Volume 8, Issue 2, February 2020 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Design of line Twin and its Implementation []

In this work our main focus will be on designing of digital twin for a physical asset “Line” inside an industry. This concept of line twin is design of an A.S for the line inside the industry. Having this digitized representation of a line inside internet cloud and continuously updating data from the physical asset will be the major goal. The different sub models inside the line twin executing expected functionality from a line inside industry would be focused. For instance as a beginning proof of concept this line twin in this master thesis will be calculating the “Line OEE (Overall equipment efficiency)” based on its connected machines and the underlying infrastructure of machines with the line. So at the internet cloud, we would be able to get the information of product development at the shop floor even and so this could also lead to a better order related acquaintance of the customer. Furthermore, other functionality that is expected from a Line in the industry will also be focused and how the proposed solution can also help us in different organization types will also be highlighted up to some extent. Keywords: Line OEE; digital twin; IoT cloud; AS; OPE

Risk Factors of Nasopharyngeal Pneumococcus Carriage Post PCV-10 Era among Children Attending Gertrude’s Children Hospital, Nairobi []

Pneumococcal infections kill at least one million children under the age of five every year, > 70% of these deaths occurs in low and middle-income countries. Nasopharyngeal colonization begins very soon after birth. While nasopharyngeal colonization may occur naturally even in healthy children, certain risk factors associated with the host and the host’s environment have been demonstrated to have a nexus with quick transmission of the bacteria in a population; a phenomena which is yet to be well profiled among children living in Kenya. We investigated risk factors associated with carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae among children ≤5 years of age attending Gertrude’s Childrens Hospital. Guardians to children diagnosed clinically with pneumococcal disease were approached and requested to fill a consent form. Those who consented to the study were subsequently requested to fill a questionnaire on socio-demographic factors of the study subjects and proposed risk factors associated with nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Carriage was determined on the basis of laboratory recovery of Streptococcus pneumoniae in the collected nasopharyngeal swabs. Logistic regression and odds ratios (OR) were done to establish associations between nasopharyngeal pneumococcus carriage and the proposed risk factors. The risk of nasopharyngeal Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage decreased insignificantly when the subject was female (Odds ratio [OR]: 0.766, 95% CI: 0.388, 1.511, p-value=0.442). Children between the age of 25-36 months (OR: 1.147 (95% I: 483, 2.722) and 37-48 months (OR: 1, 95% CI: 0.286, 3.501) had an insignificant elevated risk of nasopharyngeal Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage. Children whose mothers were non-cigarrate smokers exhibited low odds of carriage (OR: 0.764 (95% CI: 0.077, 7.537; p=0.818). Use of a stove for cooking, consumption of antibiotics two weeks prior to collection of a sample, daycare attendance and house-hold overcrowding insginificantly increased odds of nasopharyngeal Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage at 95% CI. Breast feeding a child ≥4 times a day, reduced exposure to smoke and child’s PCV-10 immunization status were associated with reduced risk of nasopharyngeal Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage at 95% CI. Mothers and caregivers should ensure that children are: adequately breastfed not exposed to both active and passive smoke and fully immunized with PCV-10. Keywords: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Nasopharyngeal Carriage, PCV-10, Children, Age, Smoke, Breast-feeding


Geological assessment of the quadrant covering 08019`24``N, 08021`06``N to 004 02`40``E 004004`46``E, Northwest of Ogbomosho was carried out in order to provide baseline information for either mineral exploration or environmental management or policy making. To achieve this, eight (8) composited soil samples were collected and analyzed for physicochemical parameters in EMS laboratory using standard methods and also for elemental composition at the Activation laboratory in Canada using the method of Inductive Couple Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results obtained indicated a pH range of 7.5 and 8.5 for Tewure Iju soils and 6.20 and 9.30 for Elesun Aiyetoro soil samples thereby precluding that the soils of these areas are majorly basic except for the top soil Elesun Aiyetoro which is slightly acidic. The result also indicated EC range of 110us/cm and 220us/cm for Tewure Iju soils and 130us/cm and 200us/cm for Elesun Aiyetoro soils. These low EC indicates that the soils are found within the geologic material. The OC range of Tewure Iju soils are 0.77% - 5.72% while that of Elesun Aiyetoro soils are 2.32% - 7.57%. The OM also ranges from 1.34% - 9.95% for Tewure Iju soils and 4.03% - 13.17% for Elesun Aiyetoro soils. These low percentages of OC and OM indicate that the geological materials have low tendency of capturing carbon which foster the formation of organic matter. The particle size of the study areas is not well distributed because sand is well above clay and silt in percentage. For Tewure Iju soils, sand has a percentage range of 56.8% and 67.6%, silt has a percentage range of 7.2% and 21.6%, clay has a range of 14.4% and 25.2% while for Elesun Aiyetoro soils sand has a percentage range of 67.20% and 74.80%, silt has a percentage range of 10.80% and 18.00%, clay has a percentage range of 10.80% and 14.80%. Similarly the Elemental Composition of Tewure Iju and Elesun Aiyetoro soils comprise majorly of manganese (Mn) and barium (Ba). The Mn and Ba composition of Tewure Iju soils ranges from 57.00-357.00 ppm and 59.20-64.30ppm respectively while that of Elesun Aiyetoro soils ranges from 93.00-550.00ppm and 31.90-123.00ppm. The high composition of Mn and Ba indicates that they tend to settle within shorter period of deposition. Statistical analyses of the generated data indicates that Manganese with the highest mean and standard deviation values is the most distributed element among the soils and sediment of the study areas while Mo with the lowest mean and standard deviation values is the least distributed soils of the study area. The presence of some these elements may constitute risk to the health of plants, animals, and humans in the study areas due to their relatively high concentration.

Farmers Perception on the Effect of Crude Oil Spillage on Agricultural Farmland in Etche Local Government Area, Rivers State. Nigeria []

Abstract The study investigated ‘farmers’ perception on the effect of crude oil spillage on agricultural farmland in Etche Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. Four objectives guided the study. The design of the study was a descriptive survey with a sample size of 100 respondents’ selected using random sampling technique. The instrument for data collection was four point rating scale of agreement. The instrument was validated by experts and reliability coefficient of 0.80 was established using test re-test technique. Data collected were analyzed descriptively using percentage and mean, with a criterion mean of 2.5 as the cut-off mark for acceptance. The study found out that oil bunkering, oil siphoning, tanker accident, oil pipe vandalization, illegal dumping amongst others are some of the causes of oil spillage, secondly unavailability of nutrients in the soil, change in soil nutrient, reduction in the firmness of agricultural farmland, stunted growth of crops, reduction in the yield of agricultural farm land, amongst others are the effects of crude oil spillage on crop land. Also release of poisonous (harmful substances) to fishing rivers, pollution of fishing rivers, death of aquatic plants and animals, reduction in availability of oxygen for aquatic organism amongst others are some of the effects of crude oil spillage on fishing rivers and finally introduction of biological agents to the spill to hasten biodegradation, use of dispersants to break up the soil, reduction of activities of militants, oil vandalization, oil bunkering are some of the remedies to oil spillage in agricultural farmland in Etche. Key words; Farmers perception, crude oil, spillage and agricultural farmland


Beach seine are considered to have contributed to the decline in the condition of fisheries resources in Pangandaran, especially demersal fish. Therefore, rational management is needed so that its utilization can be sustainable and sustainable. The purpose of this research is to analyze the demersal fish species diversity data based on the swept area of the trawl fishing gear which operated in Pangandaran, West Java as a baseline for sustainable and eco-friendly fisheries management. The research was carried out starting in August 2018-July 2019 on the East Coast of Pangandaran. Sampling was conducted at 3 stations with 3 replications. The method used in this research was a survey method and was analyzed descriptively quantitatively by calculating species diversity index, similarity index, swept area, catch rate, and stock density. The main catches of beach trawl fishing gear in Pangandaran consist of (Trichiurus spp) with an average of 172 fish and (Pampus argentus) with an average of 99 fish. The bycatch was 7 species of fish with a total average of 1.990 fish. The results showed that the demersal fish resources captured by trawlers in Pangandaran Regency were in the low to moderate level of diversity and had a low level of species diversity consisting of 9 species, with the most dominant family being the family Leiognathidae. The seine trawler in Pangandaran has a catch rate with an average of 31.05 km / h and stock density with an average of 453.15 kg / km2.

Planning and Designing an Ideal Community Center: A Response to Rural Conditions []

Community centers are very common facilities in different parts of the world especially in rural settings. They play an important role in communities where they are, the most important being places for social interaction. This research paper looks at how the rural setting where such centers are situated affects the planning and design thereof. This accounts for the uniqueness and variation of community centers the world over, as no two communities are the same. A review of literatures on community centers show no specifics on designing a typical center. However, there are general insights on design-responsive methods in planning and designing a community center. Some of these methods involve surveys, interviews and general study of the culture and demography of the community. Information gotten from these methods can provide a complex framework needed in the design. The idea is to create a common space for the community that meets the need of the indigenes.

Effects of Conditioning on the Proximate/Chemical Composition of Tiger Nut Milk. []

Tiger nut tubers (cyperus esculeatus L) were processed into tiger nut milk and analysed for its proximate and chemical composition. There were six samples labelled A, B, C, D and E. Samples were soaked for 6 hours, 12, 18, and 24 hours for A, B, D, and E respectively. Sample C was not soaked and used as a control. Analysis were carried out for moisture content, fat, protein, crude fibre, total soluble solids, pH and titratable acidity .The result revealed a pH of between 5.95- 6.45% and total soluble solids of between 8.75- 10.30% for all the samples. The ash content decreased with soaking time, valued at 0.49%, 0.45%, 0.41% 0.38% for samples A, B, D, and E respectively. Furthermore, the result also revealed that protein, fat and crude fibre increased with soaking time valued at 4.2%, 4.3%, 4.5% and 4.6% protein for samples A, B, D and E respectively while fat was valued at 28.0%, 28.5%, 29.5% and 30.7% for samples A, B, D and E respectively. The result also showed that all the samples contained reasonable amount of Vitamin C with values of 16.8%, 10.3% 18.7%, 16.0% and 15.5% for samples A, B, C, D and E respectively. It was clearly shown that milk from non- soaked tiger nut has highest Vitamin C, ash and low protein, fat and crude fibre.


In recent times, the generation of data has changed from the simple data format that can be analysed and classified by the traditional method of Structured Query Language (SQL) or Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) to a more complex and massive formats that are generated in a very high speed. This new form of data collection is known as Big Data. Machine Learning which is defined as a computer field that uses statistical methods to give computer system the ability to learn with data without being explicitly programmed is one of the new methods proven to handle big data management and classification. In this research work, we explored the powers of supervised machine learning algorithms like Naïve Bayes, Support Vector and Neural Network to classify big data contents obtained from the Online Social Media platform. The methodology used is the prototype approach while JAVA and WEKA were used as the programming language and machine learning tool-kit respectively. Considering the results from the performance metrics like Accuracy, Precision, Recall Rate and F- Measure, it was observed that Neural Network has a better performance when compared with Naïve Bayes and Support Vector.


This paper investigates the impact of ethnic sentiment and cultural difference in the cause of ensuring good governance and sustainable development especially in a case of Nigeria where such action has been bastardized and has now become normal social life. Ethnic sentiment does not arise in its self but is assumed to be precipitated by various factors. It is a common social phenomenon common in every hitherto existing society. And this have had lots of negative effects on many developed and developing nations. So this by implication means it is a social ill that blows or brings about a disappointing atmosphere that is not conducive for social development. The main objective of this paper is to examine the impact ethnic sentiment/cultural differences have on governance; sustainable development and how the people of Nigeria are and can deal with it. The study adopted the conflict theory by attempting to explain the significance and uniqueness of it as functional in the varying culture and how if properly harnessed would help foster development in Nigeria. The position of this paper is that people are ignorant, fundamental and lost focus of African philosophy of respect to another value. The study, therefore, recommends that greater attention from policymakers should be channeled towards orientation and sensitization, and also has respect for the rule of law that governs the land Nigeria, such that any offender must be brought to face the law, no matter his social status in Nigeria.


On April 12th, 1936, the São Paulo state government inaugurated the São Paulo Airport, later named São Paulo-Congonhas Airport (CGH), the second busiest Brazilian airport, to date. Despite its popularity, CGH faced the worst and deadliest aviation accident in Brazilian territory: on July 17th, 2007: the Airbus A320- TAM airline flight 3054, operating from Porto Alegre to São Paulo–Congonhas overran the runway while landing at Congonhas, and crashed against a TAM Express warehouse. In total, N= 187 passengers and crew and 12 on the ground people died. In this article, the ten principal airports in Brazil were investigated, highlighting CGH activity. Key findings pointed to the need for improving the quality of services within the Brazilian airports. Analysis and discussion comprise the present study.

Job Enrichment and Employee Commitment in the Telecommunication Firms in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria []

This article examined job enrichment and employee commitment in four (4) selected telecommunication firms in Port Harcourt. The hypotheses were stated in the null form. The study adopted Cross- sectional Survey Method, while the Theoretical Frame work was drawn from the Job Characteristic Theory. The Primary data were collected using Self-administered Questionnaire. A total of 306 employees gotten from the four (4) Telecommunication Firms formed or constituted the study population. The sample size of 173 was generated using Taro Yamene Formula. The sample subjects were obtained using the Simple Random Sampling Technique. Spearman’s Rank Order Correlation Coefficient was used with the help of Statistical Package for Social Science (21.0) to analyse the hypothetical statements. The research findings revealed positive and significant relationships between Job enrichment and all the measures of employee commitment. As result, it was commended that employers should reiterate on Job enrichment practices that allow for more Job enriching processes that will expose them to greater opportunities. This will help curb employee turnover, absenteeism, boredom, and the likes, bedevilling Telecommunication firms in the State and the Country at large.

Self-Management and Organizational Effectiveness of Deposit Money Banks in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria []

The purpose of the study is to determine the relationship between self-management and organizational effectiveness of Deposit Money Banks in Port Harcourt. The study adopted a cross-sectional survey in its investigation of the variables. Primary data was generated through self- administered questionnaire. The population comprised of 62 staff of 10 selected banks in Port Harcourt. The reliability of the instrument was achieved by the use of the Cronbach Alpha coefficient with all the items scoring above 0.70. The hypotheses were tested using the Spearman’s Rank Order Correlation Coefficient with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences. The tests were carried out at a 95% confidence interval and a 0.05 level of significance. The study found that there is a significant relationship between self-management and organizational effectiveness of Deposit Money Banks in Port Harcourt. The study concludes that leader’s self-management bears a positive and a significant influence on organizational effectiveness of Deposit Money Banks in Port Harcourt. The study recommends that deposit money banks need to inculcate in managers the competency of self- management. This is because when managers are conscious of their emotions, they will be more efficient in handling employees and clients/ customers’ of the organization.

Review on Effect of Area Closure on the Rehabilitation of Degraded Hillside land of Ethiopia []

Land degradation is one of the main problems in Sub-Saharan Africa, threatening the lives of millions of people. It is becoming a major ecological and agricultural problem in Ethiopia. Reviewing the Effect of Area Closure on the Rehabilitation of Degraded Hillside land of Ethiopia is essential for addressing the proper land use and land management. In Ethiopia Land degradation is very serious especially on the hillsides land of the country which result decrease in Agricultural productivity on which the countries development depends on. To overcome this problem area closure is the major practice to improve species diversity, soil quality and ecosystem productivity for ecological rehabilitation and preservation by enhancing the diversity of ground cover; improving productivity by protecting soil from erosion; improving livelihood of the community and it also has other social; economic and political input value. This indicating that a need for application of integrated natural resource management in sustainable manner to optimize and maintain the soil physicochemical properties. In general, degraded land rehabilitation by grass different plant species resulted in significant contribution to improve species diversity, soil quality and ecosystem productivity for ecological rehabilitation of the area. Keywords: Rehabilitation, Degraded land, Hillside, Species


ABSRACT Health is the basis upon which wealth can be created and the created wealth is as a result of human productivity in several aspects of a country’s economy. Construction and construction management is a vital part of an economy and it is inevitable because of its importance to human lives and safety. However, construction is found to be one of the most dangerous on health criteria, particularly in Nigeria. This paper determines the importance of integrating and improving health and safety standards within construction project management in Nigeria, investigates the extent health and safety influences the construction project performance, creates a model that will assist construction project organizations to assess the possible outcomes of their health level. The possible health challenges in the construction site were identified and survey was carried out on few construction sites in Port Harcourt and it was observed that the site workers experienced low back pain, Stress, Dizziness, Migraine amongst others. Hence, the use of PPEs and frequent medical checks are being advised to be adhered to.

Assessment of Farming/Production Technologies Level Covered by Agricultural Development Programmes on soybean production in Zamfara state Nigeria. []

Abstract The study assessed the Level of Farming/Production Technologies by Agricultural Development Programmes on soybean production in Zamfara state Nigeria. Interview schedules were administered to 600 respondents which were analyzed by the use of descriptive statistics (frequencies and percentages). The study revealed that majority of the respondents participating and non-participating farmers 31.6% and 30.4% used certified seeds, 24.0%, and 5.6% used early maturing varieties, and 27.6%, and 32.4% while 36.6%, and 16.4% in the study area were found to cultivated local variety soybean. It was also revealed that 0ver 90% of the farmers used or practice ZACAREP improved farming practice such as seed treatment, planting date, cropping system planting method, spacing, weed control, fertilizer application, type of fertilizer used and time of application. The study suggests farmers to begin manage their farms and activities for value addition as commercial businesses, striving to achieve increased competitiveness through technological innovation.

Comparative growth performance of exotic chickens under intensive management conditions in Southwest Ethiopia []

In Ethiopia, the expansion of commercial poultry production is limited by inadequate supply of high performing breeds of chicken. This situation warrants the identification, introduction and evaluation of improved breeds of chicken that could adapt and perform under the current Ethiopian situation. One hundred fifty of each of Dominant Sussex, Lohman Brown and Novo Brown breed of day-old chicks obtained from Debre Zeit Research Station was placed at Jucavm brooder house on standard commercial starter’s ration in completely randomized design with three replicates. At the end of the brooding period, each group was transferred to grower’s house and switched to standard growers at an age of 8 weeks. Finally, all the data collected on performance of the experimental breeds of chickens were subjected to statistical analysis. The results obtained showed that the mean hatching weight of Novo Brown and Dominant Sussex were comparable and significantly higher than that of Lohman Brown (P<0.05). All the three breeds of chicken tested performed well in mean hatching weight, when rated against other exotic breeds introduced to Ethiopia in the past. The mean daily body weight gain recorded from Nova Brown and Dominant Sussex breeds of chicks during brooding period were comparable and significantly higher (P<0.05) than the mean daily body weight gain recorded from Lohman Brown. Mean live weight of 573g/h was attained by Nova Brown and Dominant Sussex chicks at an age of two months, the value of which was significantly (P<0.05) higher than that of Lohman Brown. Moreover, Novo Brown growers had significantly higher mean weekly body weight gain than the other two breeds (P < 0.05), followed by Dominant Sussex. All the three breeds tested, performed better during the brooding period than during the rearing period in terms of feed conversion ratio. Nova Brown breed of chicks consumed less feed and brought significantly higher mean daily body weight gain both during brooding and rearing periods (P<0.05) compared to the others, indicating that Nova Brown was superior to the other two breeds in feed conversion efficiency. Mortality from hatching to 2 months of age (8%) was higher for Dominant Sussex, compared to 1.3% of mortality recorded from each of the other two breeds. Death rate encountered during the rearing period followed similar tendency as that of brooding period. Percent mortality from 9 to 20 weeks of age (21%) was higher for Dominant Sussex than for the other two breeds (3-4%). Postmortem examination of dead birds failed to identify any particular disease condition, indicating that the relatively higher mortality recorded from Dominant Sussex could be attributed to susceptibility to stress and environmental factors. In summary, the results of this experiment indicated that the three breed of chicken have well performed (except the adaptive potential of Dominant Sussex chickens) under Jimma condition in most of the economically important production traits studied. However, comparative evaluation of the reproductive performance of the three breeds seems to be the future direction of research under objective condition of Jimma.

Impact of Imidacloprid on Insectpests on citrus fruit and deciduous fruit trees in National Centre for Fruit Development, Kirtipur, Nepal []

Impact of Imidacloprid on Insect pests on citrus fruit and deciduous fruit trees in National Centre for Fruit Development, Kirtipur, Nepal Bhumika Acharya, Meena Saru, Bhupendra Devkota* All over Nepal, deciduous fruits and citrus fruits have higher productivity economic value. However, the yield of these crops has declined significantly and pest infection is one of the causes. In this study, insects had been collected and identified as beneficial and harmful from five species of deciduous trees that include Apple, Peach, Pear, Japanese Guava, and Plum. Furthermore, identification of insects has also been studied in six other species of citrus trees including Mandarin Orange, Trifoliate Orange, Pomelo, Kumquat, Sweet Orange, and Kaffir Lime at the National Centre for Fruit Development. Before the uses of insecticides, 26 species of insects from deciduous trees and 30 insect species from citrus trees have been collected. When the same tree species were introduced with Imidacloprid insecticide and water in the ratio of 1:1000 ml, 13 insects in deciduous trees and 16 insects in citrus trees were collected after use of 30 days. In both types of trees, there were fewer numbers of beneficial and harmful insects that have been noticed, which implies that imidacloprid greatly impacted the survival of both pollinators or other beneficial insects and pests. High impacts had been observed in Citrus limotta, as a smaller number of beneficial insects captured in comparison to the deciduous fruits tree. Ladybug beetle (Family: Coccinellidae), hoverflies (Family: Syrphidae) and Ant (Family: Formicidae) were some of the beneficial insects captured along with some scale and vector insects (Family: Chloropidae, Muscidae, Chloropidae, and Pipanculidae). Also, both the deciduous and citrus fruit showed a significant association between Imadacloprd and insects, with a p-value of 0.3039 and 0.4752 respectively.

THE EFFECT OF THE CHROMATOGRAPHIC FRACTIONS OF Abrus precatorius LEAF ON THE BIOCHEMICAL MARKERS (Alanine Transferase (ALT), Alanine Phosphate (ALP) and Aspartame Transferase (AST)) USING FEMALE WISTAR RATS []

ABSTACT This study aims to determine the effects of chromatographic fractions of Abrus precatorius extracts on the Biochemical markers, ALT, AST and ALP. One hundred and ten Wistar rats were divided into twenty-two (22) groups of five rats each. All the rats were weighed before and during the experiment. Group 1 (Control) received 0.5mls, Phosphate Buffer Solution (PBS); Group 3-7. received 30mg/kg, 60mg/kg, 90mg/kg, 120mg/kg and 150mg/kg of F1. Group 8-12 received 30mg/kg, 60mg/kg, 90mg/kg,120mg/kg and 150mg/k of F2. Group13-17 received 30mg/kg,60mg/kg,90mg/kg,120mg/kg and 150mg/kg of F3 and Group 18-22 received 30mg/kg, 60mg/kg,90mg/kg,120mg/kg and 150mg/kg of F4 respectively. The fractions/drugs were administered orally. The rats were treated with chromatographic fractions of A. precatorius, F1, F2, F3 and F4 (30mg/kg, 60mg/kg,90mg/kg, 120mg/kg and 150mg/kg) for 28 days. Some Liver enzymes such as Alanine Transferase (ALT) , Alanine Phosphate (ALP) and Aspartame Transferase (AST) were also studied to evaluate the effect of Abrus precatorius fractions on liver functions. The study revealed that there were no elevated liver enzymes and this invariably means that the chromatographic fractions of A. precatorius leaf did not cause any damage/defect to liver cells.


The inclusiveness of climate change studies into Nigerian secondary school curriculum especially in agricultural science can be a veritable tool for a sustainable national environmental development in Nigeria. This creates a synergy between environment, society, and economy in a way that meets the need of the present generation without jeopardizing the needs of future generations. National Policy on Education engenders knowledge, skill and wellbeing of citizens for national development. Youths as the future of any nations economy, definitely are its future of production activities. There should be deliberate effort to re- direct their production prowess towards climate change conservation concerns. Political will, legislation and international and national campaigns and orientations are not sufficient in providing a sustainable solution to climate change. This paper is an attempt to proffer augmenting solution to other available approaches for the conservation of the Nigerian environment. This work considers the concept of global climate change, its effects to the global economy, human health and the environment, constraint to our local geography. Keywords: Climate Change, Secondary School, Agricultural Science, curriculum, political will, National Policy on Education.


ABSTRACT Leachate from solid waste dumpsite has become a great treat to the quality of groundwater in recent times due to its large production and poor disposal management. The evaluation of groundwater quality is very important due to the fact that most people in towns and cities depend on groundwater for their drinking water. In this study, the quality of groundwater in Gashua was evaluated using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS). The results obtained reveals that some heavy metals such as Cadmium, Chromium, Lead and Arsenic are available in the groundwater in an unacceptable proportions which constitute health hazards. One dimensional advective-dispersive model was used to evaluate the migration of the contaminants from the dumpsite into the aquifer. Lead was used as a tracer to estimate the extent of the migration of the contaminant in both space and time because of its availability in most solid waste dumpsites. The modelling results showed that the concentration of the contaminants drops fast as the distance from the dumpsite increases, but the longitudinal and transverse advection and dispersion of the contaminants will increase with time. The field results also showed that the (safe drinking) distance at which lead concentration is less than 0.01mg/L is 570m from the solid waste dumpsite. Therefore, water from boreholes situated at distances greater than 570m away from the solid waste dumpsite is safe for drinking base on both the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) and World Health Organization (WHO) standards. Keywords: Leachate, contaminant, dumpsite, metal, advection and dispersion.

Stakeholders Consultation for Secondary Educational Goals Achievement in Public Schools in Rivers State []

The study investigated stakeholder’s consultation for secondary educational goals achievement in public schools in Rivers State. Two research questions and one hypothesis was formulated to guide the study. The survey design was adopted and the population of the study was 554 principals present in the senior and junior secondary schools in the 23 local government areas in Rivers State. The sample of the population was sample of 231 which constitutes 41% of the entire population was determined through Taro Yamene formulae. Among the sample, 96 (42%) were male and 135 (58%) were female. A questionnaire item captioned "Stakeholders Consultation for Secondary Educational Goals Achievement Questionnaire (SCSEGAQ)" was designed and was content and face validated. The reliability coefficient was 0.72 determined through Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (PPMCC). Mean score and standard deviation was used to answer the research questions, while z-test was used to analyze the hypotheses. It was revealed that stakeholders collaboration with principals influence the school by participating in management decisions, creating platforms that enables school meet its needs, continuous review of school decisions to know if it represents common value, maintaining the boundaries between the school and its stakeholders. The study concluded that are certain roles that the stakeholders must play to enhance the secondary educational objectives and thus recommended that the principal should find out from the various agencies that regulate secondary education, the extent to which stakeholders can be consulted in management and decisions in the school.


The study investigated the relationship between principals’ managerial role and teachers’ job performance in Ekiti State Secondary Schools. The study examined the level of principals’ managerial role and teachers’ job performance. The study adopted a descriptive research design of the survey type. The population of the study consisted of all the 7,538 teachers and 203 principals in the public secondary schools in Ekiti State. The sample for this study consisted of 48 principals and 480 teachers selected from 48 public secondary schools using multistage sampling procedure. Two self-designed questionnaire tagged “Principal Managerial Roles Questionnaire (PMRQ)” and “Teachers’ Job Performance Questionnaire (TJPQ)” were used to collect relevant data for the study. The face and content validity of the instruments were determined by experts in Educational Management. The reliability of the instrument was determined using the test retest method. A co-efficient value of 0.81 was obtained for PMRQ while 0.80 was obtained for TJPQ. The data collected were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. All the hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The study revealed that the level of principals’ managerial roles and teachers’ job performance in secondary schools in Ekiti State was moderate. The findings further revealed that there was significant relationship between principals’ managerial role and teachers’ job performance in public secondary schools in Ekiti State. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended among others that leadership training programmes should be designed for principals, to enable them gain in-depth knowledge and understanding of human relations strategies. It was also recommended that workshops, seminars, and in-service training should be periodically organized for teachers to bring about improvement on teachers job performance in Ekiti State

Fourth year pharmacy students and pharmacy graduates' ability to identify potential drug-drug interaction in Benghazi, Libya []

Abstract: Objective: This study aims to evaluate and compare the ability of fourth-year pharmacy students and graduated pharmacists to identify clinically significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) Methods: A questionnaire designed to measure DDI knowledge was distributed to both fourth-year pharmacy students (n = 89) in a school of pharmacy and graduated pharmacists(n=65) in community pharmacies and hospitals. Results: The question that examine the ability of respondents to recognize the DDI mechanisms, showed that (38.2%) of 4th- year students selected the right responses, while (48.5%) of pharmacy graduates selected the correct one. However, the knowledge of respondents regarding drug pairs interactions showed that 4th- year pharmacy students and graduates correctly categorized an average of 32.99% and 25.125% of DDI pairs respectively. In a question that examined the knowledge of 4th-year pharmacy students and graduates concerning drugs with low therapeutic index interactions with two groups of drugs, the correct answers regarding increasing digoxin serum level were (62.9% and 87.9%) respectively, while the correct answers regarding increasing warfarin serum level were (66.3% and 86%) respectively. Conclusion: Pharmacy students’ ability to identify important DDIs is generally poor except that for interactions of drugs with low therapeutic index. However, of the 4 interactions categorized as contraindicated, the students showed better significant responses in compare to graduates. However, this finding does not showed any significant difference between 4th-year pharmacy students and pharmacy graduate regarding identifying drugs pairs that may be used together with monitoring or categorized as safe.

Layered model of the world: A new model for explaining astronomical phenomena []

It is assumed that of four main forces ruling the world around us, it is only Newtonian gravity force that due to the lack of adjacent repulsion force, determines the behavior of celestial bodies. In such circumstances, the nature of many astronomical phenomena, such as neutron star, black hole and dark matter and dark energy and other phenomena related to such celestial bodies are a mystery. It seems that the models are needed to illustrate how these phenomena form and what they are. In the presented model, it is assumed that there are three stages of collapse, in each of them, at first due to the pressure of gravity applied to celestial body (due to the mass accumulation), one of the repulsions is driven out of space. As a result the sum of Newtonian gravity and the gravity left of the collapse force increases the density and changes the physical relations governing the collapsed part (in this model called “layer”). As a result of successive collapses in each stage, neutron star, black hole and black matter may be formed respectively that this formation can be stable or unstable. This model is also included the interpretation of the nature of some unknown astronomical phenomena such as Magnetar, pulsars, gamma rays, dark matter and dark energy.