Volume 9, Issue 10, October 2021 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Solution to Collatz Conjecture []


Collatz Conjecture, one of the unsolved problems in mathematics is that for any positive integer, the positive integer is multiplied by 3 and 1 is added if odd, divided by 2 if even. This process is repeated, and the sequence of numbers finally reaches 1. Collatz Conjecture is notoriously escaped all attempted proofs. This paper presents a solution to Collatz Conjecture with a statistical and logical/ mathematical proof. The article demonstrates why Collatz function cannot enter an iterative infinite loop and the function will reach 1 for all positive integers.


ON THE USE STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODEL TO INVESTIGATE RISK FACTORS FOR UNDER-FIVE MORTALITY IN NIGERIA []


This study investigates the effect of some risk factors on the under-five mortality rate in Nigeria. Several factors have been identified as cause of Under-5 mortality and a major public health challenge in developing countries like Nigeria. The previous studies considered birth size, birth space and other health related factors as the major cause to death of under-five children. This current study explored other factors like socioeconomic and environmental factors which can also lead to death of children under-five years using structural equation model and identify other risk factors associated with under-five mortality in Nigeria. The data was obtained from Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey 2018. The results yielded an excellent predictive model which revealed that, the likelihood of under-five mortality among the children of mothers that have no either primary, secondary or tertiary education increase by about 252 compared to children of mothers with education which decrease with 74 rate of mortality of under-5 children. Related literatures were reviewed regarding structural equation model. The results has revealed that socioeconomic factor, environmental factors, women education and health seeking knowledge are the major important risk factors that cause U5M rate in six regions of Nigeria more especially north west regions. It was therefore observed from the results that women in the six geopolitical zones need to improve on their educational status. It was also noted that poverty among households contributes to poor health condition in children, hence lead to death of children under-5 years of age. Therefore, Government, Organization and individuals need to join hands in improving the quality of education of women and in the provision of job opportunities to reduce poverty level.


Genomic characterization of Human Papillomavirus and pathogenesis leading to cervical cancer []


Human papillomaviruses cause cervical and another anogenital carcinoma. This double-stranded virus initially starts with the invasion of stratified epithelia in order to differentiate during its life cycle. Some human papillomavirus-associated proteins target cellular components, especially those involved in DNA damage repair. The epigenetic regulation of host and viral transcription is also involved during this process. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are prevalent and spread through physical contact. If not managed immunologically or by screening, HPV16 can cause almost all cervical cancers globally. The oncoproteins E6 and E7, which disrupt growth regulatory mechanisms, are largely responsible for the carcinogenicity of certain HPV strains. The high risk of human papillomavirus can result in virion-producing infection and continues with abortive and transforming infection. The onset of cancer can develop due to the gradual accumulation of host genetic abnormalities. The most harmful HPV is found in the genus Alpha papillomavirus. Based on genetic distances across viral genomes, they may be categorized into species and types. Current circulating infectious HPVs are a collection of viral genomes that have developed in tandem with the fast growth of the human population. E1 and E2 proteins cause cellular replication of the viral origin in the URR and enter the stable maintenance phase, where viral genome copies are made and chromosomal replication is synchronized. In sub-lineages, D2/D4 variants were prevalent in glandular cervical lesions, whereas A1/A2 variations were detected in the great majority of cervix squamous cell carcinomas.


APPRAISEMENT OF WATER QUALITY INDEX FOR MOST PATRONIZED BORE WELLS IN THE THREE WARDS OF ZING METROPOLIS, NIGERIA []


In this study, water samples were collected from bore wells in (A1, A2 and B) wards in Zing metropolis, which were conveyed to Taraba State Water and Sewerage Corporation, Environmental Laboratory, Jalingo, Headquarters Nigeria, for analysis. It was found that only Temperature (A1=34, A2=35 and B=34) were outside the acceptable limit of WHO/NSDWQ. The results of the water parameters were inputted into Microsoft excel, 2016 to determine the water quality index of each of the three locations. The results of the water quality index show that all the sources of the water are rated good. Base line approach method was employed to compare the water parameters for sources of bore well water A1 in terms of percentage differences and it was found that fluoride has the greatest level of influence on the water quality index by 157.46%, while the influence of TDS is 0.


KNOWLEDGE, PERCEPTION AND PRACTICE ON MANAGEMENT OF CLUBFOOT AMONG HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS IN SELECTED HEALTH CARE FACILITIES IN KIGALI, RWANDA []


Abstract Introduction: In developing countries some public health problems are related to the burden of childhood disability and sometimes are not recognized. Clubfoot is among childhood disabilities that if left untreated lead to permanent disability and affect people’s ability to participate in community activities. This research aims at assessing knowledge, perception and practice on management of clubfoot among health care providers in selected health care facilities in Kigali, Rwanda. The results provided the snapshot of the extent to which medical professionals are aware of the management process of the Clubfoot in Rwanda, hence enabling stakeholders on designing how best the management of the neglected conditions can be dealt in Rwandan Context from policy to practice levels Methods: A cross-sectional research design with both quantitative and qualitative was undertaken to achieve objectives of the study. A sample of 139 health care providers at least of one year working experience in departments related to child health were part of the study. The data were collected by means of adapted questionnaire from other settings and self-administered to the participants. The data were entered in IBM SPSS Version 21 after coding and analyzed. The quantitative data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics, relationship between demographic variables, knowledge, perception and practices were reported by chi-square test at the level of significance < or = to 0.05 and confidence intervals. Thematic analysis was used to analyze qualitative data related to respondents’ perceptions. Results: The respondents were mostly in age range between 30-45 (66%), those over 10 years of working experience (45%) dominated the sample while female constitute the majority of those who responded (61%). The majority 101(73%) of the participants have poor knowledge about clubfoot condition and its management reported it. Only 38(27%) have good knowledge about club foot condition and its management. The study reported relatively good perception towards the management of clubfoot whereby the majority 73% reported positive perceptions while only 27% reported negative perceptions towards the causes of clubfoot. The majority of the participants 85(61%) reported poor practices with regards the management of clubfoot, while only 54(39%) reported good practices. The results reported that working experience above 10 years was 7 times more likely to have good practices towards the management of clubfoot (AOR= 7.721; 95% CI= 1.887-31.595; P= 0.004). Participants with poor knowledge were likely to have poor practices though its likelihood to influence the effect was very low (AOR= 0.068; 95% CI=0.014- 0.338; P= 0.001). Negative perception was likely to influence poor practices (AOR= 9.495; 95% CI=2.467- 36.542; P= 0.001) where participants with negative perception were 9 times more likely to have poor practices towards the management of clubfoot. The levels of knowledge of health care providers on the management of clubfoot were relatively low and influence practices. Conclusion: The present study highlighted the need to increase awareness of clubfoot condition among health care workforce; therefore, strengthening efforts in prevention and management of the condition is requisite to prevent disabilities. Basing on the results, awareness raising manuals and further training are required to boost knowledge about management of clubfoot. Further research also needs to be conducted to point out in depth picture of the condition countrywide and review treatment protocols available. Key words: Knowledge, Perception, Practice, Clubfoot, Rwanda


Mixed fruits wine production from Saccharomyces cerevisiae []


Juices of carrot, orange and, papaya were mixed to produce and investigate, fermented wine by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae (a starter culture). The mixture of these fruits juice has been subjected to anaerobic fermentation. During this period, aliquot samples were used to analyze the various parameters that were pH, specific gravity, temperature, sugar, titrable acidity, alcohol. Analysis of these parameters was done by using the standard protocol. During the investigation of the above mentions, parameters changes were recorded as follows gradual decreases in specific gravity [1.070 to 0.953], change in pH [5.5 to 4.99] increases in alcohol content (0 to 5%) was noted on the final day of fermentation [after 24 days]. The consequence of this study’s reflecting those juices of fruits Papaya, carrot and orange can acceptable for the mixed fruits juice wine with a starter culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.


Effect of Vitamin E on Serum Albumin, Total Protein, Total and Conjugated Bilirubin of Male Wistar Albino Rats infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei. []


The research was undertaken to determine the effect of vitamin E serum albumin, total protein, total and conjugated bilirubin of male Wistar albino rats infected with T. b. brucei.. Fifty-four (54) male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into six (6) groups of three (3) rats each replicated three (3) times. The rats were marked and kept in stainless wire cages labeled A-F. Groups A, B, and C were normal, negative and standard controls respectively. Groups D, E and F were infected with 1.0 x 106 trypanosomes and treated with 0.5mg/kg (low-dose), 2.5mg/kg (medium-dose), and 5.0mg/kg (high-dose) of vitamin E per body weight per day respectively. The experiment lasted for twenty-one days from the day T. b. brucei infection was established. The sample of serum was collected every seven days across the groups and subjected to biochemical determination of protein and bilirubin. There were significant differences (p<0.05) in the effect of vitamin E on the levels of the albumin, total protein, total and conjugated bilirubin. Hypoalbuminemia and hypoproteinemia were found in the negative control group which was dependent on the duration of study. Albumin and total protein levels were highest in the high-dose vitamin E group when compared to the low-dose vitamin E rats. Hyperbilirubinaemia was found in the negative control group which was week-dependent. There were significant reductions in the concentrations of the total and conjugated bilirubin between the negative control group and the vitamin E treated groups. In conclusion, the administration of vitamin E caused significant increase in the serum albumin and total protein levels and reductions in the activities of the total and conjugated bilirubin of male Wistar albino rats.


INCIDENCE AND RISK FACTORS FOR POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDERS (PTSDS) IN A POPULATION AFFECTED BY FLOOD AND LANDSLIDES IN NYARUGENGE DISTRICT, RWANDA []


Introduction:Disasters lead to trauma that may affect both mental and physical health of those affected. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders (PTSD) are among chronic traumatic events that affect people as a result of disasters. This study focused on flooding and landslides disasters, which cover more than 80% of all natural disasters globally, and Rwanda in particular. It aims at determining incidence, risk factorsfor PTSD and psychosocial support provided in a population affected by floods and landslides in high-risk zones of Nyarugenge District, Kigali City, Rwanda Methods:A descriptive cross-sectional design using quantitative method was used. Proportionate sampling was used to select two hundred and twelve participants where 209 participants had agreed to participate in the study. Data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics, relationship between demographic variables, incidence of PTSD were reported by chi-square test at the level of significance < or = to 0.05 and confidence intervals. Results:The results reported that the incidence of PTSD among people affected by flooding and landslides is high. The study found out that 108(52%) out of 209 participants reported the symptoms of PTSD while only 101(48%) did not report any symptom of PTSD. The results of bivariate analysis revealed that gender of the participants [P=0.05], education level [P=0.029], family income [P=0.02], ubudehe category [P=0.021], and destruction of the property [P=0.012] were the factors associated with the development of PTSDs among the studied population. On the other hand, PTSD was report to be associated with health related factors such whether flooding caused health problem to them or to the family [P<0.001], flooding caused death problem to you directly or to your family member [ P= 0.005] and family displacement [P<0.001]. The multivariate analysis reported that only two variables remained significantly associated with incidence of PTSD when entered into multivariate analysis; family income between 100,001 and 200,000 Rwf was a protector to develop PTSD though its likelihood was low (AOR= 0.063; 95% CI=0.004- 0.882; P= 0.040) while those who fall ubudehe category 2 were more likely to develop PTSD (AOR= 0.281; 95% CI=0.095- 0.829;P= 0.021). Conclusion:The results showed a high incidence of PTSDs among people affected by flooding and landslides in Nyarugenge district and interventions done to support those in need should also consider psychosocial support, therefore, interventions tailored to support people affected by disasters are encouraged to shift from the current situation. Further studies can be conducted to comparerural versus urban areas. Key words: Incidence, Risk factor, Posttraumatic Disorder, Rwanda


Live Video Face Recognition []


It sheds light on how Live Video Face Recognition is done & what techniques are used. It talks about the task at helm which is Face Recognition and Detection at large along with the clever use & development of Cascades used for training a machine. The Face recognition is a technology by the help of which one can verify Faces in a Live Video or in a uploaded Video and in still images. Although Image Face Recognition is very common and is in use for over half-decade, while Video Face Recognition is fairly new & is righteously un-tested at higher levels, whereas in addition to that Live Video Face Recognition is now becoming the new norm these days due to demand, technological enhancement, plus a lot of major stakeholders all over the World have shown interest in it. In this paper, we mainly focus on using OpenCV which is the prime package available for detection of faces in a video and an image. If we say that we are doing this thing in a video then I may sound a lot simple but it actually isn’t. There are a lot more things which come into play when we talk about Face Recognition in a video. We have to manage the frame rate and we have to train the machine with proper cascades in order for it to be able to detect a face. When face recognition comes into play we need to manage a database of every person and store it. We have to have multiple images of a person in order to train the machine to recognize that person in the live video.


The adhesive tape application as appropriate techniques in diagnosis of pityriasis versicolor. []


Pityriasis versicolor is a chronic, superficial fungal infection affecting the superficial layer of a stratum corneum ,caused by the Malassezia spp, which require clinical examination as well as laboratory investigations to confirm the final diagnosis .KOH is considered the simple diagnostic laboratory technique. The aim of this study to compare between the adhesive tape application and skin scraping as appropriate techniques in diagnosis of pityriasis versicolor. from forty patients who were clinically suspected with pityriasis versicolor. Forty patients with PV were enrolled in this study ,23(57.5%)were males and 17(42.5%) were females .Every patients was exposed to detailed disease history and clinical examination .Scraping of lesion using adhesive tape and another one by skin scraping and then both samples were examined for fungus under microscope. Also diagnosis was confirmed by wood's light examination. Analytical method was used for the collected data The cellophane tape method was positive in 37 cases out of 40 (93%) while the KOH mount was positive in 36 cases (90%).Wood's light was positive in 30 cases out of 40(75%). Fungal elements were detected by both methods and were better visualized by the tape method. All negative cases were of hypo-pigmented type. There was no significant difference between results of both cellophane tape and routine KOH methods. Key words :Pityriasis versicolor, Adhesive tape ,KOH examination,Malassezia,Libya


Male partner Involvement in Maternal Health: An Assessment of Knowledge and Practices among Men in Kuria East Sub-County, Kenya []


Male partner involvement (MPI) in Maternal and Child Health (MCH) has been associated with better MCH outcomes worldwide. In view of this, the government of Kenya has initiated various legal and policy measures, as well as implemented and supported the implementation of programmatic interventions to encourage MPI in MCH in various places, including Kuria East sub-county in Migori County- Kenya. This study therefore assessed MPI knowledge and practices among men in Kuria East Sub-County. A sample of 378 main respondents was selected using the systematic random method, after multi-stage clustering. Key informants were purposively selected from healthcare workers and community own resource persons. Data was collected from main informants with the aid of questionnaire and focus group discussions, and from Key informants using interviews. Quantitative data were analyzed by SPSS, using descriptive statistics such as means and percentages, and presented using Tables and graphs. Qualitative data were analyzed thematically and presented in form of narratives. The study showed that male partners have high level of knowledge on involvement in maternal and child healthcare. The study also revealed low MPI practices in the study area attributed to a strong cultural belief. Based on the findings, the study recommends that future MPI interventions should start by targeting culture change, before achieving behavior change. KEY WORDS Male Partner Involvement; Maternal Health, Knowledge and Practices; Kuria East; Maternal Health Outcomes


Assessment of knowledge on Covid-19 among pupils of Isoka district []


Introduction: Coronavirus disease 2019 also known as Covid-19 is a respiratory disease caused by Covid-19 virus. The disease is similar to a common cold and in severe cases results into pneumonia, kidney failure and may also results into death. Pupils’ poor understanding of Covid-19 can contribute to an increase in the number of cases. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess knowledge on Covid-19 among pupils of Isoka district in Zambia. Methodology: Data was collected using open ended questionnaires. The data was then organized and notes gathered, reviewed and explored in order to find common patterns across the data set. Then themes were then presented in a cohesive manner. Results: The results of this study show that the participants in the study area have knowledge about Covid-19. Recommendations: Teachers and parents should help in effecting the measures to prevent Covid-19 and future research should examine measures put across to help learners catch up with what they lost when schools closed due to the Covid-19 pandemic.


Assessment of Spent Engine Oil Degrading Potentials of Bacteria Isolated from the Air []


ABSTRACT Hydrocarbon contamination from oil related activities is increasingly becoming a global problem. This study is aimed at isolating airborne bacteria with potentials to degrade hydrocarbon, measure their degrading process by Gas chromatography, and identify the isolates using molecular characterization and sequencing. Six bacteria isolates were isolated from the air and were collected at the diesel contaminated sites by the generator house behind School of Science and Technology building, Yaba College of Technology. Physico-chemical parameters of the spent engine oil were determined with Gas chromatography (Agilent 7890A Gs system 5975C VLMSD). Upon exposure of agar plate to the air; two of the isolates showed the capabilities to degrade spent (used) engine oil as their carbon source. The airborne bacteria isolates were cultured in 10ml MSM broth devoid of carbon source enriched with 0.1ml spent engine oil for seven days at 350C in a shaker incubator. Using 16s rRNA sequencing of specific primers, the two bacteria isolates that showed growth when streaked on nutrient agar plates were identified. Results showed Enterobacter xiangfangensis and Bacillus zhangzhouensis as air dwelling bacteria with high potential for degrading hydrocarbon. The molecular characterization identified the particular strains of the Enterobacter xiangfangensis and Bacillus zhangzhouensis with tendency to degrade engine oil. The 16s rRNA genes result with Accession number showed 99.79% and 100% homology to those of Enterobacter xiangfangensis and Bacillus zhangzhouensis respectively. Keywords: Spent engine oil; Aerobic bacteria; Petrochemical industry; Gas Chromatography; 16s rRNA sequencing


ELECTRICITY SUPPLY PLANNING FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN MERAUKE REGENCY, INDONESIA []


Planning and forecasting of electrical energy needs is a major requirement that cannot be delayed for the economic development of a developing region. The purpose of this research is to forecast population growth and the need for electrical energy to achieve development goals in Merauke Regency. The analytical method of this research uses forecasting with serial calculations based on population growth data, data on the number of consumers, installed power, production, and electricity distribution using secondary data obtained from PT. PLN (Persero) and BPS Data for Merauke Regency. Research result shows that there will be an increase in the number of consumers and the necessity to provide energy production and installed power for energy needs with the dominant electricity customers being business customers. Household customers show the lowest position, thus the need for electrical planning that is prepared to become an urban or business area Keywords: Business Areas, Economics Development, Forecasting Electrical Energy Needs, Population Growth


Durability Assessment of Laterite Rock Asphalt Concrete Blended with Portland Cement and Waste Polythene Under Extreme Moisture Condition []


The consequential cost of obtaining granites used as coarse aggregate for construction is quite high and in the distant future might run into depletion. The need to source for alternative materials for highway pavement construction becomes necessary. One of such materials is laterite rock, however laterite on its own is unsuitable because of its porosity. The present study focused on complete replacement of granite using laterite rock. The studied further entailed characterizing laterite rock blended with 8% Portland cement and Waste polythene so as to make it suitable for use in highway pavement under low traffic condition. The study was simulated in the laboratory by submerging samples and studied the effect of Portland cement and Waste polythene on laterite rock asphalt concrete. Results obtained revealed that the addition of 8% Portland cement and Waste polythene up to 25% enhanced durability and stability of laterite rock asphalt concrete even under the condition of submerged in water.


Lasers Communication and Atmospheric Impairments []


Varieties of signal-loss components in transmitting a laser signal beam from one point to another over microwave link are usually encountered due to absorption and dispersion by airborne molecules and aerosols and distortion of the wave-front due to atmospheric turbulence resulting from the variation of the refraction index along the direction of the beam. This paper provided information on calculating of attenuations generated as a result of these aerosols and hydrometeorseffect on laser beams. Effective linking equipment, open-loop power control, and feedback loop power control are suggested as mitigation techniques significantly reduce attenuations when laser signals are transmitted.


Quantitative Analysis of Digitopalmar Dermatoglyphics in Seventy Female Psoriatic Patients []


By the quantitative dermatoglyphic analysis, one of the genetic methods, we have made research 25 variables in a number of epidermal ridges on palms and fingers in seventy female psoriatic (PsO) patients: on all ten fingers, on five fingers separately and their sum all together, between triradii a-b, b-c and c-d on both palms, their sum on one and both palms and at Atd angles on one and both and their sum all together in degree. Obtained were compared with a control group of 200 healthy women from the Zagreb area in Croatia. Statistically significant differences to control, by the Student's t-test, were found in 13 variables, in the sense of the increasing number of epidermal ridges on each of ten fingers, their sum on five and ten altogether. Accordingly, a polygenetic system identical in some loci to polygenic system predisposing to female psoriasis susceptibility might be found responsible for a change of dermatoglyphic pattern development simultaneously, because, of their common ectodermal origin


Impact of exchange rate on economic growth of Nepal. []


This article is designed to assess the impact of exchange rate on economic growth rate of Nepal. The study uses annual time series data for the period of 1973 to 2018. Linear regression model has been used to identify the relationship between explanatory and response variable. explanatory variable used in this study is NPR-US dollar exchange rate and Inflation as control variable whereas GDP is taken as response variable as a proxy of economic growth. The result of the study reveals that exchange rate has positive impact and significant relationship with GDP whereas inflation has positive but statistically insignificant relationship with GDP.


ASSESSMENT OF AFLATOXIN CONTAMINATION OF SOME FOODS IN SOUTH EASTERN NIGERIA []


Mycotoxins contamination of foods is a major threat associated with harvested food products sold in open markets. This appalling situation is made worse in the tropics where the warm and humid climate is stable for microbial proliferation. This research work is aimed at assessing the mycotoxin contamination of Citrullus colocynthis, Irvingia wombolu and cassava chips sold in open markets in South-Eastern Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to collect samples of Citrullus colocynthis, Irvingia wombolu and cassava chips from storage structures in three waves (Wet season, Harmattan and Dry season) between February, 2015 and March, 2016 from three senatorial zones in each of the states in south eastern Nigeria. The food samples were analyzed for aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2). Thin Layer Chromatographic technique was used for the analysis of Aflatoxins. Aflatoxin was detected in all the food samples, highest in Citrullus colocynthis and lowest in cassava chips; relatively higher concentrations of Aflatoxins were detected in Anambra and Enugu state during Wet season and Harmattan. There was no significant (P<0.05) difference in the concentration of Aflatoxins in Irvingia wombolu across the wave of collection, in cassava chips aflatoxins was detected more during the Harmattan while in Citrullus colocynthis it was detected more during Wet season. AFB1 and AFB2 occur in all the food material across the waves of collection, while only insignificant quantity of AFG1 (0.033±0.100ppb) occur in cassava chips across the wave of collection. The level of aflatoxins in these food materials across the states were lower than the NAFDAC maximum permissible level (4ppb) but frequent contamination of these food materials and constant consuming of these contaminated foodstuffs may result in bio-acumulation of these toxins in the human system, the presence of AFB1 and AFB2 in their varying concentrations may portend serious health risks for the human population and also has implications for food safety. Inference of this study showed that these foodstuff are partially safe for consumption because of the presence of aflatoxins.


PRINCIPALS’ PERCEPTIONS ON TEACHERS’ CAREER GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING PROGRAMME ON OCCUPATIONAL CHOICES IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KISII COUNTY []


Students make occupational choices during the transition from secondary to following academic levels; middle-level colleges and universities. The study aimed to establish the teachers perception of career guidance and counselling on occupational choices. The study was guided by Parsons Trait and Factor theory, which advocates that choice of suitable occupation is an outcome of helping individuals understand their personality traits and the disciplines in the job market through scientific advising. The study used a mixed-method approach and adopted a descriptive survey design. The target population was 358 Principals in 358 public secondary schools in Kisii County. Stratified random sampling, Simple Random and purposive sampling was used to select schools and respondents. The instruments for data collection were a questionnaire and document checklist. The reliability of the tools was established by the split-half method. The researcher used the Cronbach Alpha formula to estimate reliabilities of the instrument yielding coefficients of 0.71. The study demonstrated that teachers perceived career guidance and counselling programme to help students make informed occupational choices. The study recommended the creation of awareness, implementation, resource-support, and supervision of career guidance and counselling programme on students occupational choices by relevant stakeholders.Key words: Guidance and Counselling Students Occupational choices Midle-level colleges Universities.