Volume 9, Issue 10, October 2021 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

[1]  [2]  [3]  [4]  [5]  [6]

Instructional Management of Teachers Teaching Indigenus Peoples in a Modular Approach: A Phenomenological Study []

This study explored the experiences, challenges, and actions taken by the teachers in the instructional management of IP learners in the delivery of modular instruction. Employed a qualitative design using a phenomenological approach through in-depth interviews and focus group discussions for the collection of data. Husserlian’s data reduction technique was used in transcribing textual data, and in analyzing the reduced data, Collaizi’s (1978) thematic analysis was utilized. There were nine (9) teachers of Danggayon Integrated School in Sitio Danggayon, Casoon, Monkayo Davao de Oro. A purposive sampling technique was utilized in selecting the participants. The interview guide questions utilized in collecting data were validated by three experts. The paper generated major themes such as plenty of time, home delivery of modules, difficult adjustment; non-reader IP learners; language barrier; illiterate IP parents; unlocalized SLMs; home visitation; weekly tutorial; and supplementary materials. Key phrases: Instructional Management, Indigenous Peoples, Modular Approach, unlocalized SLM

Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4P’s) And the Academic Performance of the Beneficiaries []

Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program Academic Performance of the Students”. The study investigated the Academic performance of Pantawid Pamilya Pilipino Program Students, for school year 2019-2020. Hinged on the motivational theory of Maslow 1954 on hierarchy of needs. The study employed the descriptive research method mixed with qualitative analysis in describing the extent of being a 4Ps beneficiaries to the performance of the learners studying in the (5) five public Elementary schools. The findings show that 4Ps beneficiaries were supported very well as to their health, nutrition and education showing that the factors provided in the study as to the said factors were provided all the time or most of the time. Findings also show that the subject learners are on the average. They were able to perform satisfactorily in their academics. It can also be seen that most of them were able to perform satisfactorily and above the latter. Thus, 4Ps has significant effect on learners’ education as shown in their improved participation in school, more consistent attendance, good health and nutrition and support from their families. Key words: Pantawid, Pamilyang Pilipino, Academic Performance

Experiences of Non-Indigenous Peoples Teachers in Developing Higa-unon Contextualized Lesson Plan []

This study determined the “Experiences of Non-Indigenous Peoples Teachers in Developing Higaonon Contextualized Lesson Plan ”. Unpublished Master’s thesis, Bukidnon state University, City of Malaybalay, April 2020. Qualitative method of research is employed in this study. Adopted items from the DepEd Order No. 32, s.2015 were used to formulate the questionnaire in the data gathering process. The main and standard deviation were used to facilitate analysis and interpretations. Answers to interviews during focus group discussions were carefully organized and used to supplement the data. Findings revealed that Non IP teachers find difficult in writing the contextualized lesson plan in Higaonon. This attributed the cultural diversity of the learners, language barriers, and financial constraints. The teaching, however, raised suggestions and recommendations as to retool and conduct seminars to address the challenges in the conduct of contextualization of lessons as a practices. Key words: Non-Indigenous Peoples , Higa-unon , Contextualized Lesson Plan, cultural diversity

Indications and findings of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in patients presenting to Thukha Gabar Hospital, Yangon, Myanmar []

Upper gastrointestinal (UGI) symptoms are among the commonest complaint for which patients seek medical attention in Asia. Mainly UGI symptoms occupied with Epigastric pain or discomfort, heartburn, dyspepsia, dysphagia, anemia, melena, bloating and constipations are common in the community. Helicobacter pylorus (H. pylori) colonizes over 50% of world population and is also commonest H.pylori associated gastritis and diseases in developing countries and also in Myanmar. This aim was to focus on the characteristics democrati-cally, indications, endoscopic findings of patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGIE) and of H.pylori infection incidence at the Thukha Gabar hospital in Yangon, Myanmar.

Blockchain and its implementation in Indian banking industry []

This study aims at elaborating the blockchain technology, working of blockchains, reliability of blockchain technology and its implementation in Indian banking sector. Blockchain technology is a core, rudimental technology with promising application prospects. The current banking industry is affected by financial innovations, cyber attacks, economic evolution, increased number of transactions. Accordingly, banking industry requires urgent modifications. However, as blockchain is a major breakthrough in data storage and information transmission, it might fundamentally transform the existing financial and economic models.this will bring a revolutionary change in the FinTech industry. Transfiguring the current blockchain technology(BCT) can lead the banking industry to greater triumphs. This paper also covers various advantages brought out by BCT such as automated verification process and eliminating the need for multiple parties to confirm manual validity of transactions. In India, many major and minor banks have initiated the implementation of blockchain technology(BCT) at different stages. Eventuually they all have noticed various advantages in various processes where BCT is put into use. With time and innovation in BCT, it will change the picture of banking in India. BCT also developed to provide ‘Real-Time Early Warning Systems' which is first--ever real-time monitoring system to tackle Non performing Assets(NPA). this product is currently running in the top public and private sector banks in India and across the globe. “rt360- Real-Time Early Warning System for Credit Monitoring” is their AI-based innovative upgrade. Working on three core principles — integration with source systems, real-time scanning of transactions, and issuing reverse feedback, the real-time EWS has the potential to detect and prevent suspicious or fraudulent transactions, which is a huge step towards effortless and non time consuming transactons. BCT banking processes will eliminate the intermediaries with more faster, transparant and cost efficient transactions. BCT will also deliver trust, decentralisation and security in transactions.

Fatigue Life Extension in HMA Concretes Mix Design Properties by Elimination of Excessive Cracks through the Inclusion of Mineral fillers as Modifier for Heavy Trafficked Pavement []

Tensile strains and dynamic modulus are major contributors in determining the fatigue life of asphalt concrete pavement because they are responsible for fatigue cracking. Therefore, knowledge of strains, dynamic modulus and their role is of vital importance to the Highway Engineer. However, the focus of the recent study was to reduce fatigue cracks in flexible pavement through the inclusion of Portland cement, Quarry dust and Fly-Ash as mineral fillers at varying percentages of filler content. The methodology involved introducing mineral fillers at the optimum asphalt content of the asphalt concrete mixtures in order to alter the properties of the concrete. Results revealed that the addition of Portland cement up to 3% by weight of aggregate reduced tensile strains at the bottom of the asphalt concrete. While stiffness increased linearly up to 3% Portland cement content. In effect fatigue crack was drastically reduced at same 3% Port cement content. On the other hand, the addition of fly-ash and quarry dust produce similar pattern of behavior that is, up to 1.5% and 2.0% addition of both fly-ash and quarry dust reduced tensile strains, while stiffness increased leading to a drastic reduction in fatigue crack of the HMA concrete. However, further additions resulted in increased fatigue cracks. This was true for all categories of loading frequencies considered.


Modern business organization uses JSON data exchange format for communication purposes between backend systems (such as RESTful web services or RESTful APIs) and frontend systems (such as web applications). Client uses a frontend system to access different organization services in a sophisticated manner without knowing about the internal mechanism. If these frontend systems are vulnerable to JSON injection vulnerability, then it compromises the organizational security from sensitive data retrieval to system damage. JSON injection can be exploited by entering malicious input strings from the frontend system (HTML login form) into the backend system without proper validation and sanitization of incoming JSON data. Therefore, frontend security testing is important to protect the backend systems from destruction. In this research, we have done an analysis of JSON-based injection vulnerabilities in web applications and services and recommended to design an effective approach to detect this type of vulnerability by using security testing techniques.


Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) is a main source of cooking fuel, especially in metro areas because it’s clean compared to firewood and charcoal. Gas leakage is a major problem both in industrial sector and residential premises. Presently, home security has become a major concern due to increasing gas leakage. Gas leakage is a source of great anxiety in industrial, residential areas and vehicles like Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), buses, and cars which are run on gaspower. One of the precautionary approaches to stop accidents associated with the gas leakage is to put in place a gas leakage detection device at vulnerable places. This paper is to implement and discuss a design of a gas leakage detector system with SMS alert that can automatically detect and alert gas leakage. This proposed system also includes a notifying system for the users. This is a sensor based device that easily detects a LPG leakage.

Gut Normal Flora (Microbiota) and Probiotic Supplementation on Autoimmune (Inflammatory) Diseases: Multiple Sclerosis []

Due to its large numbers, the human gut microbiota has a significant role in the human body controlling some metabolic processes and other functions. The immune system has a strong relation with microbiota where each of them affects the other. Microbiota controls some of the immune functions and responses (in local intestinal or in systematic), and the immune system keeps bacterial presence without harming the body. Studies show that change in microbiota composition (dysbiosis) is associated with some autoimmune diseases, this could increase the inflammatory response or reduce it. Probiotic, which is a bacterial combination that produces metabolites, is used to restore the bacterial and immune status in the intestinal environment. In autoimmune diseases, the main target is to reduce the pro-inflammatory cell and increase the anti-inflammatory response by increasing regulatory T cells.

Systemic Review: Optimization of Short Tandem Repeat CSF1PO for Forensic Studies []

Short tandem repeats (STRs) are small segments of 2-7 base pairs in size existing at some stage in the human genomic region. These regions exhibit excessive mutation change than any different areas of DNA that result in greater genetic diversity among humans. The number of repeats in STR markers is extraordinarily variable among the human population. STR marker evaluation is very fine at figuring out individuals at the molecular level, even from small quantities of remains in land mass disasters. STR loci in the identification selected in accordance to their dimension (CSF1PO) from NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology). Conditions encompass for STR with the modifications in temperature conditions, magnesium ion, primers concentration, and setting-up, PCR of markers used to be carried out. PCR product investigated on the agarose gel electrophoresis. The Results confirmed that all STR loci under study are detectable as PCR. PCR effects showed that when the detection of primer and temperature measured by using the fixed concentration of magnesium, using a buffer, and set Magnesium prerequisites towards adjustments in the primer awareness and temperature, when Taq polymerase enzyme is brought to test tubes, PCR bands are visible desirably.


The coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) had hit the country and the world at large in the years 2020 and 2021. This prompted many sectors in the county to panic on how to deal with the pandemic.[1] Since COVID- 19 was confirmed in Zambia on 18th March 2020, a total of 202,078 cases, 195,370 (97 %) recoveries, and 3521 deaths have been recorded as of 13th august 2021. It’s gratifying that the COVID- 19 situations in the country have continued to improve with a further 21% reduction in positivity recorded. This caused the country to suffer socially, economically, health, education, etc. the country came to a semi-lock down which saw schools closed, no social activities seeing the country’s economy deteriorated. Zambia as it is a third-world country leads to the increase of poverty levels. [2] The Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) also urged that even before the COVID – 19, the social situation in the region was deteriorating, owing to rising rates of poverty and extreme poverty, persistent inequalities, and growing discontent. This has been also a case for Zambia. Due to COVID – 19 pandemic, the education system has been disturbed letting learners missing a lot in the teaching and learning time which eventually disturbed the learners especially those in examination classes.

Recourse To African Indigenous Education: A Way to Mitigating Moral Degradation Among the Young People in Kenya. []

Immorality and indiscipline among the youth is a worldwide concern that is experienced in both religious and non-religious countries. In Kenya for example, there are serious cases of rape, suicide, burning of schools, domestic violence, killing among the newly married, high rate of pregnancy among school going children among others. These cases are rampant among the youth. The youth engage in certain vices or crimes and other unethical activities that were not experienced in the African traditional societies. In these societies, the issue of immoral behavior and indiscipline cases was minimal. Several factors may have contributed to immorality, but this is not the aim of this paper to investigate. This study was aimed at critically examining the role of indigenous education in the mitigation of youth immorality and indiscipline in ancient indigenous Africa and how it can be regained in the contemporary society. In particular, the study sought to examine the values, attitudes, skills (content), methods of teaching and training as well as validation modes that reinforced the indigenous education and the influence indigenous moral education can have in the concern of mitigating the youth immoral behavior and indiscipline in the contemporary society.

Critical Success Factors Affecting Performance Of Housing Projects In KACYIRU. []

The success of construction projects is not only crucial to stakeholders but also for the country’s economic and social development. Critical success factors (CSFs) are considered as key to project performance practices which lead to construction project success. This research study was guided by theory of constraints. Project planning and scheduling, financial difficulties of the contractors and project scope were found to be the constraints limiting housing construction projects from being completed on time. Questionnaires were distributed among 69 respondents in the categories of clients, consultants and contractors, out of which only 65 were returned. Quantitative research methods employing descriptive statistics while a purposive sampling technique was used to sample data. The findings indicated that there is a significant relationship at the 0.01 level between project planning and project performance (r=0.511, p=0.000), it also indicates that there is positive correlation between project planning and project performance. The findings also reveal that there is a significant relationship at the 0.01 level between contractor financial capacity and project performance (r=0.555, p=0.000) and the relationship is positive correlate. Finally, the findings reveal that there is also a significant at the 0.01 level between Scope project and project performance (r=0.479, p=0.000), the relationship has a positive correlation. The simple correlation was 0.887 in the ANOVA model, indicating a degree of association. Project performance approaches explained 77.6 percent of the variation in project success (R Square=0.786). The study's findings also demonstrated that the ANOVA model accurately predicted project performance (p=0.000b). This suggested that the regression model was statistically significant in predicting project performance, and that the regression model was statistically significant in predicting project performance overall, it was a good fit for the data. Therefore, Regression equation: Project performance = 0.278 + 0.287*Planning + 0.216*Financial capacity +0.240*Scope. This equation indicates that planning contributes 28.7% on the project performance, Contractor financial capacity contribute 21.6% on project performance and finally Scope of the project contribute 24% on project performance. The relationship between independent variables (project planning, Contractor financial capacity and Scope of the project) and dependent variables (project performance) is statistically significant with p=0.000. The study therefore concluded that ineffective project planning and scheduling, financial difficulties of contractors and lack of clear understanding of project scope contributes to the delay of housing construction projects. The research further concludes that proper planning and scheduling, contractor financial status and the scope of the projects contribute significantly to the performance of housing construction projects in KACYIRU. The research recommends a review of the tendering process to ascertain whether this process does not encourage delay of housing construction projects.


This paper discusses methods adopted by institutions to fortify and examine the preparedness of cities and communities to respond and adapt to crises and other disruptive events through the use of indicators. It analyses different types of indicators that measure resilience along economic, social, environmental & institutional aspects and discusses the context in which they can be used to ameliorate existing conventional strategies and waning indigenous practices in sustaining cities in Nigeria. It provides recommendations on how local authorities can choose and customize these indicators to their policy priorities and develop guidelines for the effective use and achievement of resilient cities and communities.

Quality of Experience Predictive Model for Web Users []

In this paper, machine learning model for monitoring and predicting the quality of experience of web users was developed using quality of service (QoS) dataset generated. The model was built with random forest algorithm which was trained with the generated dataset. It was evaluated and used to develop a system for predicting web browsing quality of experience of internet users of a single live website and also other various websites studied. Object Oriented System Analysis and Design methodology was employed to design the system while the system was implemented with python programming language. On model evaluation, 12 experiments were carried out and out of the 145 classification results obtained, 128 were correctly predicted as the actual classes: 13 out of 16 were predicted correctly for class 1, 36 out of 40 was predicted correctly for class 2, 43 out of 48 was predicted correctly for class 3 while 36 out of 41 was correctly predicted for class 4. This gave rise to a prediction result of 93.5 % accuracy, 92 % precision, 91.5 % sensitivity and 95.5 % specificity. Specifically, the results obtained show that random forest is good for the development of model for web quality of experience. It also showed that the developed system can predict the quality of experience of web users in real time to about 93.5 % which is good and will be acceptable to be used on any website of interest Key words: Quality of experience, Random Forest, web users, predictive modeling, web services


The study targeted all the employees of SACCOs in Machakos County. The staff were drawn from different departments, which included: finance, marketing, operation and human resource. Stratified sampling technique was used. Regression analysis and correlation analysis were used to analyze data. Data was collected using semi-structured self-administered questionnaires that were administered through drop and pick method. The data was presented in form of tables and figures. The study concluded that SACCOs in Machakos county should strengthen the learning of new market trends,enhance financial education, enforce proper management of member resources and implement efficient and effective financial systems. SACCOs ought to support diversified credit facilities hence giving the clients favorable interest rates. They should ensure that credit facilities are accessible, affordable and readily available. They should support mobile money transfer hence increasing the convenience, reliability and flexibility. SACCOs should support agency banking, hence increase accessibility and expansion of the customer base of agency banking to reach the poor clients in the rural. The study recommends that SACCOs in Machakos county should enhance training on new innovative financial products and services, diversify credit facilities and provide favourable interest rates to the clients.



Development of an algorithm for selecting spectrum holes in the primary spectrum []

This paper Developed an algorithm for selecting spectrum holes in the primary spectrum, using a channel occupancy pattern of the probability of ON-OFF channel selection algorithm, using the approach of long-tailed OFF time distribution to determine the probabilities of the primary users staying idle and being active based on the heavy-tailed distribution, the channel usage time (ON time) and inter-arrival time (OFF time) of primary user in a channel, is characterised by probability density functions and respectively. The result done using Spectrum sweep done with the help of RTL-SDR in Matlab 2018b environment shows that the various duty cycles were able to select the perfect station. The predictive channel selection algorithm for maximizing the best channel selection performed as expected showed great dependence on the computed probabilities (probability of staying idle and the probability of returning to a used case). Hence, a better channel selection algorithm updates these probabilities in real-time.

Development of an energy detection algorithm in MATLAB when Noise power is estimated []

The Development of an energy detection algorithm in MATLAB when Noise power is estimated in a security system to identify a signal. The performance of the energy detector is heavily dependent on the estimate of the noise floor, as an inaccurate estimate will degrade the performance of the detector. Before the design of the Energy Detector, a spectrum sweep was conducted in a Matlab environment to observe the available channels in order to test the accuracy of the design. The noise power is estimated based on the observation of the received signal in the noise. the designed energy detection algorithm in MATLAB, when Noise power is estimated, was able to filter the noise in the signal by approximation at -40.53dB.

Woody plant Regeneration Status of Gamataja Community forest, in Goba district, Bale zone, Oromia regional state, Southeast of Ethiopia []

ABSTRACT Woody plant Regeneration Status and of Gamataja Community forest was studied in Goba district, Southeast of Ethiopia. The systematic sampling method was used to collect vegetation data. The regeneration status data were collected within 31 plots sized 20x20m for mature tree assessment and (5m*5m) for both Sapling and seedling. The woody plant regeneration status data were analyzed. Discopodium penninervum, Nuxia congesta, Helichrysum citrispinum had list number of seedling. The rest Crotalaria agatiflora subsp. erlangeri, Solanum incanum and Rosa abyssincia were the plant species with non-regeneration status. Erica arborea, Ritchiea albersii was the plant species with new regeneration status. Podocarpus falcatus, Prunus africanas were the plant species with poor regeneration status and the rest Hypericum revolutum had fair regeneration status. To enhance the regeneration status and limit conservation challenges all stake holders need to work in collaboration. Therefore based on the result of this study, recommended the detail regenerating studies of forest analysis and various environmental factors such as soil type and properties. Key words: - Community forest, Regeneration status, Woody plant.

Impact Of Economic Integration On Rwanda’s International Trade: A Case Of East African Community (EAC). []

The research focused on the study of the impact of regional integration on Rwanda’s international trade with a case study of EAC. The researcher considered the study period 2004/2005 to 2011/2012. The objectives of the study were to assess Rwanda’s exports and import performance to and from other EAC countries before and after joining EAC, assess the performance of Rwanda’s exports and imports to and from the Rest of the world before and after joining EAC, and assess the perception on Rwanda’s international trade in the context of EAC regional integration. For better understanding of the conceptual framework, the study reviewed the existing literature. To achieve the stated objectives, both primary and secondary data were collected. During the study, questionnaire and purposive sampling techniques were used. The research adopted a descriptive type of research design. The primary data were collected from 80 respondents from the private and public institutions. Secondary data was also collected from the national institute of statistics of Rwanda. The study revealed that the exports were higher than imports throughout the study period, both to the EAC and the Rest of the World. This explains why there has been an ever increasing trade deficit during that period. The study also revealed that there has been achievement of trade potentials to EAC integration and more benefits are often achieved thorough full implementation of the union Protocol. The researcher recommended the subsequent inter alia; the essential to extend the export base which will cause a discount in deficit, a prerequisite for the EAC Partner States to implement the Customs Union and Common Market Protocols so that the benefits can be fully achieved. Finally, areas for further research for interested scholars were stated in relation to trade and Regional Integration.


This study focused on the analysis of mungbean value chain in Delomena district of Bale zone with specific objectives of analyzing the mungbean value chain; identifying the determinants of mungbean supply to the market and market outlet choice of mungbean producers and mungbean value addition at different stages of the marketing chain. Primary data were collected from 90 farmers and 30 mungbean traders using structured questionnaires. Descriptive statistics and Econometrics models were used to analyze the collected data. Results show that the main mungbean value chain actors in the study area are input suppliers, farmers/producers, assemblers, wholesalers, commission agents and cooperatives. The result of 2SLS indicated that size of landholding, livestock ownership, family size and quantity of mungbean produced influences amount of mungbean supplied to market significantly. The multinomial logit model result indicated that the likelihood to choose wholesalers market outlet was significantly influenced by frequency of extension contact, distance from market place, own price of the commodity and membership to cooperative compared to accessing assemblers mungbean market outlet. The likelihood of accessing cooperative mungbean market outlet was significantly influenced by price given to the commodity and distance from market place compared to accessing assembler market outlet. Result of probit model indicated that access to market information, quantity of mungbean produced, distance from market place access to market information, access to extension and credit services significantly affected farmer’s decision to be engaged in value addition. Therefore, policies aiming at increasing farmer’s awareness of producing value added mungbean produce to enhance value creations are recommended to strengthen chain development. Key words: Value chain, value addition, 2SLS, multinomial logit, market outlet.

Design of Adiabatic Packed Bed Reactor for Styrene Production []

Design of reactor with large area and high cost of maintenance is a major problem for styrene production, this research work is aimed designing an adiabatic packed bed reactor with smaller area for dehydrogenation of ethyl benzene by the application of the principles of conservation of mass and energy. The research objectives are to develop functional and dimensional models for the reactor, by Incorporating the kinetic model of dehydrogenation of ethyl benzene into the performance equations of the reactor then Solving the developed functional and dimensional equations using Matlab program. Simulation of the functional and dimensional model using Matlab program was the method applied in this research work. The reactor was designed with a range of fractional conversion, XA = 0.90 to 0.95 and reactor diameter, Di = 0.05 to 0.1m. The analysis of the heat exchanger yielded a favourable steady state result for reactor operations of styrene production, the heat transfer coefficient was obtained as U0= 72.58W/m2.oC with shell side pressure Pt= 38242.78atm, Area of the exchanger, A = 1.263m2, tube length 6.10m, LMTD = 52.716K heat duty Q= 17289471.93kJ/hr and the steady state time was obtained to be 90 sec, the results obtained showed that the design models were correct, predicting the amount of heat transferred for the heat exchanger and the steady state time for the designed reactor compares favourably with the output of an industrial reactor. The results obtained provided information for the evaluation of the functional parameters of the reactor which include reactor volume, spacetime, space velocity, rate of heat generation per unit reactor volume, pressure drop and reactor length.


Learning English as a second language in Tanzania comes with its peculiar challenges as the nation is strewn with hundreds of indigenous languages which serve as mother tongue or first languages (L1) of the majority of the populace. Competence in writing skill is an essential measure of students’ competence in English language in Tanzania and beyond. However, studies have revealed that learners are performing poorly in written English especially in grammar. The study sought to explore features of mobile phone usage that may influence learners’ written English in Lushoto District of Tanzania. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. Data collection instruments included a self- administered questionnaire for students and teachers of English language and a composition essay test administered to the students of forms 3 and 4. Students were sampled using proportional random sampling to include both boys and girls while teachers of English language were sampled using purposive sampling. Data was analysed by using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) programme which produced statistical measures such as frequency, means, percentages and standard deviation. The different means were then subjected to a T-test which determined the level of significance of how students used mobile phones. The study found that 43% of the students in Lushoto District accessed and utilized mobile phones everyday each day. These constituted 60% of the student respondents. The most frequently used mobile phone feature was Facebook, at 96%; the Whatsapp at 89%and SMS with (60%), while twitter was the least used feature among the students. The study further established that the use of mobile applications negatively influenced learners’ performance in spelling and punctuation but influenced vocabulary positively. The study recommends the intervention of teachers and parents to regulate the adoption of writing forms used in social media and encourage learners to use the mobile phone to learn formal English grammar and spellings.

Assessment of some quality parameters of yoghurt produced from fresh brown goat (Hakuya) and cow milks using Brevibacterium linens as starter culture []

This study investigated the assessment of some quality parameters of yoghurt produced from fresh brown goat milk (Hakuya) and cow milk using Bervibacterium linens as starteculture. Bervibacterium linens was isolated from three (3) samples of cheese (procured from Jos North , Jos South and homemade cheese ). The isolate(s) was tested for the presence of virulence gene. B. linen swas inoculated in pasteurized milk to compare its potential as starter culture against commercial starter culture (L. bulgaricus and S. thermophlius). Physicochemical properties such as pH titratable acidity, total solid, fat, protein, viscosity and microbial activity were determined using standard laboratory procedures. Aroma, mouth- feel and taste were monitored for the sensory quality. The general acceptability of the products was evaluated using twenty (20) trained panelists. The yoghurt produced from B. linens as a starter culture was significantly different (p>0.05) in term of physical and chemical properties compare to commercial starter culture yoghurt (control). The value for pH, titratable acidity, total solid, viscosity, fat and protein content of yoghurt of yoghurt produced from B. linens as a starter culture were in the range: 3.98-4.36%, 18.22-24.01%, 238-280mm2, 13.67-14.84, 19.14-23.37% respectively. The yoghurt produced from commercial starter culture were generally accepted by panelist. The result of microbial properties revealed no coliform and mould was detected and small amount of other microbes were present. Inconclusion, B. linens can be used as starter culture in yoghurt production. Efforts should intensify toward commercial production of yoghurt and other dairy products using B. linens as starter culture.

Potential of using Bervibacterium linens as starter culture for the production yoghurt from fresh cow milk. []

Bervibacterium linens are major surface microorganisms that are present in the smear of surface ripened cheeses. This study investigated the potential of using Bervibacterium linens as starter culture in yoghurt produced from fresh cow milk. Bervibacterium linens was isolated from three (3) samples of cheese (procured from Jos North , Jos South and homemade cheese ). B. linens was inoculated in pasteurized milk to compare its potential as starter culture against common starter culture (L.bulgaricus and S. thermophlius). Physicochemical properties such as pH titratable acidity, total solid, fat, protein, viscosity and microbial activity were determined using standard laboratory procedures. Aroma, mouth- feel and taste were monitored for the sensory quality. The general acceptability of the products were evaluated using twenty (20) trained panelists. The yoghurt produced from B. linens as a starter culture was significantly different (p<0.05) in term of syneresis produced compare to common starter culture yoghurt. The value for pH, titratable acidity, total solid, viscosity, fat and protein content of yoghurt of yoghurt produced from B. linens as a starter culture were in the range: 4.35-4.16, 1.32-2.84%, 18.64-22.40mg/l, 123-201mm2/s, 3.02-3.07% and 16.08-20.12% respectively. The total plate count, Salmonella, yeast and lactic acid bacteria count ranged from 4.8 x104-4.2x105, 1.0x102-2.1x104, 2.4x104-1.4x104 and 1.8x104-1.1x102cfu/ml respectively with no growth detected for coliform (fecal) count and Mould. Sensory evaluation for the yoghurts showed that the yoghurt produced from B. linens as starter culture was significantly different (p<0.05) than those produced from common starter culture. In conclusion, B. linens can be used as starter culture in yoghurt production.

Evaluation of Some Quality Parameter of Cheese Produced from Nigeria Dwarf Goat Milk, Cow Milk and Their Combination using Brevibacterium linens as Coagulant []

Brevibacterium linens come from the milk or from ripening cultures that are widely used in the cheese industry. This study investigated the evaluation of some quality parameter of cheese produced from Nigeria dwarf goat milk, cow milk and their combination using B.linens as coagulant. Brevibacterium linens was isolated from samples of milk. Milks were filtered and pasteurized at 90 ± 1 ºC for 10 min followed by direct acidification with Brevibacterium linens . The vats were incubated at 36 oC and gel was pressed, drained, cut, salted and package. The samples were analyzed for proximate, physicochemical properties and microbial assessment, using standard laboratory procedures. All the cheeses produced from B. linens as coagulant was significantly (P > 0.05) different when compared with control. The mean value for moisture content, fat, protein, ash and energy, pH, titratable acidity, total soluble solid and percentage yield were ranged: 43.22-52.01%, 12.33-14.01%, 17.84-19.04%, 1.18-2.35%, 56.04-62.01%,6.25-6.85%, 0.68-0.74%, 1.14-1.18% and 24.35-28.20% respectively. There was increase mineral content of all the cheese samples and decline in magnesium content (4.02mg/100g) for control sample. Similarly, the average total bacteria count, fungal and fecal coliform counts were ranged: 1.72 -2.24 104 cfu/ml, < 1.0 x104 cfu/ml -0.01x102 cfu/ml and fungal coliform were not detected in cheese produced from Nigeria dwarf goat milk. The organoleptic property (appearance, aroma, taste, texture and overall acceptably) of cheese produced from Brevibacterium linens as coagulant was adjudged acceptable compared with that of control sample. Brevibacterium linens can be used the production cheese and other dairy product.


This study is an examination of the level of Higher Education (HE) research and utilization of research finding as an essential function of colleges and universities generally, with a view of research in the two higher education institutions. It utilized mainly literature review and a qualitative inquiry technique where higher education lecturers were interviewed to ascertain the major constraints contributing to the discrepancy between research function of the university/college and the utilization of research findings. Funding, lecturers work overload, lack of trust in quality of HE research, lack of knowledge transfer settings have been identified as the major constraints'. Research reports are stored in library without dissemination and it is also observed that there are no sections reserved for research abstracts nor are research findings disseminated in usable forms in most of the universities and colleges. Findings also reveal that policy makers or other constituents do not utilize research results for public accountability and management decisions. It is therefore recommended that HE develop a strategic and balanced approach that manifest authentic professional responsibility for utilization settings for research findings in public sector, and private sectors for improvement of standards, for innovations and management decision and even at classroom level. Keywords: Utilization, research findings, Higher Education, Bangsamoro Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao.


This study aims to analyze the effect of service quality, corporate image and customer satisfaction on customer loyalty at the Makassar State Islamic Savings Bank Branch. Of the 100 customers in the bank, the research spreads to 100 customers who have been customers for more than five years in the bank. To analyze the data collected, quantitative research uses Multiple Linear Regression Analysis with the help of SPSS software. On the basis of the research, the results showed that service quality had a negative and significant effect on customer loyalty. Company and customer image has a positive and significant impact on customer loyalty.


Financial management practices should be emphasised among students, especially those in higher education institutions. The study aims to identify the relationship between the factors that drive students to spend and financial management practices towards students of Polytechnic Bagan Datuk (PBD). This study aims to achieve the objectives listed by researchers regarding the study of behaviour and financial management practices among students in PBD. A total of 30 respondents were selected to conduct the study. A quantitative study was conducted using questionnaires that have been instruments of study on studies conducted by researchers. Analisis data using IBM Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 24. The findings show that the association between factors that drives students to spend with the level of financial management practices towards students is insignificant where r = -2.95 and p = 0.113. However, recommendations for improvements in students' financial management practices in this study are made so that the survey results will be in good condition. Finally, this study is expected to create awareness among students at PBD on the importance of financial management practices in life as a student.