Volume 8, Issue 3, March 2020 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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study and investigation of 11KV electrical power supply for improved performance []

ABSTRACT This dissertation studies and investigates 11kv Electric Power Supply for Improved Performance, exploring the interrelationship between optimal performances of the electrical network with respect to the properties of the study feeder; loading, conductor sizes, and possible means to improve the present network. Two 11kv feeders in Port Harcourt Electricity Distribution company (PHED) network which are Nvigwe and Ogbatai 11 kv feeders having thirty-one (31) and twenty-one (21) distribution substations respectively, which emanate from RSPUB-1 injection substation was selected for this study, as these feeders provide the required change in the infrastructure over a 3year period (reduced load due to mass metering and periodic maintenance). Load flow studies was carried out using Electrical Transient and Analysis Program (ETAP) version 12.6. The software ran a load flow using Newton Raphson method and the results were generated after ninety-nine (99) iterations, with a precision of 0.000100 in four (4) stages, before, during and after metering , after proposed upgrade respectively, covering the three (3) year span. Before the metering process, voltage magnitude had the least values of 92.21%, 84.83%, 89.27% for the injection substation Nvigwe and Ogbatai feeders respectively, which improved a bit during the metering process and tremendous improvement was realized after the metering process as a result of reduction in network load; (recording voltage magnitude values of the injection substation, Nvigwe and Ogbatai feeders where 96.03%, 92.21%, 94.43% respectively) which are attribute to a large difference in the load from 7.5MW to 5.69MW for Nvigwe feeder. It was also noticed that the injection substation 15MVA transformer was overloaded, but with the help of mass metering, the load consumed was driven low by customer’s energy utilization awareness, as they are directly responsible for the load they use. The study showed that the reduction in feeder load goes a long way to improve the network system performance by increasing the amount of useful load available and severely reducing the losses along the system. With further investigation it was also noticed that the route length of the feeders also plays a vital role in the amount of power loss as it travels along conductors to the customers.

Capacitor Placement Optimization of Power Distribution Network using Genetic Algorithm for Choba Distribution Network Port Harcourt, Nigeria. []

Power loss and poor voltage profile have been identified among the biggest problems facing the Port Harcourt power distribution. The high power loss has led to decreases in power availability thereby resulting to undesirable power outages. The study is aimed at presenting a distribution network with optimal placement of shunt capacitors using genetic algorithm to achieve substantial power loss reduction as well as voltage profile increment. The approach adopted is of two stages which are the loss sensitivity factor analysis and genetic algorithm. Loss sensitivity factor analysis is applied on load data obtained from the Port Harcourt Electricity Distribution Company through log book to determine optimum locations and sizes of shunt capacitors to be installed and then genetic algorithm is applied on load data working on MAT-LAB Simulink to run simulation. Simulation is investigated in the Port Harcourt Choba feeder and the result shows an annual power savings of N325, 435.56. Similarly, from the above network, there is a considerably high voltage improvement from 121volts to 142volts for minimum voltage.

An Improved Electricity Billing Method by Distribution Companies Using Evolutionary Algorithm []

The improvement of electricity billing method by the power distribution companies have been a major problem for many years as several attempt have been made to optimize the tatty estimated billing method presently used. This optimization will ensure that everyone is paying the right amount for the electricity they use. Usually bills have been incorrectly estimated, leaving some people paying more and others paying less than they should resulting to heavy financial losses. Since generating and distributing electricity cost money, particularly in a large country like Nigeria, where power lines have to go very long distances and over rough terrain, the current system of estimated billing is very inefficient, which means that as much as one third of the electricity produced leaks away and unpaid for. Hence, the obsolete estimated billing has to stop in order for the improvement of the poor state of electricity infrastructure to be feasible. This will require very huge financial investment. Therefore to achieve this, this dissertation presents an improved electricity billing method by applying python programming using the Port Harcourt Electricity Distribution (PHED) as a case study. The improved method involves the implementation of smart meters to replace estimated bill and simulation run using evolution algorithm. Conclusively, the implemented method and simulation results show optimal solutions, with a substantial difference between estimated bill in which consumers pay less than 50% of actual power consumption and smart metered bill in which consumers are made to pay up 99% of actual power consumption. The calculated losses are shown for the different apartment sizes and total annual loss calculated as N1,920,625.


Abstract: Dire Dawa from its very establishment has been home not only for a number of Ethiopians from the different nations and nationalities in the country but also for people from various other countries like Greek, Armenia, India, Yemen, France, Italy, Iran, Sudan, Egypt, Somalia, and even Israel. The diversity is evidenced in multi-lingual, architecture, religious place, gastronomy, urban planning, settlement and naming of quarter. Naming of sub city is point of focus on this paper, the foreign community has significant contribution in the establishment of many quarter in Dire Dawa city .Thus this paper will specifically focused on the name of Dire Dawa sub city with foreign origin. Keyword: Naming, sub city and foreign community


The purpose of this research is to determine the proximate analysis of kembang goyang traditional cake which has been added with concentrate nilem fish protein. The evaluation parameters are water content, protein content, ash content and fat content. This research was conducted in July to November 2019 at the Food Technology Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering, Pasundan University. The research method used was an experimental method with control and 5% based on the weight of rice flour. Based on the results of the analysis of kembang goyang traditional cake with the addition of nilem fish protein that is 2.70% of water content, 8.26% of protein content, 1.95% of ash content and 18.99% of fat content.


This study aims to determine the proximate composition of wet noodles which are added to the nilem fish protein concentrate. The proximate composition observed was water content, protein content, fat content and ash content of wet noodles added to the concentration of bonylip barb protein with a concentration of 5% (w / w) of wheat flour. This research was conducted form July to August 2019 at Laboratorium Pengolahan Hasil Perikanan, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences Universitas Padjadjaran and the Chemical Laboratory of PPBS (Pusat Pelayanan Basic Science) Universitas Padjadjaran. The method used is an experimental method consisting of two treatments, namely wet noodles without the addition of nilem fish protein concentrate and the treatment of adding 5% (w /w) of nilem fish protein concentrate from wheat flour. Based on the results of proximate analysis, wet noodles with the addition of bonylip barb protein concentrate 5% treatment had a water content of 34.16%, 16.08% protein content, 2.37% fat content and 1.14% ash content.

Information and Communication Technology (ICTs) Tools Adoption Maintenance and Utilization. The Case of Nigerian University Teaching Hospitals. []

There has been a growing trend for Information and communication technology tools adoption and utilization for organisations and hospital to handle critical and complex cases, and to manage health information systems and data processing in delivering effective healthcare and social wellbeing inclusion. As well as reducing operational cost. However, research has reveal that majority or all public hospital in sub-Sahara Africa Nigeria has under-utilized these technology, lack of Maintenance and performances in the Hospital workplaces. This has become a big concern in the African continent, especially Nigeria. Research has also highlighted that the major challenges holding foot for ICTs development in healthcare delivery in Nigerian teaching hospital is linked to poor public sector information technology management, adaption, maintenance and Training. Finding and research has also shown that ineffective information communication technology management and performance is linked to inappropriate information technology procurement and placement. Prior work- There has been a lots of studies in these area; ICT adoption and utilizations, health information technology for improvement, Information technology for healthcare delivery systems, benefits and challenges of e-health, Information communication technology for hospital experience in developing countries context. However, there has not been a enough studies on Information communication technology tools, maintenance and utilization for healthcare delivery, My research is going to fill the gap. In developing countries context. This paper implored a content analysis and a quantitative and qualitative research approach to explore ICTs tools adoptions, maintenance and Management initiatives based on selected ICTs strategy documents, with interviews and questionnaire administrations to the staff of the selected hospital in Nigeria. Approach- This research paper implies that the promotion of information communication technology tools adoptions and utilization for health delivery is needed, as healthcare professional, and stakeholders in the sectors needs to be aware of the importance of ICTs tools development, management, Maintenance policies. The implementation of these strategy in hospital operations will help improve and reshaped healthcare delivery process for better outcome. Results - Based on this research analysis of literature review and questionnaire, Interviews and focus group session, the result revealed that Information communication technology is under-utilized, under-developed, Lack maintenance and the level of diffusion in the teaching hospital is at the growing stages. Implications-Governments policy makers, and stakeholders needs to truly formulate policies and strategies that will enhance and promote information communications technology for health adoptions and activities. The policy formulations will take consideration of information when formulating and implementing an information communication technology based solution for health and policy, programs and initiatives Value - This research will contribute to the existing body of knowledge in Information and communication technology, policy agenda on health sector and National policy implementation plan and initiatives for the diffusion and digitalisation of health in healthcare delivery systems. Keywords: Information communication technology, healthcare services delivery, Internet for medical things, Technology Improvement, Strategy, and Challenges and Maintenance.


The research explores about the Tutsi people whose history of origin trace back to Oromo realm of the Horn of Africa. The purpose of this research is to reconstruct pre- 13th history of Oromo based on spiritual and material culture that held in reserve among the diaspora. Firstly, based on archaeological sources, similarity in place names, Sanga’s line of dispersal and unique coffee consuming culture of the Oromo together with archival materials it had been found the societies that moved to the Great Lake Region were the Karsa people of Sennar(Sudan) whose original homeland was south western Ethiopia during the ancient and medieval period. Taking in to account compatibility of the period during which a traditionalist Karsa people arrived Sudan with the foundation of rock hewn church of Adadi Mariam at Karsa, the research had made known the people of Tutsi/Tisitu represents Oromo group who evicted from south western Ethiopia by expansion of the Christian Highland Kingdom in the 13th century AD. Finally, based on Oromo’s material culture well-maintained among the diaspora starting from the 13th century the research had confirmed the Great Oromo Nation was the birth place of coffee and Sanga type cattle.

The Legacy of Wolaita Hegemony in Transforming Ethiopia: The Case of Kawo Motolomi []

The historical events of the 13th century had fundamental implications in the history of medieval Wolaita and Ethiopia at large. At the heart of these events lay the conquest of a larger portion of Ethiopia, which stretches north-south from Tegulet to the Indian Ocean cost, west-east from Tumal(Sudan) to the Gulf of Aden, by the forces of Kawo Motolami of Wolaita. The purpose of this article which conducted between February 2018 and June 2019 had been to investigate the major factors that facilitated the rise of the Grand Wolaita Kingdom in the 13th century and its legacy on socio-economic and political life of the entire Ethiopians. Based on archival sources, works of chronicles, major export items of the kingdom, and interviews made with purposefully selected ten informants the research had confirmed that the most important driving force behind exceeding military capability of the traditionalist king was anti-Orthodox African nationalism which evolved in to subjugation of huge territories together with the sources of major trade items exported from the Horn of Africa’s hinterlands. Through historical data analysis method, the article also made known that kawo Motolomi, who was tolerant to the Christian and Muslim immigrants, had played a great role in Orthodox evangelization process after his conversion to Christianity. Finally, the researcher had concluded that kawo Motolami‘s period deserves the Golden Age of Wolaita examining it’s leading role in nurturing shared identities, religious transformation, sustaining the traceability of Ethiopian unity, maintaining regional stability and fostering socio-economic community of the Horn of Africa which interconnected through long distance trade.

Developing education in Syria after crisis: Children in focus []

The paradox of education in Syria is now epitomized by the trilogy of schools destruction, shortness of teachers and a situation of schoolchildren who were settled in diaspora like Turkey, Lebanon and Jordan or in the destructed regions inside Syria. Up to time, there are no factual statistics indicating the real figures of damaged / destroyed schools or even indications to the approximate number of school children that might join schools. A policy paper in London, 2016 has indicated that 5.4 millions of children and teenagers lack education. A report of UNICEF’s response for children, 2018 has indicated that one of each three schools is partially or totally destroyed. According to INEE, 2016, the fatalities of teaching staff is enumerated to 150.000 personnel or more, and so this figure is close less to the facts of escape and displacement. The reason of this study is to contribute to the educational process in Syria after crisis. So then, it requires applying a course of actions, particularly interviewing the officers of education in Syria or the commissioners of education in the hosting countries of Turkey, Lebanon and Jordan in order to principally identify the exact numbers of Syrian school-age children that might be rejoining schools in Syria within the next year. Furthermore, it requires to identify the number of destroyed schools even partially or completely of which they need to be geared up. Predictably, under this estimated supportive project, we anticipate in the first phase, to collect more accurate information more accessible in order to assess the size of aids for such needed support, and to form in the second phase a joint working committee on ground (interdisciplinary team) in collaboration with the Syrian education authorities to start supporting this assistance into an agreed plan and schedule taking the whole appropriate arrangements into consideration. Hence, it is projected that sufficient units of school children would be in schools, a sufficient number of teaching staff is actively back; and a remarkable number of reconstructed schools is geared up. Keywords: Syria, education, developing, children, crisis.

Revitalizing Ethiopian Compassion for 2020 Election Instead of the Myth of the ‘Troubled Sons of Solomon’ []

The article explores about dangerous political culture of Amhara–Tigrean elite who claim lineage to king Solomon of Israel; but remain the worst enemy to each other. The purpose of this article has been to demonstrate how unfamiliar elite politics, which emerged as a competing force of African colonial power in the 19th century, persisted as defenders of liberalism and ethnic federalism in Ethiopia’s historic election of the 2020. The article relayed on consultation of various written documents, travel accounts, archival materials, journals, newspapers, together with oral sources collected from purposely selected five informants to declare that the 2020 election is going to be held in an environment where the hostility of Amhara and Tigrean elite reached climax and the function of Ethiopia’s homegrown mechanism of accommodating diverse ideas neutralized. Therefore, based on comparative analysis of kindheartedness of our people and renewal of northern imperial ambition, the researcher had proven that Ethiopia’s survival and transition to modern democracy depends up on her hasty restoration of pre-colonial values and demarcation of a clear line which separates the Ethiopian politics from superiority agenda of the ‘troubled sons of Solomon’. Finally, the article had also forwarded the importance of acquainting the youth with historically verified indigenous values that needed to build a distinguishable nation together with the moralities of good citizenship as a substitute to genocide and hater propaganda of elite currently endangering the welfare of our people and necessarily the forthcoming 2020 Ethiopian election.

An Evolution process on the Sri Lankan Buddha image house (from the 2nd Century AC up to 13th AC) []

The terms patimaghara, prethimagruha, Denoting image house and Prethimagruha has been formed by combining words prethima and gruha meaning image and its abode respectively. The other term bimbalaya has mentioned in the Silpa text called Manjusri vastuvidya shastraya (Jayasuriya, H.F: Silva, R; Prematileke.P.L; 1995. ) denoting image house also has been formed by combining the words bimbe or image and Alaya or abode (house). The other Sinhalese terms pilimage, buduge, viharage are formed by using the meanings of utility of the building and its spatial organization and while the terms buduge and viharage specially reflected the meaning of the sitting, standing and reclining (viharathi) abode of the master.

Impact of Nap Time on Work Performance: A study of Public Sector Universities in Sindh []

Human resource is one of the most important asset for organizations as they play critical role across the organizational workplace irrespective of field, department, level and nature of job. Organizations today are evolving and changing at rapid pace because of their way of working is changing and evolving due to the impacts of external environmental forces on the business practices and activities of such firms. Due to such evolving HRM practices and environment, the focus of this study was to emphasize on new yet evolving HR areas such as nap time and work performance. The major aim of this study was to analyze the impacts of nap time on the work performance, in regards to the public sector universities of Sindh. It was also the prime objective of the study to evaluate the impacts of employee health, employee happiness, employee productivity and work load on work performance. In order to evaluate and analyze these variables, the data was gathered from 315 responses with the help of questionnaire. The findings of this research study showed that there is a positive and direct association between nap time and work performance. It is evaluated that organizations that can provide nap time to its work force may have better chances of improvement in their workforce work performance. It can be stated that nap time can result in the improved work performance. Keywords: Nap time, work performance, employee health, employee happiness, employee productivity and employee work load.

Achieving Sustainable Energy in Nigeria Through Photovoltaic (PV) Technology ;Problems and Prospects []

The global quest for sustainable development has dramatically increased in our modern times and this raises the issues of a sustainable economic development and growth. Therefore, sustainable energy has become one of the most promising means of handling the challenges of energy demand problems of many consumers worldwide. However, solar energy is a clean energy source and thus power generation through this energy source imposes little or no environmental hazards. The research aim is to assess the problems and prospects of achieving sustainable energy in Nigeria through photo voltaic (PV) technology. Descriptive and correlative design was used in this research work. The sample population of the study was delimited to and comprises of selected practitioners in top five (5) solar firms in Nigeria, 136 respondents was randomly drawn from the various population of the study using a purposive sampling procedure. Data was obtained through the instrument of questionnaire. Oral interview was also used to get more information from the respondents. The data analysis techniques used for the test of hypothesis are multiple regression and correlation method using (SPSS) version 21. The study concludes that technical challenges, economic and financial challenges are the most striking barriers. The study recommends that Nigerian Government should invest in the development of Nigerian made PV panels which will contribute to the Nations GDP and GNI. This will be the natural consequence since these panels will be exported and foreign exchange will flow into Nigeria’s economy.

Solar Power Supply for a Developing Community in Rivers State Case Study: Krakrama Community, Asari-Toru Local Government Area. []

ABSTRACT Nigeria is blessed with lots of renewable energy potentials including solar energy which is an alternative source of energy. There is need for more research in the field of solar energy supply in other to reduce the unavailability of electricity supply. This study is focused on estimating the potential of building integrated standalone photovoltaic (PV) system for supplying electricity in Krakrama community in Rivers State, Nigeria. Equations based on optimization techniques were used to analyze the photovoltaic (PV) system for a total load of 1936.0176kWh/day. The solutions of the equations were made possible through HOMER. The result shows that the capacity of the photovoltaic (PV) panel obtained was 456kWp with 1kW/h battery capacity and 226kW inverter. Giving the Net Profit Cost (NPC) of $4,561,510.00 and operating cost of $169,086.70 for 25years project lifespan; this was based on the monthly solar irradiation of the study location. However, the system proved to be reliable and sustainable. To mitigate the initial cost, it was recommended that other renewable energy sources such as wind turbine be integrated into the system.


Since the discovery of the Superluminal and other findings, some scientists have begun to believe that there are particles traveling at speed faster than the speed of light. The problem was that the Lorentz Transformation Equation, [1] which deals with only four dimensions was not allowing that. In this paper I insert the fifth dimension to the basis of the Lorentz equation and come out with three equations that explain the state of all matter in all universes before, during and after the speed of light. The good thing is that the fifth-dimension equations do not contradict or conflict with Lorentz equation and it will turn as Lorentz transformation equation when we substitute the Variable constant K = 1. Also, I will explain how my theory complete the existing theories (Classical physics and Relativity, etc.), This theory can explain the state of the universe in determining its shape, age and diameter, and the states of matter with a new definition that unites all forces and also defines gravity in one law.

Les complications neurologiques aiguës de la rubéole chez l'enfant []

Résumé :La rubéole est une maladie virale bénigne chez l enfant. Les complications neurologiques consécutives à la rubéole sont rares et la complication la plus fréquemment enregistrée est l encéphalite. [1]Nous en rapportons 14 observations d enfants hospitalisés en réanimation pédiatrique durant l année 2013. La médiane d âge moyen était de 11 ans ± 2.8 (7-16 ans). Le délai moyen entre l exanthème et les manifestations neurologiques dominées par les céphalées et des convulsions était de 4 jours. L examen du liquide céphalo-rachidien (LCR) a montré une pléocytose lymphocytaire, une augmentation des taux de protéines et une glycémie normale. Les anticorps IgM contre le virus de la rubéole étaient positifs dans le sérum alors que les anticorps IgG étaient entre le négatif et le fortement positif. Le recours à l anesthésie générale avec une intubation et une ventilation artificielle était nécessaire chez 3 enfants. L évolution à la sortie de l hôpital était favorable chez tous les patients. Le suivi à 6 et à 12 mois avait montré une persistance de l irritation corticale surtout en occipitale chez 5 patients. Nous avons souligné que la rubéole est une affection potentiellement grave, nécessitant une couverture vaccinale suffisante. Mots clés : enfant, rubéole, vaccination, complication, encéphalite, Thrombose.Abstract:Rubella is a mild viral disease in children. Neurological complications from rubella are rare and the most frequently reported complication is encephalitis. [1]We report 14 observations hospitalized in pediatric resuscitation during the year 2013. The median age was 11 ± 2.8 years (7-16 years). The average time between exanthema and neurological manifestations dominated by headache and seizures was 4 days. Examination of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showed lymphocytic pleocytosis, increased protein levels and normal blood sugar. IgM antibodies against rubella virus were positive in serum while IgG antibodies were between negative and strongly positive. General anesthesia with artificial intubation and ventilation was necessary in 3 children.The discharge from hospital was favorable in all patients. Follow-up at 6 and 12 months had shown persistent cortical irritation, especially occipital in 5 patients.We have stressed that rubella is a potentially serious condition, requiring sufficient vaccination coverage.

Chronic end-stage renal disease dialysis in children: management of the patient not yet treated. []

Renal failure is a public health problem; its frequency is gradually increasing in western Algeria.Our work is a retro single-center prospective study over a period of 23 years, ranging from 01/09/1994 to 01/03/2017 include 284 records of children admitted hemodialysis unit pediatric.Our goal is to describe the impact of late referral on outcomes.The age of the patients ranged from 3 years-18 years, median age of 10.05 ± 2.49 years old and the sex ratio is 1.4. 33% are glomerular diseases in 27 % of IRC was secondary to genetic causes .Then reflux nephropathy accounted for 13% and 27% remained undetermined causes. Before their first hemodialysis session, 19% of children were uremic coma (n = 54) in 66 % (n = 190) the position corresponded to a fluid overload complicating 70% of systolic-diastolic hypertension, 37 % of acute pulmonary edema, hypertensive encephalopathy in 15 %, pericarditis in 6%.11% of our patients initially treated by hemodialysis (after a median time of 02 months on hemodialysis) were transferred on chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis ( CAPD )for vascular problem among very young children, hemodynamic intolerance and some support for the impossibility in many dialysis facilities in southwestern Algeria. 5% of our children have died. Congestive heart failure (OR = 0.51; 95% CI: 0.20 to 0.93), sepsis (p = 0.003) and malignant hypertension complicated by stroke (p = 0.045) were predictors of death .3% of children were grafted from a parental gift which one received a kidney transplant in pre emptive. Even if the owner is presented few, he asked management problems upstream of intensive care unit or for the benefit of early detection of so-called preventable diseases, the diagnosis early, to develop other centers for pediatric dialysis and kidney transplant encourage from encephalic dead.Key words: Child, child, clinical presentation, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, outcome.


The activity concentrations of 210Po and its annual committed effective dose to consumers were quantified in some species of marine fishes from the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia. The study aimed to evaluate 210Po in marine fish i.e. Indian mackerel and Delegoa thread fin bream and to estimate the annual committed effective dose of this radionuclide to humans via fish consumption in the region. The activity concentrations of 210Po in the whole body of marine fishes and its concentration ratio were ranged of 8.34 ± 0.38 – 25.38 ± 1.14 Bq/kg fw. and 4.32 x 103 – 8.12 x 104 L/kg, respectively. The annual effective doses of 210Po per adult consumer, who consumed 44.78 kg of marine fish a year, were estimated to be ranged from 161.34 µSv/yr to 490.98 µSv/yr. Thus, the biological variables between species, geographical characteristics and other factors are the main causes for the elevation of 210Po concentrations that accumulated in both fishes and their annual effective dose levels. However, these values are considered radiological safe for human consumption in the region with is to be taken account on preparation, storage and cooking methods before ingestion.