Volume 9, Issue 10, October 2021 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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A study of voice characteristics in women who have undergone Total Abdominal Hysterectomy with Bilateral Salpingo-oophorectomy (TAH+BSO) []

Aim: To compare the voice characteristics of individuals who have undergone Total Abdominal Hysterectomy with Bilateral Salpingo-Oophorectomy (TAH+BSO) and normal controls. Method: Menopause will occur immediately after a woman has had a Total Hysterectomy with Bilateral Salpingo-Oophorectomy. The hormonal abnormalities that result may have an adverse effect on women's voices. The experimental group comprised of 21 women aged 38-50 years who had Total Abdominal Hysterectomy with Bilateral Salpingo-Oophorectomy (TAH+BSO), whereas the control group consisted of 21 age and gender-matched women who had not had a hysterectomy. A thorough case history was gathered. The voice sample was then taken and analyzed for acoustics, perceptual assessment (GRBAS), MPT, and S/Z ratio. To assess the significance of the difference, the data was statistically analyzed. Result: The results show that there is no difference between the voice characteristics - perceptual and acoustic - of individuals who have undergone total hysterectomy and normal matched controls.


Human communication is the active process of exchanging information and ideas and this process involves encoding, transmitting, and decoding intended messages. There are many means of communicating. Language is a social tool, defined as a socially shared code or conventional system for representing concepts through the use of arbitrary symbols and rule-governed combinations of those symbols. Speech and language delay is one of the most commonly found communication dysfunctions seen in children. Delayed development of speech and/or language is one of the commonest reasons for parents of preschool children to seek the advice of a paediatrician (Bishop & Leonard, 2000). For a language like Manipuri language, the checklist available for detecting language delay in early childhood is not available. Manipuri language, Manipur Meiteilon, also called Meitei (Meetei), a Tibeto-Burman language spoken predominantly in Manipur, a northeastern state of India. So it is necessary to develop screening checklist in Manipuri language to assess native Manipuri speaking children. Aim:The aim of the present study is to translate and adapt the screening checklist for early detection of language delay in Manipuri language then administered in native Manipuri children. Method:The study were carried out in two phases Phase I - Translation of checklist. Phase II – Adapting the translated checklist. Phase I:The screening checklist for early detection of language delay developed by Srivatshan M.V. in (2002) in English language was translated into Manipuri language by professors in Manipuri language. The translated checklist was then given to group of Manipuri language graduate students and general public who were asked to rate the translated checklist based on intelligibility, ambiguity and language level. The suggestions given were necessarily incorporated in the checklist. The suggestions and the corrections advised by evaluators were incorporated and the final translated and validated material was ready for the next stage of the testing. The stimuli consists of 45 questions, 9 from each age ranges which was translated into Manipuri language. The screening checklist is comprises of a set of questions targeting speech and language skills for each age group. The questions carry information about the speech and language skills that a normal language developing children should have attained at the respective age group. The developer framed the questions in the checklist after carefully analyzing tests like REELS, 3D-LAT, developmental schedules and information documented in literature. The checklist checks for expressive skills in a child which includes cry patterns, onset of words, non-verbal communication, semantics and syntax. No specific training is required to administer the test or interpret the results. The checklist will be administered by the health professional. The checklist also includes information about the child’s identity such as name, age and sex. Normal children without any sensory and/or motor handicap in the age range from 6 months-3 years served as the subjects for the study. A total of 225 children, 45 from each age group, with a 6 months interval from 6 months – 3 years were included. Exclusion criteria: 1. Children with history of any delay in intellectual, motor and speech development. 2. Children with sensory and/or motor handicap. 3. Children with structural Oro-motor abnormality. 4. Children with history of any major illness. Phase II:The testing was carried out in a quiet environment with a one to one interaction between the examiner and the child’s parent/caregiver. Each parent were interviewed individually and it took an average of 15-20 minutes to complete the entire test. The responses to questions were either “YES” or “NO” or “yes but not consistent”. A “yes” response is one which states that the child had attained the skill. This is represented as ‘1’. A “No” response is one which states that the child has not achieved that skill. This is represented as ‘0’. A “yes”, but not consistent” is one which states that the child has attained the skill, but is not consistent and is represented by ‘0.5’. Frequency and percentage of “yes”, “No” and “yes but not consistent” response for each item in each age group were found out. Five crucial questions, which receive majority scores are selected from the group of 9 questions from each age group. The final checklist were short listed to 25 questions with 5 questions for each age group. The results revealed that in group 6 -12 months, items no. 2, 3, 4, 6 and 9 have the highest percentage of yes responses with 100%, 93.3%, 95.6%, 95.6%, and 93.3% respectively. In group 13 – 18 months, the results revealed that items nos. 2, 5, 6, 7 and 8 have the highest percentage of yes responses with 91.1%, 97.8%, 95.6%, 100.0% and 97.8% respectively. In group 19 – 24 months, the results revealed that items nos. 3, 4, 5, 7 and 9 have the highest percentage of yes responses with 97.8%, 97.8%, 88.9%, 88.9% and 88.9% respectively. In group 25 – 30 months, the results revealed that items nos. 2, 4, 6, 8 and 9 have the highest percentage of yes responses with 100.0%, 97.8%, 100.0%, 97.8% and 100.0%. In group 31-36 months, the results revealed that items nos. 1, 2, 5, 6 and 7 have the highest percentage of yes responses with 100.0%, 100.0%, 100.0%, 100.0% and 86.7% respectively. The Friedman test p value of 0.000 were found out for all the five age groups, indicating that there is a highly significant association between the questions and the responses. The 5 questions chosen from each group represents the speech and language skills of the normally developing native Manipuri children in that age group. The 45 chosen questions can now be used to accurately assess the linguistic abilities of native Manipuri speaking children and hence can detect the developmental language delay. Conclusion: Based on the findings, the Manipuri version of the screening checklist for early detection of language delay can be used to examine native Manipuri children between the ages of 6 months and 3 years to detect developmental language delay. This tool can be used by SLPs and other professionals to tract developmental language delays as early as possible. This checklist will assist in identifying native Manipuri speaking children who are at risk of developmental language delays.

vocal hygiene awareness in defence people []

Vocal hygiene focuses on the proper use of vocal organs, as well as the significance of enhanced hydration and the avoidance of throat clearing. A good vocal hygiene program combined with voice treatment can help to improve behavior and prevent damage to the vocal folds. The current study was designed to look into the voice hygiene awareness program among defense personnel, not to track any behavioral changes as a result of the lecture. Thirty defense personnel from Kerala district who are native Malayalam speakers were chosen as the subjects They are free of any speech, language, or neurological issues. The participants were aged from 30 to 50 years old. A questionnaire was administered out one pre and one post. Following the lecture and demonstration program, the participants were requested to complete a post-test questionnaire. The participant's ability to answer the identical questions and demonstrate efficacy was tested. The program included three sessions on (a) the anatomy of voice production, (b) causes and types of voice problems, and (c) vocal hygiene guidelines for defense personnel, all of which were provided via audiovisual presentation and demonstration. The responses got from 30 participants were separately scored for pre and post-test. A score of 1 was given for the correct response. And 0 for an incorrect response. The results revealed that awareness of vocal hygiene has to be provided for the defense people who have to manage their profession.


This article aims to examine the process of processing pindang liquid waste into flavor powder and its quality. The processing of pindang liquid waste into flavor powder consists of the stages of filtering, boiling, and mixing with spices, drying, and flouring. The quality of the flavor powder obtained included water content of 5.69±0.64%; protein content of 16.54±0.1%, and amino acids 125,624.26 mg/kg, and the results of the solubility test were 76.16±3.28%.


INTRODUCTION: Down syndrome is condition, which is a genetic disorder having an extra chromosome which are small packages of gene’s present in the body. Down syndrome has an extra chromosome 21 present out of 46 chromosomes in the body. This is usually known as trisomy 21. Language is a complex combination of several rule systems that can be divided into syntax, morphology, and phonology and pragmatics. All components in down syndrome children are different than from those seen in typically developing children. Pragmatics is the intentional use of language to interact with other people using gestures, facial expressions and eye gaze. It is the use of information from the physical, social and affective context of the talk to decide what to say, how to say and what another person’s words mean in children with down syndrome. Need of Study: Typical children develop verbal or non-verbal pragmatic skills between 1 and 5 years. However, it is not known if children with Down Syndrome with MA of approximately 4 years also follow a similar developmental profile for the verbal or nonverbal pragmatic skills. Hence there is a need to assess the pragmatic skills in children with DS between 5-10 years of age using PPECS (1995). Aim: The aim was to profile the pragmatic abilities of 5 to 10 years old children with downs syndrome using the PPECS. METHODOLOGY: Participants: 10-20 children with Downs Syndrome with age range from 5 to 10 years was selected for the study in special schools, day care and homes. Materials: The Pragmatics Profile of Everyday Communication Skills in Children (Hazel Dewart & Susie Summers, 1995) and Assessment of Language Development (Lakkanna, Venkatesh & Bhat, 2008) are the materials used. Procedure: Conversation samples were recorded from all the children in the special school, day care and homes, consent letter was obtained, following this, a case history was obtained/gathered from the parents/caregivers. The Pragmatics Profile of Everyday Communication Skills (PPECS) was administered through telephonic interview and through direct observations of the child through video calls. This information was supplemented with video clips by the parents/caregivers. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The results show that children with Downs Syndrome are able to initiate and maintain communication, and use similar communicative means and functions with caregiver and therapists. However, the nature of their interactions was more verbal with family members and familiar persons than with unfamiliar persons. Similar findings have been reported in literature (Garcez & Moraes, 2015). Children with Downs Syndrome have greater difficulty with expressive language skills which could be the reason for breakdown in verbal communication with new people, events and places. In such situations these children fall back onto gestures and vocalizations to support communication and socialization. Hence, rehabilitation of children with Down’s syndrome is important to help them develop their pragmatic skills and live meaningful lives in society and their communities.


Introduction Hearing loss is the result of impaired auditory sensitivity and or diminished speech intelligibility of the physiological auditory system. Individuals with hearing loss are sometimes described as deaf or hard of hearing based on the type, degree and configuration of hearing impairment. (American Speech-Language Hearing Association (ASHA), 2011) There are three basic types of hearing loss; sensorineural, conductive and mixed hearing loss. Congenital hearing loss means hearing loss that is present at birth. A congenital disorder may be caused by a genetic problem or other factors that interfere with normal embryological development or occur during the birth process. Causes of hearing loss can be rubella, herpes simplex. (Gelfand, 2001). Newborn hearing screening is the standard of care in hospitals nationwide. The primary purpose of newborn hearing screening is to identify newborns who are likely to have hearing loss and who require further evaluation. A secondary objective is to identify newborns with medical conditions that can cause late-onset hearing loss and to establish a plan for continued monitoring of their hearing status.(Joint committee on infant hearing (JCIH),2007).The Early Hearing Detection And Intervention (EHDI) also known as Universal Neonatal Hearing Screening (UNHS) guidelines include hearing screening completion by 1month of age, diagnosis of any hearing loss by 3months of age, hearing aid selection and fitting within 1 month of confirmation of hearing loss if parents choose that option, and entry into early intervention services by 6months of age. Screening programs target Permanent Childhood Hearing Loss (PCHL) irrespective of type. In 2006, India launched the National Programme for Prevention and control of Deafness (NPPCD). This program is currently running in over 60 districts of the country and its aim is to identify babies with bilateral severe-profound hearing losses by 6months of age and initiate rehabilitation by 9 months of age. Neonatal hearing screening aims screening all babies in the programme, within the first month of life. Babies who fail the initial screening should undergo diagnostic tests to establish or rule out hearing loss before the age of three months. When a child is identified with hearing loss, audiological, medical and educational habilitation should be initiated as soon as possible and no later than by six months of age. The main tool used for neonatal hearing screening is physiological measures such as Oto Acoustic Emission (OAE) and Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR).Newborn hearing screening can be performed by nurses, audiologist and other trained personnel. It is a quick painless evaluation. Nurses plays a vital role in hospitals. They communicate with patients, understand them and take exceptional care of them along with administering. Screening is a multidisciplinary approach which usually involves audiological or audiometric technicians, neonatal intensive care nurse, maternity room nurse, obstetric nurse, health workers, doctors and pediatricians. But midwives has more and equal important role in neonatal screening of infants as they are the closest people during birth time. The successful partnership between and nurse and doctor will bring the best outcomes for their patients. Nurses are the backbone of the healthcare sectors because they are more involved in the foundation of health of the people. The present research is being conducted to assess the knowledge and attitude of issues in neonatal hearing loss among nurses across various range such as primary nursing care, corporate and government hospitals in Kerala. A questionnaire-based study (online survey) of 22 questions was designed and adopted from similar studies to assess the knowledge and attitude among nurses regarding hearing impairment among neonatal population. A total of 115 nurses working in hospitals has been participated on this study. Need of the study: A questionnaire was developed in Malayalam language to assess knowledge and attitude among Malayalam speaking nurses regarding hearing impairment in neonatal hearing screening which is important for early intervention because it helps in understanding if the baby has hearing loss which can lead to language delay and other issues as well. In this scenario nurses play an important role for neonatal screening also they should have adequate knowledge about it. Soon after the birth nurses fulfils specialty duties carried out within intensive care unit (ICU) also helps in taking decision-making in technology wise that is available to care for the neonates. Several studies were done in other Indian languages to evaluate the knowledge and attitude of medical professionals like pediatricians, nurses etc. To fill this lacunae, it is essential to develop a questionnaire in Malayalam language to assess nurse’s knowledge on prenatal history, birth history, medical history, importance of early identification of hearing loos, need of amplification devices, and mode of rehabilitation services needed for babies with hearing loss and their attitudes regarding the cause and management of hearing loss. Objective of the study: 1. To develop a questionnaire in Malayalam language to assess proficiency of current practice in neonatal hearing screening among nurses in Kerala. 2. To assess knowledge and attitude of nurses towards neonatal hearing screening and the issues related to it. Methodology: 115 nurses in the age group of 21-25years who used Malayalam as their native language were selected who were working at primary nursing care, corporate and government hospitals and had a minimum education up to graduation level (B.Sc. Nursing).Nurses who had a qualification of B.Sc. nursing with minimum 2-3years of experience was included for the study. A questionnaire based study of 22 question was developed in Malayalam language by translating English questionnaire developed by Sanju, Aggarwal, Chaudhary, Yadav (2018) which was validated by 4 audiologist who were fluent in both English and Malayalam language. Data required was collected by distributing questionnaire developed in Malayalam language to all subjects chosen as sample. The questionnaire consisted of 22 questions based on knowledge and attitude level of questions. Questionnaire was based on a 3-point rating scale which includes Yes, No or Not sure. 20 questions had a scoring of 3-point rating scale, 1 question had a scoring of only YES or No and remaining 1 question had a scoring of ENT or Audiologist. Statistical Analysis: Collected data was analyzed by frequency, mean and Standard Deviation. Results and Discussion: On examining the table 4.1 and the figures, majority of the nurses (100%) are aware or have knowledge about the question no. 20 followed by question no.12, question no.16,question no.8, question no. 9,question no.7&11,question no.1,10&18,question no.3,question no.9,question no.10,question no 6 and question 4 respectively. The table 4.2 and figures reveal that 96.5% of nurses show positive attitude towards the question number 21 followed by question no.14,question no.13,question no.14,question no.22 and question no.17 respectively. Conclusion The findings shows that nurses have positive knowledge and attitude towards newborn hearing screening. Limitations of the study • Limited sample size • Age range above 25year old was not focused in this present study. • Only 7 questions where there to assess the attitude of nurses towards newborn hearing screening and the issues related to it. Future direction • Sample size can be increased • More question can be included to assess the attitude ,knowledge and practices towards newborn hearing screening • Comparative study can be done on primary nursing care, corporate and government hospitals.

Effects of Covid-19 Prevention Measures on Supply Chain Performance in Pharmaceutical Distribution Firms in Rwanda []

Supply disruptions during the first year of Covid-19 pandemic have been common, but few literatures about Rwanda have statistically evidenced the association between covid-19 prevention measures and the performance of pharmaceutical distribution. This study aimed at analyzing the effects social distancing practices, Covid-19 screening practices and the use of personal protective equipment on supply chain performance in pharmaceutical distribution firms in Rwanda during the first year of the pandemic. A cross-sectional exploratory study directed questionnaires to 102 staff from wholesale pharmacies in Kigali and the multiple regression model was run to test predicted hypotheses about variables. The high association between decreased supply chain performance and increased social distancing practices implemented was detected (n=102, β= 0.857, t=16.8, p=0.000). However, a very low association between decreased supply chain performance and increased number of people screened for covid-19 (n=102, β= 0.128, t=1.965, p=0.078) as well as increased use of personal protective equipment (n=102, B = -0.093, t= -1.423, p= 0.158) were noticed. This study recommends other interventions to attenuate their effects on supply chain while implementing social distancing practices. Further studies should consider assessing the relationship between other covid19 prevention measures and the performance of supply chain in diverse sectors.

The effect of 200mg dosage of tramadol on the Seminiferous tubules and Spermatozoa production of a male wistar rat []

Tramadol hydrochloride is a synthetic opioid analgesic that is centrally acting drug widely used in the treatment of acute and chronic pain but its now a commonly abused erotic drug that recently has gained popularity among young men. This study aimed to evaluate the chronic toxic effects of tramadol on the reproductive system and sperm production of male albino rats. This experiment was carried out on 40 rats divided into two groups. The first group (control group) included 20 rats and received normal saline 0.1%  ml/day orally for 8 weeks. The second group (tramadol group) included 20 rats and received tramadol 200 mg/kg subcutaneously three times per week for 8 weeks. Blood samples were obtained from the animals and analyzed for serum testosterone, FSH, LH and prolactin levels. Also, the testes were excised and examined for histopathological changes.


This article aims to examine the use of fish offal into liquid fertilizer in terms of the manufacturing process and the quality of the liquid fertilizer obtained. Based on the results of the literature study, information was obtained that the method of making liquid organic fertilizer for fish offal waste can be done using the Bakasang method, the method of adding the banana kepok peel component, the method of adding the MOL component of banana hump and the method of adding the EM-4 component. The quality of the liquid fertilizer obtained has a positive impact on plant growth.

REVIEW ARTICLE : Utilization Of Pangasius sp Fish Bone Flour In Various Kinds Of Food Products []

The purpose of this paper is to review research on pangasius bone meal in various processed food products. Fish waste from fishery processing can be used as a variety of food products. One of them is the utilization of Pangasius sp. bone waste into various calcium-rich food products such as vermicelli, biscuits, cookies, crackers, and can also be added to traditional regional foods such as Ilabulo. The addition of pangasius bone meal had a significant effect on calcium levels, namely vermicelli (82.1 mg), biscuits (47.7 mg/100 g), crackers (568.345 mg/100g), biscuits (88.96% and 95.06%) and traditional Ilabulo food (0.315%)


The purpose of this article is to review the best use of the type of packaging materials for presto bandeng. Based on literature studies obtained information that the use of pp plastic material type is better than with the type of PE plastic material for packaging bandeng presto and other fishery processed products.

Role of small scale miners towards the performance of mining projects in Rwanda. Case of Piran Rwanda ltd []

The cornerstone of effective performance towards different projects bridges the gap between management and the Board of Directors, assesses the ethical climate and the effectiveness and efficiency of operations and overall best projects practices. ASM relies on a mostly unskilled workforce using rudimentary tools and techniques. Unsurprisingly, its environmental and safety practices tend to be very poor. This study therefore focused on the role of small scale miners (ASM) on perfomance of mining projects in Rwanda. Case study of Piran Rwanda ltd mining projects from 2015 to 2020. The specific objectives are: «to determine the effects of operational incentivesto small scale miners on performance of mining projects; to assess the effects of capacity building to small scale miners on performance of mining projects and to analyse the effects of market price determination (access to markets) to small scale miners on performance of mining projects ». The researcher used related theories as Development Planning Theory. The research used the total population of 114 participants and then sample size of 89 respondents as employees of Piran Rwanda Ltd were chosen in order to provide information through simple random sampling technique, where research tools are questionnaire, interview and documentation techniques. Therefore, the data were tested through SPSS. The R2 equals to 0.969 (96.9%) and Adjusted R2 equals to 0.965 (96.5%), show the goodness of fit of the estimated model. Up to 96.9% of long-run appreciation in performance of mining projects of Piran Rwanda Ltd is influenced by changes in operational incentives; capacity building; market price determination as implemented by mining projects of Piran Rwanda Ltd. Therefore, the researcher can conclude by saying that the research hypotheses including: “H1: operational incentives has statistical effects towards performance of mining projects of Piran Rwanda Ltd; H2: capacity building has statistical effects towards performance of mining projects of Piran Rwanda Ltd and H3: market price determination has statistical effects towards performance of mining projects of Piran Rwanda Ltd”; all were tested; verified and then they are confirmed referring to the statistical (regression analysis) findings and then according to the research, the correlation of 0.916 (91.6%) is located in the interval [0.75 - 1.00], categorized as positive and very high correlation; this leads to confirm that there is significant relationship between small scale miners with its observed indicators (factors) and performance of mining projects of Piran Rwanda Ltd.

Response of cowpea varieties to sources and rates of phosphorus in ogbomoso []

Purpose: response of cowpea varieties to sources and rates of phosphorus in ogbomoso. Methodology:The field Experiment was conducted at the teaching and research farm,ladoke akintola University of technology ogbomoso in order to obtain a significant variation for most of the soil physical and chemical Properties conducted after harvesting which signifies that the cowpea varieties and phosphorus level had differing effects on soil composition. Findings:The observed variation in the performance of the cowpea varieties used Could provide a basis for selecting cowpea lines With greater agronomic efficiency in phosphorus deficient soils to reduce fertilizer cost, however,it could be used In an initial assessment of large number of breeder lines, these variations could be important for selecting varieties suitable for a range of Soil phosphorus conditions as well as to release to Farmers on large scale production. Unique contribution to theory and Practice: however it could therefore be concluded that IT99K-573-2-1 and phosphorus application rate of 40 kg ha Is ideal for soils low in Phosphorus and Is thus recommended for farmers in derived Savannah agro-ecology Of Nigeria for enhancement of cowpea yield.


This study utilized concurrent triangulation mixed methods research (MMR) to explore the key determinants of the causes, and experiences in mathematical competence of Grade 7 students in Davao City. Descriptive statistics were used such as mean and standard deviation to describe the status of self-efficacy, anxiety, and mathematical achievement of grade 7 students. Linear regression was used to assess the influence of the two independent variables to mathematical achievement. The respondents of this study were two hundred (200) grade 7 students of three private schools in Toril, Davao City of Region XI. The insights on the contribution of self-efficacy and anxiety on mathematical achievement were expressed on self-efficacy which had the core ideas such as facilitate advance learning, motivates to solve Math problems independently, boosts confidence and self-esteem, and more engagement in class; and, on anxiety, core ideas are the following: Diminishes self-confidence and self-esteem, generate doubts on one’s capacity, cause stress that adversely affects performance in Math, hinders active participation in class discussions, and leads to an inability to understand, the diverse learning characteristics displayed by students in today’s schools make it necessary for teachers to implement a wide variety of activities in their classes to extensively cater to one’s academic dilemma. Keywords: self-efficacy, anxiety, mixed methods, mathematics, correlation achievement, thematic analysis, Philippines


ABSTRACT This research examined the extent of motivation in terms of intrinsic and extrinsic factors and the level of English Literacy Development of high school students in Cotabato City in terms of speaking, reading and writing using descriptive correlational research design to the 85 respondents who were English teachers using total enumeration sampling technique. The study used the mean and Pearson r Product Moment Correlation in data analysis. The findings revealed that the extent of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation factors of the students were motivated which means that motivation plays a vital role in students’ English Literacy development. Moreover, the level of English literacy development in terms of writing, reading and speaking were all developed which shows that students have already learned basic skills in English language, yet still needed to be improved. The correlational analysis between the motivation and English literacy development of the students revealed a significant relationship. Therefore, the null hypothesis was rejected. This signifies the contribution of motivation to the competency development of the students. The findings further revealed that the higher is the extent of motivation, the higher is the development of the students’ English literacy skills. Thus, the study concludes that motivation is an essential factor for students’ English literacy development. The contribution of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation can drive students to study hard, focus on their lectures and gain knowledge due to their commitment in learning as a result of the motivation to work harder in their studies. The study recommended the integration of motivational drivers in the teachers’ learning activities and teaching strategies to develop students’ interest in enhancing their English Literacy. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Keywords: Examining Motivation, English Literacy Development, High School Students, Cotabato City, Philippines


With the ongoing of the covid-19 pandemic, which has already spread to over 222 nations worldwide, covid-19 has become a major dangerous respiratory illness that causes about 219 million cases and 4.55 million fatalities globally. As a result, several vaccines are being developed to assist ease the issue. In order to cure this condition as soon as possible, the approach of combining several types of vaccinations is applied for individuals who develop an adverse allergic response to the first vaccine and used as a booster or third dose vaccination. Many studies have shown that heterologous vaccination using a viral vector vaccine as the first dose and an mRNA vaccine as the second dose results in better protective immunity. Similarly, employing a viral vector vaccine as a prime dose followed by an inactivated vaccine resulted in a stronger immune response. However, the initial vaccination with an mRNA vaccine and the second immunization with a viral vector platform result in a reduced level of protective immunity. For safety concerns, heterologous prime-boost immunization is also approved as a safe option, showing only minor side effects. In conclusion, the mix-and-match vaccine approach can elicit greater immunity depending on the sequence of vaccine type immunization.


Technology and globalization is fundamentally changing the role of the nation-state, making governments both larger and smaller. Rwanda, a small, landlocked country in central Africa, has the fastest-growing OLPC project in Africa, planning to double as stipulated in its Vision 2020. The general objective of this study was to investigate the causes of failures of One Laptop Per Child as one of the Rwandan Government projects in Musanze district from 2018 to 2020 and find out the challenges of One laptop Per Child implementation. The specific objectives of this research were: To examine the effect of Poor management of the project on the failure of One Laptop Per Child project in Rwanda; To establish the effect of Inadequate quality of the product on the failure of One Laptop Per Child project in Rwanda and To evaluate the effect of Inadequate distribution on the failure of One Laptop Per Child project in Rwanda. stakeholder theory and Resource-Based View (RBV) Theory was used in this research. This study adopted a convergent or parallel or concurrent mixed methods design. After using Yamane formula of sample determination and got the above results and the researcher was obliged to use a sample of 164 informants including 42 head teachers, 122 teachers from the public primary schools of Musanze District. Random sampling method was employed when selecting respondents. This study used questionnaire, interview in collecting primary data and document analysis in collecting secondary data. The researcher evaluated the mean by using these equivalences. The model that was used in this study is Khi-square test distribution, this facilitated to verify the possible relationship between two categorical variables. From this the researcher find the following: According to table no. 16, the information given above reveals that beta = 0.811, p values were 0.000, and t was 9.911. To summarize, the researcher maintained the positive hypothesis and found that Poor management of the project affects the failure of One Laptop Per child project since the p value was less than 0.05.The information presented above reveals that beta = 0.706, p values were 0.000, and t was 5.148 while analyzing table no.17. Overall, the researcher maintained the positive hypothesis and found that inadequate quality of the product influences the failure of One laptop per child project in Rwanda since the p value was less than 0.05. According to table no. 18, the information given reveals beta = 0.631, p values of 0.000, and t of 9.630. To summarize, the researcher maintained the positive hypothesis and found that inadequate distribution influences the failure of One Laptop Per Child since the p value was less than 0.05. The Pearson Chi-Square resulted with a value 46.028, the p value was 0.000 indicated that the two variables had a relationship since the asympt. Sig. values was less than 0.05. poor management of the project does, in fact, lead to failure of One Laptop Per Child project, as evidenced by the p value in the results. As a result, the researcher confirmed that one variable affect another and this relationship was significant and understandable. The researcher conclude by recommending the following: In fact, there is lack of risk assessment in most of public institutions including schools. Since every project involve risks, the government need to consider employing professionals who knows much more about risk assessment while conducting any project that will affect the general public. Together with poor communication and lack of planning in government institutions, hiring these professional will enable government to track the progress of its projects and project the durability of the project. Government will need to increase the level of monitoring its projects so as to minimize the risk of corruption while distributing its services. Once the project involve corruption, there is a higher risk of failing and could not produce the desired results. Government need to sensitize people about the use of collaborating with authorities to distribute common interests and participate in promoting general wellbeing of the people. By doing this, the government will be able to distribute equally the services that must be accessible by every citizen as well


The paper attempted to establish a historical study and the impact of tourism on the social and economic development of Livingstone town in Northern Rhodesia from 1905-1964. The study used a qualitative type of research based primarily on materials collected by researchers from various literatures and the oral interviews were used to elicit data. This study revealed that tourism in Livingstone which was boasted by the discovery of the falls by the Scottish explorer's journey and first sight of the falls in 1855, opened up Central Africa to other missionaries, hunters and traders. This was how development started in Livingstone and became one of the first white settlements in Northern Rhodesia (Zambia) and for quite a while it was the only urban centre in the territory and the gateway to the north. The study also reveals that the town has preserved much of its colonial character, but is a typical African town with a busy fascination. Key words: Livingstone, tourism, whites, impact and Development.


This study is to find out the factors that leads to a failure to observe reasonable standard of care and ascertained the strategies that could be adopted to observe a reasonable standard of care in secondary schools in Rivers State. A descriptive survey research design was adopted. Two research questions were posed in line with the objectives of the study. The population of the study consisted of 7,820 teachers in the 532 public and approved secondary schools in Rivers State. A sample of 410 public and 390 private secondary school teachers were randomly drawn from 28 public and 22 private secondary schools in the State. The instrument for the study was a 16-item questionnaire addressing the research questions and eliciting Yes or No responses. Simple percentages and tables were used in analyzing the data obtained from the field. The study revealed among other things that non assessment of risk to safety of students by schools; staff engagement in sexual harassment of students; non provision of suitable and safe premises; inadequate system of supervision are factors that lead to a failure to observe a reasonable standard of care in secondary schools in Rivers State. Some of the recommendations were that government should establish safety, health and welfare legislation and common law duties of care that set down specific requirements for school owners and employees, Secondary school principals should ensure the provision of adequate system of supervision in order to identify risk factors and devise precautionary measures.

Clinical Implications of thrombotic microvascular angiopathy (TMA) in severe and critical COVID-19 patients []

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus has a great role in causing respiratory illness in humans and has the most important relationship of its spike proteins with host ACE-2 receptors. After entry into the human body, the viral S protein receptor-binding the domain binds to the human ACE-2 receptor. Spike protein is split from the cleavage site along with its two subunits S1 and S2 then during this process. S2 subunit releases RBD (Receptor- Binding Domain) of S1 mediated to the ACE-2. The RBD of S1 consists of 200 amino acid domains. The sample size was 350 patients between ages 48 years+_2 years. Out of these patients that were screened, 141 were classified as a severe and critical stage of the disease and hence serve as subject to this focused study. The effects of this virus on platelets are rather erratic and unusual with a slight decrease in the number of platelets. The raised number of d-dimers in the blood of patients has been observed resulting in an elevated level of LDH.


The current study aimed to investigate the MPD and S/Z ratio to identify the changes in the voices of Malayalam speaking Theyyam artists and politicians, with professional experience of 5-10 years. The subjects selected were a total of 60 individuals, out of which 20 were healthy, normal adults, 20 were politicians, and 20 were theyyam artists. The age of the participants ranged from 25 to 45 years. Subjects who had undergone medical or surgical management for voice disorders, habitual alcohol consumption, or smoking were excluded from the study. The participants were informed about the study's aim and were asked to sign a consent form. Following that, a detailed case history was compiled. After that, a voice sample was taken and analyzed for aerodynamic evaluation. The data were statistically evaluated to determine the significance of the difference. The results suggest that there was a highly significant difference in individual voice characteristics – MPD and S/Z ratio – between healthy, normal adults (group 1) and politicians (group 2), followed by theyyam artists (group 3), and no significant difference between theyyam artists (group 3) and politicians (group 2), followed by healthy, normal adults (group 1). Hence, the recent study suggests that it is necessary to have timely and regular follow-up to assess any change in the voice characteristics of theyyam artists and politicians using aerodynamic measures and to decide whether any therapeutic intervention is needed or not.

Design and fabrication of cam operated punching press machine []

Punching operations are commonly used for making the holes in the sheet metals. A literature survey was done in order to study the different punching presses methods used in industries. Based on the survey, the most of the industries used crank lever mechanical press and hydraulic & pneumatic presses for punching operations. By operating of pneumatic systems required compressed air and running cost is not economical. If go for hydraulic system, it is occupied more space and also operating speed is very low. The proposed mechanical cam operated design is very suitable for punching operation. Mechanical system is more economical and more reliable. This proposed Designed two pillar sliding mechanism with cam operation for converting the rotary motion to liner motion instead of cranks & lever mechanism. In this method the force applied based on the compression spring force & high torque transmitted from the helical gear box. This method, as we hope that it can be operated easily with semi-skilled operators and run at high speed. Hence this concept mechanism is very suitable for making mass production of the sheet metal punching, blanking & stamping operation in automotive industries.

Appraisement of deforestation antecedents, upshots, and approaches to mitigate the impacts on provincial people of Oriire Local Government Area in Oyo State. []

This study examined the antecedents, upshots of deforestation and the approaches to mitigate deforestation in some selected villages in Oriire Local Government Area of Oyo State. Questionnaires designed to obtained desirability related information on the antecedents and the upshots of deforestation in their villages and the approaches of controlling them. Data collected from 120 people in the villages using a set of structured questionnaire. Data analysed using descriptive statistics such as percentages and frequency. Findings revealed that the major occupations in the study area are agriculture (60%), followed by trading (17.5%), civil servant (8.3%) and others (14.2%). As revealed by the respondents, the main antecedents of deforestation in the study area include the following: Agriculture (37.5%), charcoal making (26.7%), overpopulation and poverty (15%), illegal logging, fuel wood removal (9.2%), and overgrazing (5.8%). However, it discovered that climate change (29.2%) was the major upshot of deforestation in the study area, followed by social consequence (25%), habitat and biodiversity (22.5%), soil erosion (15.8%) and economic losses (7.5%). The major approaches to reduce deforestation in the study area has revealed by the respondents, include community forest management (15%), environment education on forest management (20.8%), Restoration of degraded forest (16.7%), policy and government reform, (25%) and encouraging substitute was (22.5%). Recommendations suggested by the respondent were: government laws and policy should be strictly enforced against deforestation nationwide, and poverty alleviation program should be encouraged. However, other cheaper accessible source of energy instead of charcoal should be encouraged to deter people from deforestation; however, agroforestry, afforestation, education, and provision of alternative livelihood for the people were good recommendations suggested.

Essay article []

Foreign aid is usually associated with official development assistance, which consist grants and concessional loans, flowing to the poorest countries. In light of this, this essay tried to see the relationships between China and Africa after the rise of China. In so doing, selected cases from the literature of others work are consulted. And, the central argument of the essay is that the rise of China as a new donor is considered as an alternative development ally by African states. However, this tends to serve the interests of authoritarian governments at the expense of majority of the ordinary people. Hence, it suggests that the development assistance, which is obtained from bilateral or multilateral relationships including China, could complement the development of Africa. But, this primarily had better put the interests of majority of the ordinary people at the center.


The scarcity of water, lack of irrigation water management and erratic rainfall distribution is the major problem in the study areas. To handle scarce supplies, deficit irrigation is an important tool to achieve the goal of reducing irrigation water use and increase water use efficiency (WUE) under scarce water resources. A field experiment was designed as two factors factorial in RCBD; with three-time replicates. The two factors of the experiment were irrigation systems and water application levels. Irrigation depth was monitored using a Parshall Flume of an opening diameter of 3 inches with the discharge of 1.705l/s ahead of 5cm. The interaction effects of irrigation systems and water application levels showed that there is significant yield differences among the two irrigation systems and Maximum yield was obtained from the CFI system with 100% ETC. However, from economic analysis results, the AFI system with 75% ETc water application level had a better marginal rate of return (387.02%). The water saved by alternative furrow irrigation with (75% ETc) may be used to irrigate additional area that would provide additional crop production. Those based on the results, the AFI system with 75%ETC is taken as favorable for conservation of water (2106.75m3/ha)and labor-saving with a minimum reduction of yield.


Determination of heavy metals in soil and tomato grown in Panshakara Challawa Industrial Area of Kano state was analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) the study was only on one species (Cheery) which was collected from Challawa industrial area of Kano state, the samples were identified at Biological Science Department Ahmadu Bello University, it was washed blended and the samples were digested and analyzed the result obtained shows the concentration of heavy metals such as Fe, Cr, Cd, Pb in fruits tomatoes grown in Panshakara Industrial area of Kano state to be 0.0477 ppm, 0.0036 ppm, 0.1699 ppm, 0.0069 ppm. And the concentration in soil to be 0.2000 ppm, 0.2324 ppm, 0.0064 ppm, 0.0560 ppm. As a result, the relative abundance of heavy metals in tomatoes samples was observed as Fe, Cr, Cd, Pd. According to the result of this study it can be said that tomatoes fruits reflect heavy metals amount well in polluted areas such as Challawa industrial area road side when compare to unpolluted (control) areas with their wash and unwashed sample.


The importance of roads network in the economic growth of any country is generally recognized. However, according to several researchers, most road construction projects are not completed on time and time overrun is seen as a global common problem in roads construction projects.The pur-pose of this study was to assess factors leading to time overruns in the road construction projects at Nyungwe belt roads construction project, western province, Rwanda. This study was guided by the theory of constraints and the Agency theory. It employed descriptive research design and explanatory research design. The study targeted key employees whose positions included project managers, site engineers, project engineers, team leader’s supervision, site supervisors, work conductors who actively were involved in the execution of the case study roads works. The study adopted a purposive sampling technique and the sample size was 46 respondents. Structured questionnaires on 5-points Likert scale were used to collect data and data analysis employed descriptive statistic and bivariate correlation analysis, where r the coefficient was extracted to establish relationship between the variables.The results posted a correlation coefficient r = 0.443 and p = 0.004 < .05) which designated a positive and signifi-cant relationship between the factors of delay from the contractor’s side and time overruns in road construction projects. The results for the factors of delay from the client’s side and time overruns in road construction projects had r = .336 and P = .020 < .05 which indicated a positive and signifi-cant relationship.The results posted a correlation coefficient r = 0.482 and p = 0.002 < .05) which designated a positive relationship, significant, strong relationship between the factors of delay from the consultant’s side and time overruns in road construction projects. The external factors of delays and time overruns in road construction projects had r = .456 and p=.003 < .05 which designated a positive, strong and significant relationship. The resulsults show that the factors of delay from the four sides have a significant contribution to time overruns in road construction projects in Rwanda. The contractors, client and consultant should put much effort in avoiding those limiting factors of delay from their side in order to avoid or limit the time overruns in road construction project in Rwanda. The researcher recommends that a study should be carried out to assess the recommended measures to avoid or limit the impact of the contractor’s side, clients’ side, consultants’ side, and external factors leading to time overruns towards the timely completion of roads construction project in Rwanda.

Pastoral Care Approach on Youth Perception oF Pre-Marital Counseling In Amazing Grace Baptist Association,Ekiti Conference, Nigeria []

The researcher was prone to research into the Pastoral Care approach on Youth perception of Pre-marital Counseling in Amazing Grace Baptist Association because of the negative attitude of some youth in relation to pre-marital counselling. The aim of this study is to investigate the perception and participation of youth on pre-marital counselling in Amazing Grace Baptist Association. Descriptive survey was adopted, a questionnaire was used in the process of data collection. The population was youth of the Amazing Grace Baptist Association in Ekiti Conference. The sample was ninety members and ten pastors drawn from 13 local churches in the Association. The data collected were analyzed using simple percentages. The findings of research revealed that sexual immorality is common among our youth and some pastors contributed to it due to their negligence at duties. The result also revealed that pre-marital counseling builds the needed foundation for a healthy and blissful home. The contribution of this study to knowledge is that It will help churches, youth, parents and individuals in solving marital problems and reduce the issues of divorce that are common in some OF Christian marriages today. Also, it will open the youth to the danger of not partaking in pre-marital counselling. This researcher recommends that the youth should come to the saving knowledge of Jesus Christ, pre-marital counseling should start from courtship period and churches should ensure that personnel involved in pre-marital counseling should be well trained.


Fatigue cracks have emerged as an important issue in the joints and connections of existing steel structures over the last few decades. Therefore, these are the main inspection and maintenance items for steel structure operators. This underscores the importance of determining crack size using reliable detection methods and assessing the severity of such cracks with respect to the structural integrity of the structure. In this article, we investigated the effectiveness of strain measurement in detecting fatigue cracks in lateral unloaded support welded attachments that receive an out-of-plane axial load. Numerical analysis and experimental research have been able to correlate the strain reduction measured by the attached gauge to the crack depth at the weld toe. In addition, various strain growth patterns were found during the fatigue test, and the fracture surface of the test piece was observed to interpret these patterns. In addition, the location of cracks relative to the weld toe was predicted by strain measurements.


Waste from the fish fillet industry includes fish scales. One of the compounds contained in fish scales is chitin which can be acetylated into chitosan. This article aims to examine the manufacture of bioplastics from chi-tosan extracted from fish scales. Based on the results of the literature study above, it can be concluded that the manufacture of bioplastics from chitosan extracted from fish scales is through the stages of mixing (chitosan, acetic acid and sorbitol), molding and drying.

Study of the Best Regions of Solar Radiation in Egypt []

Abstract - The aim of this work is studying and predicting solar radiation in various regions in Egypt along full year and from this study we could obtain the best regions which have high mean solar radiation and be best for solar energy projects. We predict the daily and monthly averages of instant solar radiation Rpr(W/m2) by using the recorded data temperature Tm in 2012 in nine different sites in Egypt; Fayoum, Marsa-Alam, El-Arish, Aswan, Cairo, Luxor, Marsa-Matruh, Taba and Asyut. These places were selected as a wide distribution in order to cover most different regions in Egypt. Also, the daily global solar radiation RG is estimated for each region. The predicted solar radiation Rpr is calculated by using the corresponding measured temperature Tm in various months. Also, a FORTRAN computational language has been employed to achieve all the required calculations.

Lived Experiences of Road Traffic Accident Victims on Rehabilitation Counselling at A Selected Orthopedic Hospital in Lusaka District, Zambia []

The paper presents experiences of road accidents victims in terms of the rehabilitation counselling they received. An interpretative phenomenological design was used. To this effect, twenty participants were interviewed. The results indicated that rehabilitation counselling was viewed to be very important in helping the victims of road traffic accidents to live and cope with life after an accident. Although the victims acknowledged the importance of rehabilitation counselling they received, most of them experienced the need for qualified rehabilitation counsellors. In addition, victims needed counsellors to talk to them when they were in hospital ward or during hospital reviews. Participants added that they experienced inadequate supportive aids. Based on the findings, there was need that the Ministry of Health formulates a policy for every hospital to have trained rehabilitation counsellors. Additionally, the hospital should ensure that victims of road traffic accident have access to walking aids such as wheel chairs, artificial limbs, orthoses, and crutches to ensure that they are accorded an opportunity to live a meaningful life.


Facility location decisions are taken at almost all areas of life. These decisions are usually a strategic issue. Industries and government agencies must decide the location of facilities to maximise utility. The focal point of most facility location studies is the owner of the system. In this research, we looked at location of health care access points for patients with Chronic health conditions, from the perspective of the patient. We noted that this category of patients most likely to have social, cultural, and political considerations in their associations including choice of points of healthcare access. We introduced a few modifications to the classical set covering facility location model to achieve this. We considered each chronic challenge as a scenario. We introduced a quality threshold for each patient location below which a service provider is not considered a candidate facility. The study thereby recommended the modified model for application in the location of counselling centres, location of screening centres for illnesses that could attract stigmatization e.g. HIV Aids or other viral infections, location of collection centres for volunteer information to security organizations, location of feedback systems in military settings, among others.


Hearing is one of the most important primary senses which helps us to communicate smoothly with the hearing world. Unfortunately, the sense of hearing is often neglected and people usually fail to realize its importance unless it is diminished or reduced gradually. According to World Health Organization (WHO), 2015) 6.3% of Indians are suffering from significant auditory loss. Hearing is important aspect to learn communication. Babies start hearing sounds before they are born. After birth, they watch their parent's facial expression and gestures. The baby's hearing system continues to develop every day. At three months old, babies will smile when spoken to, and at six months old they will begin to babble and imitate certain sounds. If your baby cannot hear, this process of development will be slowed down and can be detrimental to the cognitive development of your baby. Auditory stimuli during the first 6 months of life are critical for the development of speech and language skills. Several studies have shown that infants who receive intervention before the age of 6 months have better school outcomes, and improved language and communication skills by ages 2 to 5 years. Without early intervention, children with hearing loss will show irreversible deficit in communication, psychosocial skills and literacy. They are more likely to have academic underachievement, problems with employment and psychological distress. Universal newborn hearing screening became mandatory in Minnesota in September 2007 under Minnesota Statute. This legislation has greatly enhanced the comprehensive system of hearing screening for all newborns. The objective of the Minnesota Department of health (MDH) Newborn Screening/ Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) program is to ensure that all infants are screened, test results are promptly reported, and all infants who do not pass their hearing screening are referred to an audiologist or other professional for diagnostic evaluation. Nurses in neonatal care should have knowledge on conditions of neonate’s state regularly soon after birth and the specialists available for medical management. With increased awareness, nurses can ensure that infants are screened accurately and that families receive referrals for the services they require. This educational activity provides an overview of newborn screening and the processes needed to avoid false-positive or false-negative results. It also discusses several diseases individually and provides information about different modes of inheritance. Professionals who care for newborns should know which conditions their state regularly screens for at birth and the specialists available for medical management. With increased awareness, nurses can ensure that infants are screened accurately and that affected families receive prompt referrals for the services they require. This educational activity provides an overview of newborn screening and the processes needed to avoid false-positive or false-negative results. It also discusses several diseases individually and provides information about different modes of inheritance. Medical Professionals who play a key role in the ICU as they can identify high risk babies who need audiological intervention, provided they should have adequate knowledge available in relation to different facts about pediatric hearing loss. To provide appropriate information to the nurses, audiologists should have basic layout regarding the status of the nurses in respect to the knowledge and attitude-related pediatric hearing loss and significant audiological management. The present research is being conducted to assess the knowledge and attitude of issues in pediatric hearing loss among nurses in Tamil Nadu. The aim of the study is to investigate knowledge and attitude regarding the pediatric hearing loss related to it among nurses in different health sectors in Tamil Nadu. Need of the study: Doctors, Audiologists and Nurses have an important in the neonatal hearing screening program. Nurses play an important contribution in coordinating first level detection and intervention and connectivity nurses could receive training in intervention and how to work with parents of hearing impaired. Audiologist monitor the program outcome measure for quality assurance for neonatal screening and provide the outcome of early identification and intervention program and neonatal hearing screening draws attention to the positive attitude by the nurses and also exhibited a sheds light on the knowledge gap drives to enhance a better neonatal hearing screening. The present study attempts to evaluate the knowledge and attitude of nurses in the area of issues in pediatric and newborn hearing loss in hospital in Tamil Nadu. Aim of the study: The aim of the current study was to adapt a questionnaire from English developed by Sanju, Aggarwal, Choudhary and Yadav (2018) consisting of 22 questions related to hearing loss in neonates and it was translated to Tamil language which was given to nurses via online survey to evaluate their knowledge regarding hearing loss in neonates and attitude towards hearing impairment will be asked in order to assess their knowledge. The translated study was validated by 4 speech language pathologist who was fluent in both English and Tamil. Methodology 115 nurses were selected who were working at primary nursing care, corporate and government hospitals and had a minimum education up to graduation level (B.Sc. Nursing). The mother tongue of all the participants was Tamil simultaneously had a good knowledge in English. The subject Inclusion criteria: Nurses who had a qualification of B.Sc. nursing with minimum 2-3years of experience was included for the study. Knowledge and attitude of nurses towards neonatal hearing screening translated in Tamil which was adapted from Sanju, Aggarwal, Choudhary and Yadav (2018). Data required was collected by distributing questionnaire developed in Tamil language to all subjects chosen as sample. The questionnaire consisted of 22 questions based on knowledge and attitude level of questions. Questionnaire was based on a 3-point rating scale which includes Yes, No or Not sure. 20 questions had a scoring of 3-point rating scale, 1 question had a scoring of only YES or No and remaining 1 question had a scoring of ENT or Audiologist. Collected data was summarized by calculating percentage of each question, mean, standard deviation and frequency. Result and discussion On examining the table 4.1 and figures, majority of the nurses are aware or have knowledge about the question no.20 had the highest percentage of awareness followed by question no.17, question no. 16, question no.12, question no.8 & 9, question no.5, question no.3& 7, question no.10, question no.4, question no.6, question no.2, question no. 18, question no.1 respectively. And table 4.2 and figures reveal that 96.5% of nurses shows positive attitude the question 21 & 17 followed by question no.14, question no.15, question no.13, question no.11, question no.22 respectively. Conclusion The results of the present study shows a positive attitude and adequate knowledge towards newborn hearing screening Limitations of the study: Limited sample size. Age range above 25years old was not focused on this present study. Only 7 questions were there to assess the attitude of nurses towards newborn hearing screening and issues related to it.


This unexpected gloomy occasion brought by COVID-19 tested the fragility of our education systems. This paper viewed several articles that discuss parental engagement on the modular teaching approach. Moreover, this paper also includes determining several challenges confronted by the parents and parents' role in the child's education. This paper pointed up the high engagement of parents in modular distance learning. It was evident how parents diligently and responsibly played their part as co-teaching in their child's education in this new standard time. Since change is unavoidable, everyone is still muddling through these challenging times. Therefore, the literature reviewed conveys scanty findings on parents' tenacity schemes and coping mechanisms in managing and supporting modular distance learning.

The Investigation of the extent to which Induction Training Influence Employees’ Performance in Mufindi District Council []

According to the development of today’s global market, schools are continuously seeking ways to grow and keep competitive through several deliberately planned, implemented and monitored activities. One of these activities is through induction which is a form of training. In this paper, I investigate the extent to which induction training influence employees’ performance in Mufindi District Council. A study was descriptive survey design, where quantitative and qualitative approaches using descriptive statistics and content analysis was used to analyse data for advancing argument on influence of induction training on employees’ performance. Findings show that it is important to perform induction trainings to employees as to get the general picture of the institution with the aim of influencing employees’ job performance. The study concludes that it is important to conduct conducting induction trainings to new employees as it requires employee to get familiar with their working environment before embarking in their job position so as to increase their job performance. Schools managements are required to allocate funds for training programs to new employees in their schools; this would help to ensure the induction programs are well implemented to new employees in their schools. The study recommends that the management of Mufindi District Council should provide enough funds for induction trainings to new employees in secondary schools in Mufindi District Council. Moreover, the management of Mufindi District Council should ensure that induction trainings to new employees are effectively implemented on time and done with available expertise on induction trainings in their secondary schools.

Logistic Modeling of Normal Ovulation in Selected Women []

The aim of this paper was to accurately model the ovulation interval of selected women in Ika North-East and Ika South Local Government Areas of Delta State in order to estimate the probabilities of normal ovulation amongst them. Data were collected from reproductive women (women that are still ovulating and experiencing menstrual cycles) in the two Local Government Areas. Data Dimension span through their Age, Height, Weight, Work Time, Menstrual Duration, Number of Conceptions, Number of Births, Exposure to Sun and Ovulation Interval. Interviews and questionnaires were administered to the two hundred women considered in the study. The Binary Logistic Regression Model was applied in the analysis of data. A random variable, y_i, was defined as the event that a randomly selected woman was ovulating normally thus, the logistic model estimated the probability, P_i, that the randomly selected woman was ovulating normally. 54 of the 92 women experiencing normal were erroneously estimated to be experiencing non-normal ovulation, giving 41.3% accuracy in this group; 75 of the 108 women experiencing non-normal ovulation were correctly estimated to be actually experiencing non-normal ovulation while 33 of them were erroneously estimated to be experiencing normal ovulation giving 69.44% accuracy in this group. A total of 113 of the 200 women were correctly estimated to be experiencing their actual ovulation while 87 of them were erroneously estimated giving a 56.5% accuracy.