Volume 8, Issue 3, March 2020 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

[1]   [2]  [3]  [4]  [5]  [6]

Health Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Concentrations in some Selected Tubers from Three Communities in Rivers State, Nigeria []

Abstract: Health risk assessment of 16 US environmental protection agency (USEPA) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations in some selected tubers from Umuechem (Etche LGA), Bodo (Gokana LGA), and Obrikom (Ogba/Egbema/Ndoni LGA) communities in Rivers State, Nigeria was determined. Gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) was used for evaluation of PAHs. Total PAHs concentrations in tubers (yam, cocoyam, and cassava) samples were in the range of 1.88E-3-3.31E-3, 1.79E-35.98E-3, and 5.02E-4-4.19E-3 respectively. Benzo(a)pyrene concentrations in yam, cocoyam and cassava samples from all the sites were below the European Union (EU) value of 0.002mg/kg. High molecular weight PAHs (HMW-PAHs) were predominant in all the tuber samples compared to low molecular weight PAHs (LMW-PAHs). Estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of PAHs through tubers consumption were below the reference dose (RFD). Toxic equivalents (TEQs) values for all tubers were below the estimated screening value (SV) of 1.59E-1.Hazard quotients (HQs) and hazard index (HIs) for both non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risk PAHs through non-dietary exposure were below 1 for all tubers. Estimated cumulative excess cancer risk (ECR) PAHs from dietary exposure to cocoyam from Obrikom exceeded the cancer risk guideline value (10-6). Prolong consumption of cocoyam from Obrikom by community dwellers could pose potential PAHs human health cancer risk.

A Training Plan for College English Teachers []

This study generated a training plan for college teachers on communicative teaching. Needs assessment revealed that the English need to be equipped with the rationale, strategies and assessment techniques of communicative language teaching through the six learning segments which were revised and finalized after a three-day try out. Five stages in the modified Needs Analysis Plan Try out Create Assess (NAPTCA) model was utilized to undertake the study. Specifically, the study determined: (1) the stages in the development of the training design and (2) the contents of the learning segments as a research output. Furthermore, the needs analysis results showed that teachers needed to develop competencies in communicative teaching. Hence, the produced training design included areas for various opportunities of student-talk to be provided among English classes thus calling for teachers’ creativity in designing meaningful and communicative tasks. Other topics were inclusive of teachers’ exposure to communicative teaching.

Morphological and yield performance of rice varieties grown in moderately and strongly saline soils of Khulna, Bangladesh []

Coastal areas of Bangladesh is affected by various degrees of salinity where agricultural land use and cropping intensity is very much poor. In this regard, a pot experiment was conducted in moderately (EC- 5.70 dS/m) and strongly saline (EC- 8.24 dS/m) soils of the coastal areas for growing different local and high yielding rice varieties to investigate their yield performances in these soils. Different morphological (Plant height, leaf area, number of leaves, number of tillers, number of panicles , dry weight) and yield contributing parameters (filled grain , unfilled grain, harvest index, grain weight, yield of grain and straw yield) were observed. Pots were arranged in a completely randomized design. A total of five different rice varieties were tested namely: BRRI dhan 28, BRRI dhan 81, BRRI dhan 74, BRRI dhan 58 and the local variety Balia. Among the five rice varieties, BRRI dhan 58 rice was completely failed to grow in both the soils. With the remaining rice varieties, BRRI dhan 28 showed better yield in strongly saline soil with respect to all the morphological and yield parameters studied. On the other hand, in moderately saline soil, BRRI dhan 74 rice variety showed better performance than that of the other rice varieties studied.

Renewable Energy Generation from the Wastewater Sludge []

Whenever people live, there will be human and natural waste (wastewater, drainage, nourishment squander, eatery oil, and so on.) with biogenic carbon that can be changed over to vitality, just as nitrogen and phosphorus supplements that can be recuperated. Wastewater utilities worldwide are associated with all territories of sustainable power source, from conventional sources, for example, wind, sunlight based, and hydropower, to vitality got from biomass, (for example, biogas), to look into in developing innovations. With the vitality contained in wastewater and bio solids more noteworthy than the vitality required for treatment, water asset recuperation offices can possibly be vitality impartial or even net vitality makers, and a few plants have just accomplished that status.


HB-0 immunization is functioned as the immune of a baby’s body against the infection of hepatitis B from its mother who has positive HbsAg status. Hepatitis B virus attacks a baby’s liver which cause liver cancer. The objective of the research was to analyze the implementation of HBO program in new-born babies in the working area of RambungPuskesmas, Binjai.The research was done at in the working area of RambungPuskesmas, from May to October, 2019. It used qualitative method with descriptive interactive approach. Therewere 18 informants in the research.The result of the communication analysis showed that many women forgot HB0 vaccine. Resources: human resources were adequate, but the funds from BOK in the amount of IDR.60,000 per three months was only be received by the management of the program while the Puskesmas only received report from hospital, its Head acted as supervisor, but independent midwives did not get anything. Bureaucratic Structure: RambungPuskesmas had had SOP in implementing the activity of HB0 immunization. Data Implementation: immunization coverage from villages to Puskesmas as the first stage of reporting was still 64%.It is recommended that the personnel of KIA at Puskesmas increase the coverage HB0 immunization program in babies in the health working area at Binjai, in 2019. Keywords: HB0 Implementation, Immunization, Balita

The effect of P fertilizers on seedlings height []

The effect of P fertilizers (triple superphosphate, Senegal and Togo rock phosphates) were evaluated on oil palm seedlings at nursery. The study consisted of 4 levels of P fertilizers replicated 3 times and arranged in RCBD. The P rates were Po, 6 g TSP, 7.5 g SRP and 8.2 g TRP applied/palm/month. Data was collected on seedling frond numbers, butt and height from 5 MAT to 12 MAT. The results showed that, P fertilizers, irrespective of source or levels had no significant effect on the parameters measured, yet, values obtained were in agreement with earlier works by other researchers. The lack of significance was, however, attributed to the inherent sluggish growth nature of oil palm. SRP treated palms performed equally with the TSP palms and has the potential to be used on seedlings fertilization at the nursery.

Evaluation of Delay Related Factors in Niger Delta Development Commission Construction Projects in University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria []

This study evaluated the Delay Related Factors in Niger Delta Development Commission (NDDC) Construction Projects in University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. The objectives include to analyse hostel construction project to determine their level of performance, and identify and analyse the delay factors in the face of the level of delay witnessed in the delivery of public sector Niger Delta Development Commission (NDDC) hostel projects in University of Port Harcourt, Choba, Rivers State. Descriptive statistics was partly used to analyze the performance data of the selected construction project from 2004 to 2012 which showed low performance due to high level of cost and time variations witnessed. The contributory factors to the low performance were identified. Based on this, five-point Likert’s scale questionnaire was designed and distributed to 136 respondents for assessment on the level of effect of the contributory factors on cost and time variations. The t-test analysis of the delay factors show that all the identified factors significantly affected the performance of the NDDC hostel project with contractor related factors having the highest effect on the delay witnessed. The relative severity index also ranked contractor related factors as the highest effective factor to the level of delay witnessed in the NDDC hostel project delivery. The study therefore recommends honesty and transparency among the players in the public sector or government agencies and construction industry, maximum attention by contractors to detailed design before tendering for projects, stability in the market prices of construction materials and efficient and effective tendering process before projects are awarded.


The study evaluated the quality of stream water of Maichew area, Ethiopia. Water samples were collected from eight sites and 39 physicochemical and bacteriological parameters were analyzed to determine the anthropogenic contribution to the river water quality. CO3, PO4, F, NO2, NH4, Mn, and Cu content are marginal to detection limits in all sites. The mean values of Turbidity, EC, Alkalinity, pH, DO, BOD, COD, TDS and Chloride content were 12.10NTU, 743.37μs/cm, 143.77, 7.85, 4.14, 21.80, 44.17, 530.10, and 9.21mg/L respectively. Zinc and arsenic are relatively higher on water samples under direct impact of Raya brewery effluent and Maichew particle board factories. The mean concentrations of Zn, As, Ba, B, Cd, Pb and Se were found to be 5.881, 0.663, 0.217, 0.196, 0.361, 0.117 and 0.032 mg/l respectively. Based on WHO standards, the surface water is not safe for drinking and bathing. Overall water quality index (OWQI) result of one site indicated “Good” while a site near brewery effluent falls in “Heavily polluted” class. Most part showed fair quality status with OWQI values ranging from 57.90 to 62.42 showing the need for treatment before any use. Hence, undergoing proper managerial procedures is recommended to maintain safe water.


The aim of this research work is to investigate the reliability of a power distribution system using Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) technique. The objective of the research is to evaluate or assess the reliability of the 33/11kv injection substation of Rivers State University as the case study. The data used for the study was obtained from the university substation. The reliability analysis includes assessing the failed power components of the substation in terms of the frequency and durations of their failures. The physical translation of the substation line diagram into the reliability block diagram or fault tree diagram was constructed. The FTA diagram showed the logical arrangement of the power equipment and fault path leading to the system failure. With the FTA diagram, the qualitative analysis was carried out using logic symbols AND-GATE and OR-GATE to determine the minimal cut sets that indicate the root-cause of the system failure and obtain the Boolean algebra. The quantitative analysis was also carried out to determine the reliability parameters such as Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF), Mean Time To Repair (MTTR) and Unavailability of each the power equipment in the substation by using reliability indices. Through the Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) technique in the research, it was identified that the substation feeders such as 11kv UST Feeder, 11kv Federal Feeder and especially 11kv Wokoma Feeder were the power equipment that contributed majorly to the system failure of the substation.


This investigational study carried out to examine the behavior and strength of concrete by replacing the cement content with Hospital waste ash at 2.5,5,10,15 and 20 %. Many tests are performed to analyze the compressive strength of concrete with different mixes at 7,14 and 28 days. The compressive strength is found to be satisfactory at 2.5% replacement of Hospital waste ash.


The main objective of this study was investigating advantage and challenges in the use of the Wolaytta language /Wolayttatto/ in Wolaytta zone governmental organizations as official working language. The study comprises two governmental organizations of Wolaytta zone, namely Culture, Tourism and Governmental communication and Education sector. As a result 24 civil servants from two sectors were selected to participate in the study. Using questionnaire, interview and focus group discussion /FGD/ the required data were collected from the subjects. The collected data were analyzed using quantitative and qualitative methods. The findings show that, the majority of the civil servants did not have awareness of Latin script. The civil servants used Wolayttatto for speaking and Amharic for writing purpose. To this end, they mainly used Amharic for their official purpose. This indicated that the language use in government organization was amalgamated. In addition, lack of executive body to follow up, the negative attitude of some civil servants and also the understanding of some organizational officials in the use of Wolayttatto as official working language in a wrong way were found in the study. However, the civil servants implementation of their mother tongue Wolayttatto for their official purpose was not fruitful. Therefore, the civil servants in Wolaytta zone governmental organizations should be continuously trained in Latin script and using Wolayttatto for official purpose. The concerned government bodies and nongovernmental organizations should work to change negative attitude of some civil servants towards Wolayttato and motivate to participate in the implementation. Key words: Challenges, Prospects, Wolayttato Language, Script, Official language

Electrical Load Evaluation in Igwuruta, Port Harcourt for Improved Distribution []

ABSTRACT: This study of the Electrical Load Evaluation in Igwuruta, Port Harcourt for improved distribution. Electrical load analysis identities potential problems in the distribution network such as energy usage, harmonic inference, unexpected spikes that a visual inspection alone may not identify. The 33KV Old Airport feeders that supply electricity to Igwuruta, Port Harcourt was critically examined in this study. This study used Electrical Transient Analyzer Programme (ETAP) and from the simulation, the existing distribution network had overloading of transformers and low voltage profile. To solve the problems, optimal capacitor bank of 48000KVR were introduced to the entire system network to improve voltage performance and voltage upgrade on the distribution network. The simulation of the improved distribution network shows that the voltage profile has improved with the statutory limit between 95% - 105% and by the penetration of the capacitor bank in the network, the voltage was improved by 18.4% bus 2, bus 3: 18.4% and bus 27: 5.96% and all the transformer were within the normal operating condition.

Technical Efficiency of Smallholder Faba Bean Farmers: The Case of lemu District, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia []

Abstract The study was conducted at Welmera District of West Shewa Zone in 2009/10 cropping season. The objective of the study is to assess productivity, resource use efficiency and cost and return analysis of potato production enterprise in the main and off-seasons. The data was collected from 243 farmers randomly selected from five potential producer kebele Administrations. Descriptive statistics, private profitability method and multiple regressions model were employed in the analysis. The results of analysis have shown that main season potato is much more productive and profitable as demonstrated by higher net returns to land and labor, average yields, gross revenue, net profits and marginal products of inputs. The increment in productivity resulting from the use of improved varieties and practices has been estimated to be 40 quintals per hectare. Generally about 57 % of the farmers were operated at low level of efficiency. This is an indication that there is opportunity to increase potato production by making efficient use of existing resources and technologies. The efforts should be made in terms of technology development and transfer to increase potato production. Keywords: - main season, off-season, productivity, cost, return, farmers, Potato, price and net profit.


Nigeria as state has been facing a myriad of challenges that have impeded disaster and risk management for years now. This situation is further complicated by the dearth or even lack of a comprehensive institutional framework for emergency response system in the country. The interaction between the agencies involved is one in which there is a usual disconnect instead of a joint decision making approach where power is shared and all agencies take up a collective responsibility. During emergencies, the Nigerian government emergency agencies are supposed to solicit support or assistance from other private, civil society organizations and the public, but the current approach being employed is rather tailored towards individual coordination rather than a collaborative or cooperative approach. This paper, therefore, examines the challenges of interagency collaboration on emergency response in the country and implications for national risk preparedness and reduction. The study vividly depicts an overview of the Nigerian situation in relation to emergency response. Though challenges crop up as a result of various hindrances that make the agencies work at cross-roads, among which are: financial constraints, inadequate information on coordination process, politics and others. The paper concludes that given the current situation on in-adequate interagency collaboration in emergency response in Nigeria, there is need to embrace interagency collaboration to enhance emergency response to disasters and risks in our societies. It, however, recommends encouragement of coherent policies; learning from the lived experiences of developed countries; coupling disaster risk reduction with other more salient issues like environmental protection or poverty reduction among others.

Optimal Capacitor Placement in 11kv Distribution Network for Improved Power Quality []

Power Loss and poor voltage profile are the consequences of a distribution system operating at low lagging power factor. The inductive nature of most distribution system and loads are the factors that contribute to low lagging power factor of a power system, which can be improved by injecting leading reactive power through capacitor bank to the power system, to partly or completely neutralize the lagging reactive power. However, to get effective results, capacitor has to be optimally placed in the power system. This research presents an effective way to improve the power quality of a network using Electrical Transient Analyzer Program, with Rivers State University 11kv distribution network as a case study. Three Stages procedures were used. First stage, the distribution network was modelled on Electrical Transient Analyzer Program and a load flow studies was carried out using Newton Raphson Load Flow method on Electrical Transient Analyzer Program, to identify the voltage violated buses of the network. In the second stage, Optimal Capacitor Placement module on Electrical Transient Analyzer Program was used to determine the optimal locations and sizes of the capacitors. The third stage, the compensated distribution network was remodeled and another load flow studies was carried out to revalidate the results. The power factor, the voltage profile and the power losses before and after placement of capacitors was compared for revalidation. It was observed that the power factor improved by 18%, the voltage profile improved by 1.4% and the active power losses reduced by 33.1%.


The present study is conducted to cast light on the main methods and approaches of English Language Teaching and Learning that have been created as an urgent needs to fulfil human being goal to communicate with others , and this urgent needs under multi purpose such as trade , scientific , medical etc . can be the main aims of appearning such theories and methods each with different its own ideaology . Such variety of methods and approaches reflects the linguists objective .The aim of the present study is to concentrate on language teaching and learning process in general with more details and analyses on eclectic approach which is consider as one of the modern and crucial approach and method that required to focus on its characteristics and advantages of using such methods in teaching .Eclectic approach is pioneering one, because of its content of such bleding and mixture of the previous approaches and method according to the lesson objective , and learner's linguistic background that the teachers can choose but they must take to their accounts the correct use of this unique pedagogy.

The effect of Enset management practices on soil fertility (Ensete ventricosunm): The case of Enemorna Ener wereda, Gurage zone, SNNPR. Ethiopia []

The main objectives of the study were to evaluate the practice of enset management practices on soil fertility status of the enset farm plot with soil of the cereal farm and the grazing land use types in Enemorna Ener wereda SNNPR (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region). Data were collected, in the year, 2017, through the use of field observation, interview, focus group discussion, questionnaires interview, PRA (participatory rural appraisal) and laboratory experimentation methods. Soil fertility parameters like total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and organic matter, soil pH, CEC and EC were evaluated to assess the differences in soil fertility caused by variations in the enset crop management systems against the cereal and grazing land use types in similar slope condition. Although, the long term sustainability of enset farming has been affected by population pressure, poor agronomic practices, decline in livestock numbers, the fertility status of the enset farm is in the better stand compared to cereal and grazing land use types. Significant differences (p<0.05) were observed among enset, cereal and grazing land use types in total nitrogen, and pH. Available phosphorus and cataion exchange capacity were also significantly different among the three land use types. Keywords: Enset management, Soil fertility, sustainability


ABSTRACT In Tanzania while some Local Government Authorities (LGAs) collect less than 40 per cent of the generated waste, others have enjoyed more than 70 per cent collection rate. Effective cost recovery through RCCs collection believed to be essential for better waste collection services. However, LGAs differ in modalities of RCCs collection and percentages shared with service providers. The study investigates the impact of these modalities and sharing percentages differences on waste collection performance. To accomplish this, purposeful five (5) LGAs based on their waste collection performance, waste generation rate, administrative hierarchy, time and resource constraints and the funder preference were selected. Questionnaires, non-participant observations, interviews and documentary review used for data collection. Data were analysed using descriptive statistical analysis. The findings show that a shared 20% and 80% of RCCs for LGAs and Service providers respectively to be enough to cover waste collection cost. However, 1 to 3 months delays for the disbursement of the shared percentages threatened the sustainability of service providers and waste collection performance. The study recommends; ring fencing of the collected RCCs; a maximum of two weeks for disbursement of RCCs shares; and decentralization of the collection and expenditure of RCCs to the Ward level. Keywords: Solid Waste; Waste Collection; Solid Waste Management; Refuse collection Charges; Waste collection fees; Dar es Salaam; Dodoma; Moshi; and Tanzania;

Management of Work and Family Life for Improved Service Delivery in Public Senior Secondary Schools in Rivers State []

The study investigated Management of Work and Family Life for Improved Service Delivery in Public Senior Secondary Schools in Rivers State. Two research question and two hypotheses were formulated for the study. Descriptive survey design was used for the study; with a population of 7142 teachers in the senior secondary schools in rivers state. The sample of the population was 378 and was composed of 193 male and 185 female, selected through a stratified random sampling technique. A questionnaire tagged "Work and Family life management scale (WFLMS) was content and face validated and a reliability coefficient of 0.78 was obtained through Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient. Mean, score and standard deviation was used to analyze the research questions, while z-test was used to answer the null hypotheses. It was concluded that the management of work and family is very important as they both play very critical role in the effective of the teacher. It was therefore recommended that the members of the family should understand the role of a teacher in quality education delivery and encourage their family members who are teachers to work towards effectiveness.


In this study, a multi-tank water level controller was developed using the Arduino Nano microcontroller board as the PLC of the system. The use of this PLC allowed for flexibility of control, display and reduction of human inference in operating the system. A hydrostatic pressure based approach was adopted in measuring the volume of liquid in each of the six tanks. Six MPX4115 pressure sensors were used in obtaining the pressure in the tanks. The outputs of these sensors are fed to the analog input of the Arduino Nano (PLC). These inputs are calibrated to a scale of 100% to give the volume of liquid in the tanks. The volume of liquid in each individual tank is used in controlling the supply valve of that tank when filling. When the volume of liquid in a tank is less than 80%, the valve is opened to allow for filling, and closed at 80% full. The volume of each of the six tanks is summed to give the volume of liquid in the entire system. This volume controls the borehole pumping machine. Keywords: Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), Arduino Nano, Multi tank, Water level controller, MPX 4115.


The concept of mixed use has recently become exceedingly popular in recent decades and has gone a long way in enhancing cities, contributed to the growth and sustenance of neighborhoods and has been of great improvements and progress to the urban world as the activities of our everyday urban lifestyle revolves around the needs the mixed use has catered for.furthermore, people living in urban cities experience some difficulties existing without the concept of MUD. This paper would list out some of the importance and basic ideas of MUD. Findings on this paper shows that the mix of uses in MUD plays a vital in the success of eradicating urban sprawls. Housing contributes an important and qualitative benefit to the mix of uses; the residents provide vitality through continuity and variety of presence. The benefits of mixed-use development are numerous from environmental to economic values. Local authority planning boards should embrace the principles of mixed-use and work hard to ensure its enactment. The commitment which fortifies the encouragement of mixed-use is based on the straightforward fact that we enjoy and value mixed-use environments. The significance of this paper is to contribute to the basic idea and understanding of the mixed use development, its importance as well as setbacks.


This paper proposes a method of managing the investment capital budget, using the principles of the Design Science Research methodology, which adapts budgetary management practices and increases synergy with project management, by adjusting the allocation of resources to the constraints and operational risks of business processes. As a result, it encourages flexibility to deal with unforeseen situations, focuses on the strategic perspective, speed of budget management, cost-effective budgeting, value-added to the enterprise, and encouragement for collaboration. The method was tested and analyzed in the present study. Recommendations for future research and development of the same complete the present work.

Electric load evaluation in GRA phase 2, Port Harcourt for improved distribution []

This dissertation is a study about the electric load flow evaluation of power supply to G.R.A, Port Harcourt for improved distribution. Field survey, collection and analysis of data collected. The injection substation that supply electricity to G.R.A, Port Harcourt was the first task in this study. This study used Electric transient simulation and from the simulation, the existing distribution network had low voltage profile problem and overloading of transformers. To address, capacitor banks were introduced at some buses so as to improve voltage upgrade and performance on the distribution network. The simulation of the improved distribution network shows that the voltage profile has improved with the statutory limit of 95% and the loading of the transformers are all below 60%. The method used is fast decoupled load flow method. This decoupling method is fast, very simple and efficient. Its accuracy is comparable to that of Newton- Raqphson method. The research work examined the existing state of the electrical power network at G.R.A. 11KVA distribution network taking its power supply from Golden lily 33/11KV injection substation. The present study state was modeled in electrical transient analyzer (ETAP) with the application of voltage equation, power flow; equation etc for the purpose of investigating system conditions in terms of voltage stability (Weather there is a strong mis-match between nominal declared voltage with regards to IEE regulation and existing operating voltage) in order to enhance system performance. The existing network simulation results revealed that the system is overloaded and there are marginal overload in some of the buses. To avoid system breakdown or collapse that may result sin blackout, it is necessary to ensure that system components such as transformers, cables, feeder line, generator etc are not overloaded beyond its operating capacity. Importantly, the study engaged optimization strategy of improving system overload by determining the optimal size of the capacitor bank required to improve the specific bus overload problem on the network in a view to enhance power quality, voltage profile and power factor. We recommend that Build an injection substation for G.R.A Port Harcourt alone. Have an overload relay to transformer protection than using a fuse which people will wire without following the specification. Undersized cables in the network should be replaced. Integrating capacitor bank compensator where necessary in order to reduce voltage instability problems, electricity cost due to excessive losses. Periodic load flow analysis should be carried out by the electricity distribution company (PHEDC) to ascertain the status of network without over stressing it. company (PHEDC) to ascertain the status of network without over stressing it.


The secondary and tertiary distribution systems of an electric power network are often occasioned with high power losses and low voltage profile. The high power losses could result from technical and non-technical issues. This work investigates the impact of optimally sizing and placing Distributed Generation (DG) in the Ikwerre Road 11KV distribution network for the purpose of enhancing the overall performance of the network by reducing total power losses and enhancing the voltage profile of the network. Necessary data were gathered from Port Harcourt Electricity Distribution Company (PHEDC) and the Adaptive Newton Raphson load flow technique was used to simulate the network in ETAP 12.6 to ascertain the state of the network. Loss Sensitivity Factor (LSF) technique was used to select the optimal buses for DG integration while Particle Swam Optimization (PSO) technique was adopted to optimally size the DG corresponding to each bus. The choice of a gas powered plant as against installation of a photo-voltaic power system was influenced by the availability of materials locally, the urban nature of the research area and the economic feasibility of the project. From the results obtained, total branch loses without DG is 113.668Kw, 64.41Kvar; with DG at optimal bus, the branch losses are 27.046Kw and 16.277Kvar.Voltage at the least bus improved from 0.943pu which is below NERC acceptable limit to 0.992pu; while the maximum voltage is 1.003pu.

Energy Harvesting from Sound Waves Using Piezoelectric Crystals []

It is not possible to continue our way of life without energy. Renewable energy sources are very important in creating clean, cheap and sustainable energy. The sound waves from the noise pollution of our everyday lives are constantly wasted. Thanks to the setup I built in order to collect the ambient noise, I was able to achieve 5 V of minimal but useful energy at an average of 80 dB. The setup that I have built is completely environmental because it produces no waste and requires no activation energy. It transforms the sound waves in the environment into electrical energy using piezoelectric crystals and is also able to store the energy. To convert the energy carried by sound waves to electrical energy through the use of piezoelectric crystals and increasing the voltage values using an amplifier circuit. Hence, producing energy where the decibel of sound is high (classrooms, highways, subway roads, etc.) In this project low current and voltage producing piezoelectric crystals were connected in a parallel circuit which contained a capacitor. Due tot eh existence of the capacitor the values for the current and the voltage have increased. The primary goal of producing usable energy from ambient noise has been achieved and enough energy to charge a phone that works with 1 ampere and 5 volt has been produced. As the sound waves are in the environment 24/7, it does not require sunlight or a certain wind speed unlike the solar plants or the wind turbines. It is able to produce an electric current and voltage even at low volumes of sound. As the amount of the setup is increased the energy that is produced also increases so any equipment or battery that works with electricity can be used with it. This way clean energy can be produced without too much of a cost. Key Words: Piezoelectricity, Sound volume, Renewable energy


PERCEPTION OF UNIVERSITY OF IBADAN POSTGRADUATE STUDENTS ABOUT THE INFLUENCE OF MALE INVOLVEMENT IN PERINATAL CARE ON THE PROMOTION OF MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Male involvement is associated with improved maternal health outcomes in developing countries, but studies have shown that its implementation is poor in Nigeria. Thus, the need to analyse various perceptions about male partner involvement in perinatal care. METHODS: A descriptive study, using a cluster sampling technique to draw the sample for this study. Self-structured questionnaires were used in the collection of data from 240 postgraduates of the University of Ibadan RESULTS: Results from this study portrayed male involvement as the involvement of male partners in joint decision making, provision of financial support, as well as having concern for his reproductive health. The respondents reported that effective male involvement in perinatal care would result in beneficial maternal and child health, as it reduces unhealthy maternal behaviour, provides emotional and financial support, and also ensure better maternal and child health outcomes. Perceived factors that could influence effective implementation of male involvement in perinatal care included long waiting time at the facility, behaviour and approach of the health workers, and the financial or employment status of the man. In this study, there was no significant relationship between gender and the level of knowledge about perinatal care (P-value = 0.890); the relationship between marital status and the perceived concept of male involvement was also not statistically significant (P-value = 0.272). CONCLUSION: These findings suggests that the promotion of effective male involvement in perinatal care will require active involvement of the community members and stakeholders; training of health care providers on communication skills; involvement of the social media; development of supportive national policies; and the use of incentives and disincentives by hospital facilities. Keywords: Male involvement, Perinatal care, Maternal health, Child health, Perception.


ABSTRACT In the midst of a globalized world characterized by deployment of Computer Aided Design (CAD), and the establishment of the new rule by the Architects’ Registration Council of Nigeria (ARCON) stating that all first to third year students of design studios (Architecture and Urban and Regional Planning) in the Faculty of Environmental Sciences must use hand-drafting in the studio and other design based courses. Thus, this study is to ascertain the students’ knowledge of Hand Drawing/Drafting Techniques in design studio courses in the faculty of Environmental Sciences, Rivers State University (RSU) in the departments of Architecture and Urban and Regional Planning. This report carries data and graphical representations of student’s knowledge of Hand Drawing/Drafting Techniques in design studio courses, and a general statement of the Hand Drawing/Drafting Techniques in design studios that was obtained through a structured questionnaires administered to students from second year to fourth and fifth year as the case may be in the 2017/2018 academic session. Data obtained was analyzed using descriptive statistics and result showed that students have barely average knowledge of hand drawing/drafting techniques and it is recommended that hand drawing/drafting be taken more serious in the early stages of the education as to strengthen the students’ knowledge and build a stable solid foundation as they progress. Keywords: Hand Drawing/Drafting, Design Studio, Architecture, Urban and Regional Planning.


Academic performance of the girl child in public primary schools in Turkana County is generally low yet it is acknowledged that an educated girl plays a significant role in society as compared to an educated boy child. The study sought to determine the influence of family background on girls’ academic performance in Kenya Certificate of primary education in Turkwel zone in Loima sub-county in Turkana County. The study was guided by gender relations theory by Pearson. The descriptive research design was used to realize the objectives. The target population included eighteen public primary schools in the zone, 268 class eight girls, 270 BOM members, and 82 teachers. Sampling was done through purposive, probability and non- probability sampling techniques. Research instruments included questionnaires for headteachers, teachers and an interview guide for BOM members. Quantitative data collected from the respondents was cleaned and coded in line with the various variables and prepared for computer analysis by using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) and were presented using mean, frequencies and percentages, pie charts and bar graphs. Finally, the study found out that the family regarding the family's economic status, number of siblings and the structure of the family had an impact on the academic performance of the girl child. It was therefore concluded that a positive attitude towards girls could help to improve the performance of girls The study further recommends that research be done to find out the influence of culture and school administration on the academic performance of the girl child.

Identification of Formaldehyde Content on Salted Fish in Pangandaran Regency []

This research aims to determine the content of formalin on salted fishes sold in several markets in Pangandaran Regency. The research was conducted from November to December 2019 at the Fishery Product Processing Labor-atory of Padjadjaran University. The method used is the survey method and analyzed using the Cochran test with the Chi-Square test and descriptively. The purposive sampling method was used to take samples of salted fish types which included Jambal Roti, Salted Squid, salted anchovy, and Peda salted fish. Samples were tested with formalin Rapid Test Kit made by Labtest Reagent brand, to identify the positive or negative formalin contained in salted fish that sold at several markets in Pangandaran Regency. The samples used were taken from the Kalipucang Regional Government Market, Pananjung Regional Government Market, Cikembulan Market, Parigi Regional Government Market and Cijulang Market. The Cochran test results have shown that the markets which sell salted fish that con-tained formalin, was not significantly different. Based on the results Salted fish indicated by formalin were include jambal roti, salted squid, anchovies, and salted Peda fish. Positive Peda fish contains 65% formalin and 35% negative contains formaldehyde. The test results show that the level of circulation of formalin salted fish is still high in several markets in Pangandaran Regency.

Indigenous knowledge and scientific weather forecast: Implication for climate change adaptation strategies in Dessa’a, Tigray, North Ethiopia []

Indigenous knowledge contributes to climate change adaptation measures for the community. Therefore, this study was aimed to: i) Forecast and characterize climatic variables (maximum temperature, minimum temperature and rainfall), ii) explore indigenous knowledge weather forecast, iii) identify climate change adaptation strategies using analogues method, iv) identify indigenous knowledge of climate change adaptation strategies. The climate modeling RCPs (RCP4.5 and RCP 8.5) were used with three general circulation model (GCMs). The backward analogues method was chosen to identify analogues sites. An informal and formal meeting with key informants, interviews, focus group discussions and direct observation were used. Three hundred fifty (350) households were selected through random sampling. Maximum temperature and minimum temperature of the study area will be increased by 3.870c and 4.270c respectively in future up to 2099. Higher (84mm) and lower (-67) rainfall will be expected in end term and near term respectively. Indigenous knowledge’s of weather forecast at Dessa’a were identified. Backward analogues showed that the climate variables of Dessa’a will be similar with the current climate variables of Ethiopian rift valley at 2050. Therefore, climate change adaptation strategies currently practiced in Ethiopian rift valley can be adopted by Dessa’a as climate change adaptation strategies.


In the midst of a globalized world characterized by deployment of Computer Aided Design (CAD), and the establishment of the new rule by the Architects’ Registration Council of Nigeria (ARCON) stating that all first to third year students of design studios (Architecture and Urban and Regional Planning) in the Faculty of Environmental Sciences must use hand-drafting in the studio and other design based courses. Thus, this study is to ascertain the students’ knowledge of Hand Drawing/Drafting Techniques in design studio courses in the faculty of Environmental Sciences, Rivers State University (RSU) in the departments of Architecture and Urban and Regional Planning. This report carries data and graphical representations of student’s knowledge of Hand Drawing/Drafting Techniques in design studio courses, and a general statement of the Hand Drawing/Drafting Techniques in design studios that was obtained through a structured questionnaires administered to students from second year to fourth and fifth year as the case may be in the 2017/2018 academic session. Data obtained was analyzed using descriptive statistics and result showed that students have barely average knowledge of hand drawing/drafting techniques and it is recommended that hand drawing/drafting be taken more serious in the early stages of the education as to strengthen the students’ knowledge and build a stable solid foundation as they progress. Keywords: Hand Drawing/Drafting, Design Studio, Architecture, Urban and Regional Planning.