vs CC (OR 0, 10077. 95% CI: 0, 0285 – 0, 4068 P value 48.10-5) and TT vs CT (OR 9, 2857. 95% CI: 2.4583 –35.0753 P value 48.10-5) genotypes.We also demonstrated that patients with heterozygous CT (63,3%) and homozygous TT (20%) showed significantly higher serum levels of IL-4, while wild genotype CC showed lower levels.T allele seems to be associated with asthma especially CT combination (6) (7). This allele dominating in special population compared to others at genetic levels could be used as an indicator of genetic biomarkers inducing either pathogenesis or protection from the disease (8).

Structural systems in enveloping a sport complex []

Sport is a necessity for the development of sound mind and body which are needed for adequate and balanced education. Besides, it is an international phenomenon with sociopolitical and economic implication. This has facilitated the need for the development of sport facilities alongside other educational and social facilities in universities to enhance the participation of students in sport activities either as a full time programme as in physical education or as a social and recreational activity. The study involves analysing various structural systems use in enveloping sport facilities. It investigates sporting facilities where light weight structure roofing systems have been achieved at minimal cost or expenditures.

A Review On The Procedure For Safety Measures In Construction []

The policy of an Agency is to make available a safe and healthful work atmosphere for all the workers whether they are permanent or temporary. The construction industry has a high fatality rate and causes various tragedies and human injuries that remains for a very long time and disorganizes the construction process. Despite advancement and improvements in safety, the construction business is still far from achieving a zero-injury goal. Construction damages will continuously have wide-ranging and adverse influence, which comprises the personal suffering of the injured/hurt laborers, construction postponements and productivity harms sustained by the construction supplier, higher workers insurance premiums that result from costly injuries. Their deterrence and even marginal saving in their cost will have significant human and financial effect. The amount of injuries and fatalities can be condensed by cheering and strengthening behavioral change. In this modern society where there is a magnificent advancement in construction industry, these fatalities are unacceptable and it makes it incompetent, with days lost due to injuries or fatalities. This review paper demonstrates the procedure for safety measures and shows that the high accidents rate is due to Five challenges or factor that significantly prevails in site safety.

The application of synthetic unit hydrograph to evaluate flood discharge at the lower Niger River []

The evaluation of the flood discharge at the lower Niger river was carried out by employing the tool of the Geographical Information System (GIS). The flood discharge research work at the catchment could serve the purpose of planning, and early warning strategy to both individuals and government structures with a view of effectively curbing the occurrence of floods, averting loss of lives and properties and checking the outbreak of epidemics. The analyzed watershed attribute parameters, rainfall data and hydrological models were used in forecasting the peak runoff for return periods of 25yr, 50yr, 75yr, and 100yr using the SCS methods. And from the determined hydrograph the return periods of 25yr has the lowest peak runoff with 2883.89m3/s while the 100yr return period has the highest peak runoff of 3616.19m3/s respectively.