Volume 9, Issue 10, October 2021 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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ABSTRACT This study aimed to find out the bachelor’s degree of trainees and its relevance to Public Safety Basic Recruit Course. Specifically, the study sought to find out the profile of the respondents, the relevance of the respondents’ bachelor’s degree to the areas of Public Safety Basic Recruit Course and the suggestions and recommendation to improve the Public Safety Basic Recruit Course. The study used the descriptive study design in order to get the needed data to find out the relevance of bachelor’s degree to the contents of the Public Safety Basic Recruit Course. The study was conducted at ARMM Training Center situated at Camp Brigadier General Salipada K Pendatun, Parang, Maguindanao. The respondents of the study are the participants of Public Safety Basic Recruit Course Class Number ARMMTC 2016-02. A simple random sampling was used to get the total sample of 166. A self-made questionnaire was used to gather the important data. The data collected were analysed quantitatively with the use of Statistical Package for Social Science or SPSS version 2.0. Figures and tables were used to present and discuss the result of the findings of the study. From the total of 166 copies of questionnaire which were distributed all were retrieved. Findings showed that majority age group belongs to age that ranges from 21 – 25 years old with 66 per cent. Of the total number of respondents, 67 per cent were male and majority of them were single comprising the 90 per cent of the total respondents. Majority of the respondents were graduates of Bachelor of Science in Criminology with 63 per cent and belongs to Tausug tribe. On the relevance of bachelors’ degree to Public Safety Basic Recruit Course, taking into consideration the different subjects in each modules from general subjects, values and ethics, effective communication, laws and jurisprudence, law enforcement operation, internal security operation and community immersion program, results yielded a “very relevant” response from the respondents with the weighted mean of 3.54 and standard deviation of .84 which is described as “very relevant” to the Bachelors’ Degree to Public Safety Basic Recruit Course (PSBRC). Various suggestions and recommendations surfaced to improve the course. Coping to the physical and mental demands of training, maximizing available resources like books, journals and other reference materials and use of audio visual/multi-media presentation to ensure easy comprehension and creative visualization, utilizing the use of forensic laboratory for in depth familiarization, allocating enough study periods during the course of training, the actual performance of rope course, periodic appraisal of instructors performance to monitor teaching efficiency and effectiveness and persistent motivation thru pep talks to trainees to become good citizen are the prepositions of the respondents to further improve the Public Safety Basic Recruit Course. The study confirmed that majority of the members of the Philippine National Police Class 2016-02 were males, belonging to Tausug tribe, still single and graduates of Bachelor of Science in Criminology. Considering the relevance of the Bachelor’s degree to the Public Safety Basic Recruit Course, all subjects in the program of instruction designed for new police entrants were described as “very relevant”. Suggestions and recommendations were also made to improve the course. KEYWORDS: Public Safety Basic Recruit Course, ARMM Training Centre, Tausug tribe, Parang, Maguindanao

A critiqued Article Entitled: “The Principals’ Leadership Style and Staff Job Performance in Selected Secondary Schools in Emohua Local Government Area of River State, Nigeria” []

Abstract The present paper offers a critical review of the article published under the title of “Principals’ Leadership Style and Staff Job Performance in Selected Secondary Schools in Emohua Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria”. The reviewed article aimed at examining the schools leadership styles of the Selected Secondary Schools. Mixed research design was employed to meet its objective. Questionnaire, interview and document review were employed as instruments of data collection. Hence, the reviewer followed theoretical, epistemological and methodological approaches for mixed research; to critically appraise the article. Accordingly, though the article was written in line with quantitative and qualitative research approach, it had some limitations that lessen its empirical power.

Conservation challenges of Gamataja Community forest, in Goba district, Bale zone, Oromia regional state, southeast of Ethiopia []

ABSTRACT Conservation challenges of Gamataja Community forest was studied in Goba district, southeast of Ethiopia. The community forest is owned by three villages namely Gamma, Shifario and Lashkona which are collectively named as Ititusura kebele, which was purposefully selected due to the presence of high conservation challenges. The conservation challenge data were collected using questioners, interviews and focus group discussion. Firewood collection, House making, settlement, lack of coordination between stakeholders were the main conservation challenges in the Gamataja community forest. Key words: - Conservation challenges, Gamataja


The purpose of this research is to evaluate a number of articles that discuss the effectiveness of a modular learning approach in teaching elementary grades ' academic progress. The details, which are based on articles published between 2000-2021, identify the effect of the modular learning approach.


This article addressed a Brazilian negotiation on the infantry brigade headquarters building. On the one hand, the Brazilian Federal government, represented by the Brazilian Army commander. On the other hand, a private company representative. The contract objective was to deploy a series of facilities. After the bidding process, the winning company abandoned the project, and the Public Administration had to negotiate new contract terms with the second place in the bidding process. The teaching material is helpful to scholars, decision-makers, and practitioners. Key findings pointed out the necessity of developing best efforts to solve joint problems. Further implications suggest the case replication to other governmental sectors. Finally, a set of teaching notes compile the present case study.


Abstract: The functional Total Productive Maintenance TPM role of holding emergency and unscheduled maintenance to barest minimum and reduce the amount of reactive maintenance which affects productivity in terms of cost and performance; using Overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) as key quantifiable performance indicator to determine machinery performance as measuring tool. To achieve optimal level, industries should do the right thing; use Maintainability, Availability and Safety enshrined (TPM) policy and do it right by ensuring that right competences are available. Furthermore, applying the never-ending improvement cycle: Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) alongside will enable identify problem areas, to apply the policy to avoid premature replacement cost, maintain steady production capabilities and prevent systems failure and its components deterioration.


Hypertension is an emerging public health issue in developing countries Rwanda included. Globally, it is one of the important sources of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality mostly due to changes in lifestyle and increase. It affects all groups, however, the elderly population are the most affected. This study assessed the level of knowledge on prevention of hypertension among elderly people in Kicukiro District. The findings will be useful in planning and developing adequate policies for hypertension prevention. This was descriptive, cross sectional study using quantitative approach. The study population included the adult community members aged between 60 years and above. The target population 7,239 persons and Sample size was 205. Multistage sampling method was used. Data was collected using a questionnaire. Frequency and percentage were used to present and analyze specifically the first and the second objectives. For the third objective, analysis was done using contingency tables. The Pearson chi-square test was used to measure associations of socio demographic between the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices of adult residents in Kicukiro district. Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 25.0 was used to compute data. About 43.0% were aged 60 to 64 and there were more male respondents (55.1%) compared to their female counterparts (44.9%). The respondents who scored high level of knowledge were 19.0%. Respondents with positive attitude towards prevention of hypertension were 74.6%. The adequate practice on prevention of hypertension was 60.5%. The independent factors associated with adequate practice of hypertension prevention were tertiary education [AOR= 3.64; 95%CI = 1.66-7.23; p value =0.001]; history of medical hypertension [AOR= 3.63; 95%CI = 1.82-7.23; p value < 0.001] and high level of knowledge about hypertension prevention [AOR= 2.73; 95%CI = 1.01-7.39; p value = 0.048]. The study concluded that the level of knowledge was low, however the positive attitude was high. The score on practice was high and the independently factors associated were education, past medical history of hypertension and level of knowledge. The study recommends that population-based studies and intensive health education to raise awareness of the population would help in effective hypertension prevention.

The Effects of Boko Haram Insurgency on Borno Women (2009 – 2016) []

Boko Haram insurgency is largely becoming a household word globally as there is no neighbouring country of Nigeria that is completely not affected from the effects. The activities of the sect since 2009 had created a state of palpable fear in Borno State. Boko Haram figuratively implies that western or non Islamic education is a sin, is a very controversial Nigerian militant group that seeks for the imposition of sharia law in the entire northern states of Nigeria. The official name of the group is Jama’atu Ahlis Sunna Lidda’awa Waljihad. It is against this background that this study examines the effects of Boko Haram insurgency on Borno women from 2009 – 2016. Thus, both primary and secondary source materials were used by the study. The primary sources include, oral interviews conducted with internally displaced persons, intellectuals, security agents and general public. The secondary data involves the use of published and unpublished books, journals, thesis, dissertations, newspapers.

Accessibility and barriers to contraceptive use among married couple’s in Kirehe district-Rwanda []

The use of contraceptive method use remains uncommon among married couples globally. Non-use in young couples con-tributes to higher fertility rates. Contraceptive methods serve several purposes, including, the reduction of maternal and infant morbidity and mortality rates, sustainable population growth rate, improved economy security for both family and community and treatment of infertility among others. Despite these huge benefits, many factors stand to impede on their use. This cross-sectional community-based study examined the accessibility and barriers to contraceptive use among married couples in Kirehe district, Rwanda. The researcher put into consideration ethical issues related to the research. Research permit and letter from the Mount Kenya University has been used to obtain permission to carry out the research study in Kirehe District according to the required rules and regulations of the Kirehe District administrative authorities. This research is significant because it will update Kirehe communities on the type of contraceptive method find in Rwanda. It will also serve as a reference point and guideline for future researchers on the subject matter. The study will show the various challenges and coping strategies for some married couples on how to deal with the issue. Both cruster and systematic sampling were used for selecting the 75 married couples and 25 key informants to interview. The study adopted both quantitative and qualitative methods and the data were analyzed using SPSS. Among 75 respondents, 62.7% were females, 46.7% were aged more than 30 years old, 60.7% of husbands had secondary school, 61.7% of spouses had secondary school, 46.4% of husbands were self-employed, 53.2% of spouses were self-employed, and 41.3% were Catholics. The research findings revealed that married couples in the study area were mainly using different types of contraceptive methods such as pills (30.7%), implants (22.7%), DIU (18.7%), and lactation amenorrhea method (10.7%). The number of births (AOR=3.8; 95%CI: [1.41-8.249]; p=0.021) and AOR=8.1; 95%CI: [1.32-74.6]; p=0.044), number of children (AOR=5.7; 95%CI: [1.38-23.44]; p=0.016), charges required to pay (AOR=4.8; 95%CI: [1.47-21.67]; p=0.011), getting information on contraceptive methods (AOR=8.8; 95%CI: [1.82-52.9]; p=0.009), and the influence of Rwandan society (AOR=3.7; 95%CI: [1.04-42.37]; p=0.0298) have been found to be associated with the use of contraceptive methods. From the qualitative part, different challenges have been disclosed to handicap the adherence to the contraceptive methods such as young age, the will of giving too many births, inaccessibility to the contraceptive methods, rumors, and misinformation towards contraceptive methods. The health education, reinforcement of the night of mothers known as “Akagoroba k’ababyeyi”, attending antenatal care services and improving the accessibility to the use of contraceptive among these married couple have been suggested as strategies of increasing the adherence to the contraceptive methods use. The study results suggest that simply ensuring that couples are aware of contraceptive methods and their availability is not enough to generate extensive changes in behavior and/or perceptions. It is critical to address these persistent challenges with married men and women alike to promote mutual understanding, awareness, and decision-making in regard to the use of contraceptive methods.


SUMMARY Infectious bursal disease, also known as the Gumboro disease is a highly contagious and acute viral disease of poultry characterized by destruction of lymphoid cells.Diagnosis of Infectious bursal disease involves consideration of the flocks’ history, clinical signs and lesions. Objectives of this paper are to highlight various commonly used diagnostic method of Infectious bursal disease and to review advances made in diagnostic method and Vaccination strategies for Infectious bursal disease, with special emphasis on the strengths and weaknesses of each of those techniques. Isolation of Infectious bursal disease virus followed by its serological assay and histopathological examination of bursa is regarded as the gold standard method of Infectious bursal disease diagnosis. Serological tests such as Agar gel immune diffusion, Enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay and Viral neutralization test are commonly used laboratory assay in diagnosing Infectious bursal disease virus. Recently most accurate and relatively fast diagnostic method, Molecular technique are widely used. From the reviewed diagnostic technique Molecular diagnostic technique is relatively the easiest and sensitive one. The virus causes immunosuppression where if the infected chicken recovered from the acute disease, they become more susceptible to infections of other pathogens. Therefore, prevention is important and vaccination has become the principal control measure of Infectious bursal disease Virus infection in chickens. Conventional attenuated live and killed vaccines are the most commonly used vaccines. With the advancement of knowledge and technology, new generation or genetically-engineered vaccines like Deoxyribonucleic acid and sub unit vaccines have been used. Different vaccination strategies like in ovo, at hatch and post hatch vaccination are implemented. Hatchery vaccination is becoming a common practise. Based on this review paper more safe and effective Infectious bursal disease vaccines that are affordable and readily available must be identified with further cost benefit analysis. Keywords: Infectious bursal disease, infectious bursal disease virus, diagnosis, vaccine, vaccination.

Net-Zero Hydroponics System-Ecoponics []

The recent pandemic of COVID-19 had convulsed every nation on this globe. Panic and fear had engulfed everyone and everything. In order to be safe from the disease, people had to cage themselves in their homes and governments had to provide their citizens with various relief packages. Most of the countries are still struggling to recover the losses caused during this time. Being specific to India, the concern of arranging for ration during this time created a ruckus almost everywhere. There would have been lesser trepidation and strain on the food resources of country if there was some sort of self-dependency in people about growing their own food. Therefore, the intention behind the concept of “Ecoponics” is to develop a gravity powered zero energy consuming hydroponics system that can be used for indoor farming by any household or individual. The system plans to use the principles of a ‘Ram pump’ and harness Kinetic energy of the waste water from waste valve of the pump to power the system replacing electricity and start a perpetual motion of water, so that the system would not need any human intervention for a considerate amount of time.

Production of infant weaning food from plant-based milk substituted into children diet for weight gain, brain development and hemoglobin []

In developing countries, researchers have focused their attention on the possibility of formulation of infant weaning food from locally available, vegetable proteins and cereal to reduce frequent maternal morbidity and mortality. The present was set to produce infant weaning food from plant- based milk substituted for children for weight gain, brain development and hemoglobin formation. The milks were produced from locally accessible plant –based vegetable. The energy was supplied from cereals and tubers. A Proximate composition, mineral composition, microbial and sensory evaluation of each product was determined. The sensory assessment took place in pediatric ward of women and children primary health care, these children ages ranged between 6-36 months old. The results of the proximate, mineral, microbial and sensory evaluation were reported for preparing and commercial weaning foods have followed: 12.62-18.34%, 3.00-9.50%, 2.04-3.54%, 1.10-3.42%, 1.80-3.01%, 64.20-78.02%, 398.17-460.23%, 398.26-480.20mg/100g, 246.05-280.01 μg/100 kcal, 188.40-225.20 μg/100 kcal and the results of microbial quality in prepared weaning foods revealed mold and yeast were not detected and low counts for total bacterial count, coliform and salmonella. The scores of aroma and mouth feel for diet (I) was significant (p < 0.05) lower than diets (II and III). Meanwhile, commercial weaning and the formulated foods were generally accepted. The weaning foods composite plant- based milk can be a cost-effective and possible tool to overcome malnutrition among children in developing countries.

A Parsimonious Terrace Gardening Technique []

Since the beginning of construction, forests have paid the price to provide for our shelter and infrastructure. Also, building structures has become inexorable as we are continuously moving towards development. This has caused massive destruction of our environment as a whole. So, to keep pace with this development and protect our environment at the same time, our buildings need to deliver better; not just in terms of technology but sustainability. Terrace gardening can be an easy way to revive what gets destroyed while building any structure, but it often happens to be too expensive. A different technique for terrace gardening that is pocket friendly and does not compromise with the fundamental conditions necessary to grow crops on built structures is needed for the concrete jungle that is growing around us to mellow down its brutality on our natural jungles. This can ensure revival of biodiversity on built structures, more than what was destroyed while building them because as we go vertical in a building, we have more surface area for terrace gardening on each level.

Effect of Hydropower Plant Projects on Socio-Environmental Sustainability and Development in Rwanda []

The objective of this study was to investigate the socio-environmental impact of hydropower projects in Rwanda with a case study of Rubagabaga hydropower ltd operating from Nyabihu district. The primary aim of the research was to reflect on the problem that call for the conduction of the present study and wanted to answer the following research questions through empirical literature with subjective theories. It was therefore guided by examining the impact of socio-economic and environment hydropower plant in Rwanda, identify the challenge hydropower plants face in Rwanda and finally investigate relationship between hydro powers and their socio-economic impact in Rwanda? In this research, qualitative and quantitative research design based on statistical data of the research that was used with quantitative and qualitative methods. Questionnaires and interviews were used to collect data. The target population of this study was made up of 227 participants including 143 respondents all from ten different villages surrounding the Rubagabaga plant in Nyabihu District. From this population. The collected data was analyzed using descriptive and correlation analysis and tables those were interpreted to confirm or deny the relevance of the main and specific objectives. Based on results from table no.16 demonstrates that the beta= 0.397 with the t value of 2.333 and the p value of 0. 021.Since the p value is less than 0.05, researcher rejected the null hypothesis and considered it alternate. There is a strong positive relationship between environmental assessment of hydropower plant project and socio-environmental sustainability and development. In a nutshell, the researcher has rejected the null hypothesis and considered its alternate. In fact, Community structure and dynamics has positive influence on socio-environmental sustainability and development. The table no.16 shows that beta= 0.341 with the t value of 2.668 as the p value was 0.009. Since the p value is less than 0.05. Therefore, researcher rejected the null hypothesis and considered it alternate. According to the table no.21, the changes on community structure and dynamics of hydropower plant project causes the increase of 0.341 (34.1%) of the socio-environment sustainability and development. The ration of beta modal results for the t value expressed t=2.66 hence the probability value is significant on socio-environment sustainability and development noting that sig.=0.009. Carefully, the researcher has rejected the null hypothesis and considered its alternate. With this in mind, community structure and dynamics has positive influence on socio-environmental sustainability and development. The table no.16 has shown beta= 0.478 with the t value of 4.543 as the p value was 0.000 which is less than 0.05. According to the table no.21, the changes on government policies, stability and support of hydropower plant project causes the increase of 0.478 (47.80%) of the socio-environment sustainability and development. The ration of beta modal results for the t value expressed t=4.54 hence the probability value is significant on socio-environment sustainability and development noting that sig.=0.000. All things considered, the researcher has rejected the null hypothesis and considered its alternate confirming that government policies, stability and support of hydropower plant project has positive effect on socio-environmental sustainability and development. Based on the research results, the researcher recommends the following: There is a need in encouraging projects proposals reflecting on environmental assessment and projects funding strategies should be renewed. Due to the fact that this type of energy requires a flexible form of technology, there is a need in investing in capacity of water amounts and run of rivers. However, the way water resources are treated can also reflect on the amount that is required to produce a certain amount of energy. The future of hydropower plants might be doubted on while there is a restriction put on youth that they should put their effort in inventing new technologies and sources of power that can alternate with the existing ones. Therefore, there is a need in involving young people in exploring other types of power and provide adequate trainings.

A descriptive study to assess the "Prevalence of sleep disorder and its impact on academic performance among college students at of Mahakavidevkota Campus at Sunwal Municipality, Nawalparasi District.” []

ABSTRACT Background: Sleep is a condition of body and mind that typically recurs for several hours every night, in which the nervous system is relatively inactive, the eyes closed, the postural muscles relaxed, and consciousness practically suspended. The relationship between sleep and cognitive function has been a topic of interest for over a century. Beyond the effects of sleep on memory consolidation, lack of sleep has been linked to poor attention and cognition. Well-controlled sleep deprivation studies have shown that lack of sleep not only increases fatigue and sleepiness but also worsens cognitive performance. Adequate sleep is important for human's mental and physical well-being and chronic sleep deprivation has been linked to impaired neurobehavioral functioning. College students experiences a number of sleep problems, which may impact academic performance, health, and mood. Several studies have found a relatively high prevalence of sleep-related complaints, e.g. inadequate sleep, difficulty falling asleep or maintaining sleep, early morning awakenings, poor sleep quality, early morning sleepiness, and daytime napping, among college students. Objective: To identify prevalence ofsleepdisorder and its impact on academic performance among college students Methodology: A descriptive study was carried out at Sunwal Municipality of Nawalparasi district. The population of the study was all the people living in SunwalMunicipalitythat was selected by using simple random sampling technique. Among them, 138 samples were selected by using non-probability purposive sampling technique. A pretested structured interview schedule was used for data collection. The collected data are analyzed by using descriptive as well as inferential statistics such as mean, percentage, frequency, and chi-square. Result: In this study majority (47.8%) of respondent belongs to 18-21 years age group followed by (45.7%) age group 22-25. Majority of the respondent were male (57.2%). Most of the respondent were Hindu (97.10) and (91.3%) respondent was unmarried.Majority of the respondent (43.5%) scored<3.25 while (38.4%) and (15.2%) scored 3.25-3.5 and 3.5-3.49 respectively. About majority of the respondent (40.6%) studied 4-6hours, (29.7%) respondent studied >6 hours and (28.3%) 4-6hours. About (39.9%) sleep for 4-6 hours and (28.3%,23.2% and 8.7%) sleep for >10hours, 7h-8h and <4h respectively. Represent (34.1%) of the respondent evaluated good sleep quality while (32.6%) and (29.0%) evaluated satisfactory and excellent sleep quality. Majority (34.8%) evaluated satisfactory sleep quality before an exam whereas (30.4%), and (21.7%) evaluated good and excellent sleep quality before an exam respectively. Half of the respondent (57.2%) felt excessive sleepiness during the lectures and (42.8%) respondent don’t feel excessive sleepiness during the lecture. Conclusion: In conclusion, majority of the respondent scored <3.25 and majority of the respondent (40.6%) studied 4-6hours. About (39.9%) sleep for 4-6 hours and almost all the respondents evaluated satisfactory sleep quality before an exam. Keywords: prevalance, sleep,disorder, college student.

Traditional Medicinal Plants and Their Uses In Shefari’o Kebele,Goba Woreda ,Bale Zone,Oromia Regional ,Ethiopia []

Abstract Traditional medicine refers to the sum total of knowledge, skills, and practices based on the theories, beliefs, and experiences indigenous to different cultures that are used to maintain health, as well as to prevent, diagnose, improve, or treat physical and mental illnesses. The main purpose of this research is to document medicinal plants used for traditional treatments with their parts and use. The data was collected between June, 2012 and September, 2013 on field trips to investigate medicinal knowledge and application of medicinal plants in Shifari’o Kebele Goba Woreda of Southeastern Oromia. A total of 65 informants (62 males and 3 females) between the ages of 20 and 60 were selected to collect information on medicinal plant use from sampled Kebele.Informants were selected randomly. Semi-structured interviewees, observation and guided field walks with informants were employed to obtain ethno botanical data. A total of 65 informants (62 males and 3 females) were selected purposefully with the help of local administrators and local elderly people. Most (84%) of the traditional medicinal plants were wild and were mostly harvested for their leaves. Oral application was the highest and most commonly used route of application. The local people utilize 25 medicinal plant species to treat 15 human ailments. Most of these plants 21 species (84%) were collected from wild habitats indicating the existence of pressure on wild plants. In this case, plant part(s) used for medicinal preparation indicated that Leaf 17 (68%) is the plant part widely used followed by root 4 (16%), while the rest include 3(12%) fruit and 1 (4%) flower form. The most popular method of preparation was in the form of crushing, which accounts for 60%, followed by squeezing (16%), together, the remaining proportion is accounted for methods like pounding, chewing and cooking the combination of each method. However; these plant species are threatened by the activities of the community like expansion of agriculture, overgrazing, cultivation of eucalyptus tree as cash plant and application of the root of medicinal plant is a factor that needs risk of extinction. Generally, to conserve the biodiversity of the area community- and research-based conservation mechanisms could be an appropriate approach for mitigating the problems for the loss of medicinal plants and it is recommended to make aware of the society and to develop in –situ and ex-situ conservation of medicinal plants. Key words : medicine, medicinal plant, traditional healer

Design of a Distillation Column for the Separation of Refrigerants from Natural Gas Chlorination []

The design of a plug distillation column for the separation of refrigerants from natural gas chlorination, was aimed at achieving high purity volume percent of Methyl Chloride (CH3Cl) and Methylene Chloride (Ch2Cl2) as desired products. The distillation column was simulated using Aspen HYSYS software at a temperature of 500C and 10atm Pressure. The composition of the refrigerants coming into the distillation column are Methyl chloride 192.41mol/sec, Methylene Chloride 80.17 mol/sec, Chloroform 32.07mol/sec, Tetra Chloromethane 16.04mol/sec after the chlorination of 200,000 metric tonnes per year of Natural gas. The distillation column operating parameters were set and distillation column sizing was done to determine Column height, Column diameter, tray spacing, tray volume, tray thickness and weir height. From the results obtained, high pressure operation of the distillation column favours the separation of the refrigerants. HYSYS simulation of this distillation column design is found to improve both engineering, Safety and energy efficiency of the overall system of separation.


Insecticides are chemical substances that are widely used to kill insects in both Developing and Developed countries. African countries have also seen an increase in the use of these chemicals in order to increase yield of their crops and help improve their life. There are a number of insecticides that humans get exposed to as they operate in the anthroposphere. Most of them belong to some classes such as; Organophosphorus, Organochlorines, Carbamates, Neonicotinoids, and Pyrethroids.This classification is based on the chemical composition that members belonging to the class have. Each of these classes has individual members that when exposed to induce poisoning differently and they belong to different toxicological classes such as, extremely toxic, highly toxic, moderately toxic, slightly toxic and those that are unlikely to produce toxic effects. These chemical substances enter the body through inhalation, contact with the body where they are absorbed, ingestion in foods or accidentally drinking the chemical substance thinking it is a drink. They can also enter the body through the eyes and ears depending on the exposure. While in the body they bind to receptors which are mostly enzymes and proteins and transported to various organs where they cause acute toxicity and chronic toxicity. Tissue fluid, blood and lymph are also involved in their transport throughout the body. When humans get exposed and quickly report to the health facilities antidotes such as atropine, pralidoxime and Naloxone are used depending on which type. However, when the source is known toxicological risk assessment should be performed, the process of which involve identification of hazard, Dose-response assessment, Exposure assessment and finally risk characterization.

Study, Design and Control of AGC and AVR for Multi Area Interconnected Power system []

This paper presents study, design and control of Automatic generation control (AGC) and Automatic voltage regulator (AVR) for three area interconnected hydroelectric power system using PID controller. Due to the change of load as well as power flow in tie-line, the frequency, active power, voltage and reactive power are varying dynamically. So a robust control is required for maintaining the frequency and voltage profile within permissible value. AGC controls the frequency and active power flows in the system whereas the AVR maintains the voltage profile and reactive power flow in the system. This paper presents the application of PID controller for improving the performance characteristics of the controller (steady state error, settling time and overshoot value) by using Matlab/Simulink software.

Prediction of Bearing Capacity of Driven Piles Based on Dynamic Formulas []

The efficiency of six commonly used pile dynamic formulas in predicting capacity of pile foundations have been evaluated and compared in this paper. The methods considered for evaluation are Janbu, Modified ENR, Eytelwein, Gates, Danish, and Navy-McKay. Results of eleven pile driving records and pile load test performed in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria on 300mm diameter precast concrete pile were used in the study. Statistical approaches by way rating were employed to verify the accuracy of these methods. The evaluation revealed that the pile dynamic formulas are mostly underpredicting. Amongst the six methods, the Danish method gave the most realistic values of the pile capacity. As a result, it was ranked in the first order followed by the Navy-McKay method. The predictions using the Gates method were found to be overly lower than the measured values and was ranked least desirable amongst the methods.

Decentralization of Judicial System is Indianization of Judiciary []

This article focus on the decentralization of the Indian judicial system. The first court had established in 1726 in Culcutta, followed by madras and Bombay. Which had been replaced after 1774 to (apex courts) Supreme Courts till 1937. Although the after 1950 the government of India established a democratic and federal structure in the country, which is quasi-federal in nature. The government of India act 1935 had established the Supreme Court in Delhi and presidency courts have been converted into the high courts of India. However, the hierarchical structure of the Indian judiciary has made it of a centralized nature. Due to the distance of SC and HC justice becomes unreachable to a majority of people in the country. Which has raised a question, "Judiciary of India or Judiciary for Indians?"