Volume 8, Issue 3, March 2020 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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GENDER EQUALITY IN THE OIL MINING SECTOR: AN INTERACTION WITH SOCIO DEMO-GRAPHIC FACTORS IN LOKICHAR, TURKANA KENYA. []


The extraction and processing of minerals presents an opportunity for women’s economic empowerment. The pa-per capitalises on the authors recent study “Change In Gender Roles as a Factor in Gender Participation and Empowerment in The Oil Mining Industry: A Case of Lokichar, Turkana County, Kenya” whose main objective was to establish the changes in gender roles and participation as influenced by oil mining in Lokichar in Turkana County. The gender roles in this case includes reproductive, productive and community management roles. The paper anchors on one of study’s sub-objectives; establishing whether oil mining companies hired men and women equally in Lokichar while interacting with Socio Demographic factors. The target group was the active labour force (direct and indirect) aged between 15 to 64 years. Those actively searching for jobs in the oil industry in the same age bracket were targeted for qualitative data collection. The study adopted both qualitative and quantita-tive approaches to data collection. The data was collected from a sample of three hundred (300) respondents se-lected through systematic random and purposive sampling methods. To complete the survey data, a Focus Group Discussions (FGD) and in-depth interviews were conducted to supplement the questionnaires given to the sam-pled respondents. Systematic Random sampling was employed for household interviews for the respondents filling the questionnaires while the purposive sampling was used to select the main key informants and members of the focus group discussion. Cross tabulation was generated on the responses to show the differences based on the gender and Chi-square used to test the hypotheses and establish whether there were changes in gender roles and empowerment. Major findings indicate there is a difference in hiring of men and women and that gender roles have been transformed as a result of oil mining in Lokichar with interesting dynamics of Socio demographic fac-tors. The findings add to the limited data that is available in the mining industry in Kenya and the existing knowledge on the bridging gender inequality and helping us understand how we cannot only adapt to change but also fully involve women in the mining industry. This explorative study therefore intended to enlighten stakeholders (i.e. government and oil companies) to craft policies in a bid to respond to challenges that might emanate from oil mining and adopt gender-sensitive policies that can help to enhance workforce efficiency and enhance gender equality.


GENDER EMPOWERMENT IN THE OIL MINING SECTOR; A CASE OF LOKICHAR, TURKANA KENYA []


Oil mining presents Africa with a window of opportunity to exploit this resource in development not only improving livelihoods but also empowering gender. This paper reviews a recent study by the author titled Change In Gender Roles As A Factor In Gender Participation And Empowerment In The Oil Mining Industry: A Case Of Lokichar, Turkana County, Kenya together with other various studies in Kenya and other parts of the world on Extractive Industry and argues for the need to increase opportunities for women by ensuring policies relating to the same are developed, enforced and improved over time. Africa is blessed with mineral reserves, presenting a great opportunity for addressing perennial questions of poverty. There is hence a need to capitalize on the opportunities available in this industry for women to realize faster development. The integration of women into the extractive industry has brought many changes more so with regards to policy issues in an industry thought to be male dominated. As it stands, women are disadvantaged due to limited participation and empowerment oppor-tunities.The paper anchors on the authors study general objective that was to establish the changes in gender roles and participation as influenced by oil mining in Lokichar in Turkana County. Specifically, the objective was to establish the extent in which oil mining in Turkana County has contributed to changes in gender equality and eventually gender empowerment. The paper capitalizes on the conflict theory using a feministic approach in gender relations theory. The major findings from the study were that men and women in Lokichar were not aware of laws and policies dealing with gender in the oil mining and that laws and policies on gender empowerment were not upheld. The paper will inform the stakeholders (government and oil companies) to craft policy responses to challenges that may likely emerge from the Extractive Industry in Kenya.


CHEMOSTRATIGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF ASN-1 WELL, UGHELLI DEPOBELT, NIGER DELTA []


ABSTRACT Chemostratigraphy is a valuable tool in the correlation of sedimentary successions based on sensitive changes in concentration of key major, minor and trace elements. Fifteen ditch cutting samples collected within the depth range of 5660ft - 8550ft from well ASN-1, Greater Ughelli depobelt, Niger Delta were analysed for their litho logic and elemental concentration with the aim to investigate depositional environment, source area composition, provenance and the weathering index of the samples. The lithologic description were interpreted from gamma ray well logs and petrographically and their elemental values were analysed using AAS Spectrophotometer. The Lithosection indicates shale and sand units’ indexes inferring maturity and area of deposition, the depositional environment is a transitional zone (fluvial deltaic terrain). The weathering indexes CIA, CIW and PIA values ranges from 1.06 to 41.8, on average indicates low to moderate weathering in the source area with weathering of some sand fraction. Various calculated values of the weathering indices: Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA), Plagioclase Index of Alteration (PIA), Chemical Index of Weathering (CIW) and scatter plots of formulated ratios of Al/Na vs chemical index of alteration (CIA) were plotted to determine the weathering indexes. This also inferred their recycling processes are insignificant. The clay content is low and feldspars are averagely high implying immaturity. Keywords: Depositional environments, immature sediments, PIA, CIW, CIA, AKF, weathering index,


Evaluating the quality of the processes of care and clinical outcomes of premature newborns admitted to NICU Najran []


OBJECTIVES: To develop quality of care (QoC) indicators, evaluate the quality of the processes of care (QPC) and clinical outcomes, and analyze the association between the QPC and severe clinical outcomes of preterm newborns admitted to neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). DESIGN: Mixed methods approach: (1) development of QoC indicators via modified RAND/UCLA method; (2) cross-sectional study of QoC evaluation and (3) multiple logistic regression analysis to ascertain the association between the QPC and severe clinical outcomes. SETTING: Two NICUs belonged to the Ministry of Health Najran city. PARTICIPANTS: About 489 preterm neonates (<37 weeks of gestation) without severe congenital anomalies. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): The QoC indicators; ≥60% of recommended QPC and severe clinical outcomes. RESULTS: The QoC included 10 QPC indicators across four domains: respiratory, nutrition and metabolism, infectious diseases, and screening, and five outcome indicators. The lower QPC indicators were for the nutrition and metabolism domain (17.8% started enteral feeding with human milk, and 20.7% received sodium bicarbonate appropriately). The higher QPC indicator was for the screening domain (97.6% of neonates <30 weeks gestation underwent early (≤14 days) transfontanelar ultrasound). The mean recommended QPC that neonates received was 47.5%. Only 26.6% of neonates received ≥60% of recommended QPC. About 60.7% of neonates developed severe clinical outcomes including mortality and healthcare-related major morbidity. Receiving ≥60% of recommended QPC was associated with a decrease of nearly half of odds of severe clinical outcomes. CONCLUSION: The evaluation of the QoC in NICUs is essential to address modifiable gaps in quality. --


ELECTRIC POWER STABILITY IN BOROKIRI AXIS OF TOWN AREA OF PORT HARCOURT USING CONTINUATION POWER FLOW METHOD []


Electric energy is transmitted from generation points through a complex network of interconnected transmission and distribution system. The secondary and tertiary distribution network are closer to the load centre delivering electricity to consumers. The secondary distribution network is often faced with instability challenges due to the nature of its structure and lesser stability provisions when compared to the transmission network. This study analysis the electric power network for Borokiri Axis of Port Harcourt for improved stability of the distribution network. A comprehensive gathering of essential data about the injection substations that supplies electricity to Borokiri Port Harcourt was the first task in this study. Electric Transient Simulation software (ETAP) was utilised to conduct load flow analysis in accordance with Gauss-Seidel power flow method. From initial simulations, the existing distribution network is marred with low voltage profile problem at Okilopolo network. To improve the distribution network, shunt capacitors were injected into the system to enhance the voltage stability of the network. Further simulations of the improved distribution network show that the voltage profile Nsukka network has improved within the statutory limit which is between 95.0 - 105.0% and the reactive power load at Okilopolo bus 2 increased by 400% from 11.5 MVar to 57.5 MVar.


EVALUATING THE DETERMINISTIC SEIRUS MODEL FOR DISEASE CONTROL IN AN AGE-STRUCTURED POPULATION []


This paper focuses on the development and analysis of the endemic model for disease control in an aged-structured population in Kenya. Upon the model framework development, the model equations were transformed into proportions with rate of change of the different compartments forming the model, thereby reducing the model equations from twelve to ten homogenous ordinary differential equations. The model exhibits two equilibria, the endemic state and the disease-free equilibrium state while successfully achieving a Reproductive Number R_0=0. The deterministic endemic SEIRUS model is analyzed for the existence and stability of the disease-free equilibrium state. Numerical simulations were carried to complement the analytical results in investigating the effect treatment rate and the net transmission rate on recovery for both juvenile and adult sub-population in an age-structured population.


Pre-consolidation pressure using soil index properties []


The study of civil engineering varies from cloud touching skyscrapers to daily use dwellings and commercial places. Roads for transportation purposes to environmental issues, from the study of fluids and their mechanics to different small and big structures such as Dams, canals, houses etc. one of the common and most important factor in these structures is the study of materials upon which the structure is to be constructed which mostly is soil. This is known as Geo-technical engineering. If the proper study of the properties of underlying soil is not taken into account, It may cause damage to the structure which may result in huge material losses to worst case scenario, human deaths or in case of a dam failure may result in extreme worst material and human tragedy, so it is clear that the study of the underlying materials is of vital importance. An important topic of Geo technical engineering is the study of Pre-consolidation pressure. Pre-consolidation pressure is the stress that a particular soil has sustained in the past. The proper knowledge of pre-consolidation pressure helps greatly in construction of a safe and serviceable structure. Various methods have been developed in the past for finding pre-consolidation pressure such as the consolidation test which is the most widely used method. The disadvantage with this method is that it is a very time consuming process plus extreme care should be taken during the whole process. Furthermore it takes place on undisturbed soil which is difficult to obtain. In this project, effort has been made to calculate pre-consolidation pressure, using soil index properties such liquid limit, plastic limit and to develop a correlation between soil index properties and pre-consolidation pressure, one that would give an accurate value of pre-consolidation pressure without taking much time.


Prevalence and Factors associated with Hypertension among People Living with HIV at Kibagabaga District Hospital []


Hypertension is a leading modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease and people living with HIV (PLWH) are at increased risk of hypertension. With the advent of Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection (HIV) and antiretroviral drugs, there has been conflicting reports on their effect on hypertension with some studies associating the two with hypertension. However, data is still scanty especially in Africa as few studies have been done. This study aimed at determining the prevalence and factors associated with hypertension among PLWH at Kibagabaga District Hospital (KDH). A cross-sectional study was done using data from PLWH who attended KDH during this study period of three months. A total of 301 PLWH were selected through systematic random sampling. A detailed semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect primary data while secondary data was collected from their files. SPSS version 22 was used for data analysis; descriptive statistics was used to analysis socio-demographic, lifestyle characteristics of respondents. Bivariate analysis was performed to find out variables associated with hypertension among PLWH, variable with p-value less than 0.05 in bivariate analysis were taken in multivariate analysis to identify factors associated with hypertension among PLWH at KDH. All variables with p-value less than 0.05 in multivariate analysis were considered as factors associated with hypertension. Out of 301 study participants, 47.8% of them were aged 20-49 years old, 54.2% were male, 55.1% had secondary school or above, 31.6% were in social class category two, 26.2% were underweight while 6.0% were overweight. The prevalence of hypertension among PLWH seeking care at KDH was 15.6%. Findings on factors associated with hypertension show that respondents in age bracket of 61 years and above were at high risk of having hypertension [AOR=12.155; 95%CI: 12.155-674.808 ; p<0.001] compared to those aged between 20-49years. Compared with widowed PLWH being single was associated with hypertension [AOR=0.095; 95%CI: 0.012-0.765; p=0.027]. PLWH with primary education were fourteen times more likely to have hypertension [AOR=14.835; 95%CI: 4.092-53.787; p<0.001] compared to those with secondary education and above. Smoking was a risk factor for hypertension among PLWH, findings show that smokers were five times at risk of having hypertension [AOR=4.943; 95%CI: 1.265-19.322; p=0.022] when compared to none smokers. Being physically inactive were associated with higher risk of hypertension among PLWH [AOR=24.408; 95%CI: 7.046-84.548; p<0.001]. Overweight respondents had higher risk of hypertension [AOR=40.622; 95%CI: 6.432-256.563; p<0.001] compared with normal weight status in PLWH. Being obese was also associated with higher risk of hypertension [AOR=5.965; 95%CI: 1.536-23.163; p=0.010] among PLWH seeking care at KDH. This study reveals that most of the independents variables are associated with dependent variable. Ministry of Health, NGOs and Health care providers should increase outreach focusing on health education and promotion targeting the high risk group, including PLWH. Further research should be carried out by mixed research methodology, Ongoing hypertension training efforts can be more effectively planed if they can be adapted to the needs of an individual package and made available in multiple formats to provide maximum accessibility and values, also there should be routine screening of hypertension in PLWH and this will enable early detection, control and treatment of these people.


ADHERENCE TO NATIONAL HEPATITIS B MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES AMONG HEALTHCARE PROVIDERS IN KIGALI HOSPITALS []


ABSTRACT Background-Hepatitis B is a viral infection which attacks the liver and can cause both acute and chronic disease. The estimated number of people living with hepatitis B virus is 257 million people globally. Hepatitis B resulted in 887 000 deaths in 2015, our study comprehensively evaluat-ed adherence to Hepatitis B management guidelines among healthcare pro-viders. Methods- The study is a descriptive research and retrospective cross sectional study design was employed. Convenience sampling was used to select hospitals in Kigali based on high numbers of chronic Hepatitis B patients. Quantitative approach was used. Data was collected from patient files. Results- Findings shows that APRI test was done on 26% and imaging test was done on 32.8%. Adherence to treatment and follow-up findings shows that majority of patients with high ALT, high APRI score were not well managed only 14% and 8% respectively were well managed while HIV-HBV co-infected were 33% that got the right treatment and the follow-up of patients was only on 26%. Multivariate analysis found that health care providers from Masaka had an association with good adherence and experience of health care providers had a an association where those with 1 year of experience were 5 times likely to follow the guideline than those with 6 years. Conclusion- following the guideline is very important in quality of health care therefore, greater efforts to meet physician knowledge gaps, incorporation of decision, support tools, and improved communication among providers are needed.


A Comparative Analysis of Existing Medical Image Denoising Techniques []


Image denoising is very essential preprocessing step in analysis of medical images. Image denoising is the process of reconstructing the image by removing the noise present in the medical images. The challenges associated with removing the noise is increasing day by day as increasing large number of patients. This paper exhibits the current challenges and the existing techniques related to medical image denoising. Denoising is very crucial task as small loss of information can deviate doctors from predicting various diseases accurately. The paper surrounds multiple ways and techniques that had been discussed previously by various designated researchers, authors, and journalists related to Radiography, Medical Resonance Image (MRI) Computed Tomography Images (CT). Paper also shows advantages and limitation of the existing techniques.


Design Optimization of the Combustion Chamber of a Diesel Plant for Power Generation []


Diversification of power generation is an important factor to energize a growing economy of any nation in the world. Thus, diesel engines are one of the most common reciprocating engines for power generation applications. Although, the chemical combustion of diesel and air in the combustion chamber (CC) of the engine due to its long carbon chain produces unburnt gas and air resulting to the production of heavy carbon(IV)oxide (CO2). This concern is the reason of optimizing the CC of diesel engine perhaps with biodiesel as fuel for power generation. The study was carried out in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) interface, while analysis was numerically analyzed with the aid of stoichiometric combustion equations. Results attained attests that excess air addition in the combustion process reduces the production CO2 both gravimetrically and volumetrically from (23.8 – 16.61)%, (18.56 – 12.25)% and (15.56 – 10.91)% respectively. Other results are increase in the air production at the end of the combustion exercise from (0 – 7.05)% and (66.45 - 69.55)% for oxygen gas (O2) and nitrogen (N2) gas respectively. This affirms that biodiesel is a clear substitute of diesel for power generation in diesel engine after optimization of the CC.


Semigroup with the singularity []


We present some results on semigroup with left singular and right singular. We proved theorems for a semigroup S to be regular, normal, left normal, left semi-normal, right semi-regular, left regular and left quasi- normal.


IMPORTANT FACTORS AND PRIORITY DIRECTIONS OF INCREASING COMPETITIVENESS OF EXPORT GOODS OF UZBEKISTAN []


The article examines and analyzes the special factors and opportunities for the formation of competitiveness of export goods of Uzbekistan. At the same time, an assessment is made of a number of indicators (investment in fixed capital, trade openness indicators, also as an example the volume of the GDP of the Russian Federation, which is the main export partner, the real effective exchange rate and costs to trade for each container) that affect the volume of export of the Republic of Uzbekistan. And also, conclusions are drawn by considering intensive and extensive margin of export growth, based on the results obtained.


COVID-19: FROM OUTBREAK TO PANDEMIC []


COVID-19 has been spreading rapidly across the planet, overstretching health services, scaring the world population to levels never seen before, intensified with the shelter confinement caused by the quarantine. Coronavirus is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome, as well as MERS-CoV, and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, (SARS). Covid-19 became the first pandemic of the XXI century. Several countries close their borders and limited civilian circulation in major cities. In this article, we conducted explanatory, multiple method research, within N=4 countries as the unit of analysis. Key findings show that permanent lockdown could bring severe economic and social harm and may not be the only efficient way to handle the pandemic. Discussion and recommendations for future research compile the present study.


DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF RISPERIDONE BUCCAL MUCO ADHESIVE PATCHES []


The buccal region offers an attractive site of administration for systemic drug delivery. Risperidone (dose, 1-10 mg) is an anti-psychotic agent whose bioavailability is 70%. Buccal absorption studies of a risperidone solution in human volunteers showed 26.10% drug absorption in 5 min. FT-IR and UV spectroscopic methods revealed that there was no interaction between risperidone and polymers. Risperidone patches were prepared using HPMC (15 & 47 cps), ethyl cellulose, and PVP. The patches were evaluated for their thickness uniformity, folding endurance, weight uniformity, content uniformity, swelling behaviour, percentage moisture loss, tensile strength, percentage elongation, and surface pH. In vitro release studies of risperidone-loaded patches in phosphate buffer solution (pH, 6.6) exhibited drug release in the range of 35.64 to 72.33% in 30 min. Data of in vitro release from patches were fit to different equations and kinetic models to explain release profiles. Kinetic models used were zero and first-order equations, Hixon-Crowell and Higuchi models. In vivo studies in rabbits showed 80.40% of drug absorption from HPMC patches containing PVP while it was 84.59% within 30 min in human volunteers. Good correlation among in vitro release and in vivo absorption of risperidone was observed. Short-term stability study revealed that drug content decreased in various patches was negligible. Key words: Risperidone; buccal patches; in vitro release; in vivo absorption; evaluation


The effect of Catha Edulis (khat) on blood pressure, pulse rate, and blood glucose concentration, in adult subjects of Arba Minch town, southern Ethiopia. []


Back ground: In Ethiopia khat chewing had deep rooted history as early as fourteenth century and is commonly used for social, religious and recreational purpose. Recently, Khat chewing became a common practice among high school, university students and the young generation. It has been established that khat leaves contain an active psycho stimulant substance known as “cathinone” that is similar in structure and pharmacological activity to amphetamine. Though, several case reports of khat induced psychoactive problems have been published; investigations in Arba Minch city remain limited. Objective: To assess the effect of acute khat chewing and its effect on blood pressure, pulse rate and blood glucose concentration in adult subjects adapted to chewing khat in Arba Minch town, southern Ethiopia. Methods: Comparative cross sectional study using simple random sampling technique was used to select khat chewers and controls. Khat chewers should be above 18 years. More over khat chewers are those who chew khat at least once per week for the preceding 12 months. Data was collected by using structured questionnaire that included variables related to socio-demographic characteristics and clinical conditions of the study individuals. Measurements of pulse rate, blood pressure and blood glucose has undertaken. Data were entered and analyzed using the EPI INFO version 7 and SPSS versions 23 respectively Study was conducted from December 2019 to Feb 2020. Results: Fasting blood sugar level in khat chewers was significantly increased compared to non- chewers (97.2 ±21.7 vs. 88.2±16.8 in users and controls respectively, P=0.000). There was a significant difference in systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) of khat chewers compared to non- chewers (118.0±16.6 vs. 112.0±12.148, 78.8±14.7 vs. 72.9±11.2 and 90.4± 18.4 vs.84.6 ± 15.2 mmHg, respectively, P=0.003, 0.001 and 0.001). The mean pulse rate of khat chewers were increased significantly (P =0.000). A total of 17.1 % study participants were screened for hypertension of which, 12.4 % were khat chewers and 4.7 % were non- chewers. The overall prevalence of hypertension among the chat chewers was 8.6%. A total of 18.6% study participants were screened for tachycardia of which, 13.2 % were khat chewers and 5.4% were non- chewers. And A total of 20.2% study participants were screened for hyperglycemia of which, 14.0% were khat chewers and 6.2 % were non- chewers. Conclusion: Khat chewing induces marked changes in blood pressure which includes development of high SBP, DBP and MAP compared to non- chewers. Khat chewers showed increased heart rate than controls. There was high prevalence of hyperglycemia among Khat chewers than non-chewers.