Volume 9, Issue 10, October 2021 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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This paper focuses on the impact of board composition, size and training on the performance of directors in parastatals: A study of the energy sector parastatals in Kenya. The objective of the paper was to find out how board composition, board size and board training affect performance of board of directors in the energy sector. The scope of the study for the research project was the Kenya’s energy sector parastatals and the target organizations were: Kenya Pipeline Co Ltd, Kenya Power & Lighting Co Ltd, KenGen Co Ltd, KETRACO, Geothermal Development Corporation and the National Oil Corporation. The study was anchored on the Agency theory supported by Transactional Cost theory and Upper Echelon theory. The research methodology was a descriptive survey design. The target population for the study was board of directors drawn from various parastatals within the energy sector. A sample size of 62 directors was selected by use of a simple random sampling method. The key research instrument that was used was; a 5-point-likert scale questionnaire. Primary data was collected by use of questionnaires which was administered through drop and pick method. The data collected was analyzed using the SPSS version 25. Descriptive statistics of means and standard deviation of Likert scores was calculated. Board composition positively and significantly impacted the performance of board of directors in Kenya’s energy sector parastatals. From the research findings it showed that the presence of women on the board brought additional perspective on the decisions made by the board. Further, the study showed that there was diversity within the board which led to having improvement on their performance. Additionally, with the diversity within the board meant the board was not comprised of one majority group as well as the age difference of the board was more inclusive and made it effective. Board size was significant and positively affected the performance of board of directors in Kenya’s energy sector parastatals. It was established that smaller sized boards enhanced the performance of the entire board. Moreover, bigger sized boards needed to deal with more conflicts among its board members hence hard to find consensus. On the other hand, medium sized boards tend to benefit parastatals by giving effective oversight of management and provide necessary resources. Large boards improved performance through reducing CEO’s dominance on the board. Other than board size, attention should also be directed to the importance of the human element in board performance. The board training had led to the encouragement of the board members to continue with further studies on the improvement of their skills. Additionally, the level of education of the board members affected the performance of the board members during a board meeting. It further established that board members without requisite skills contributed the least during board meetings. For the board members who had high number of years of experience and training in various industries, they had a broader understanding of the board activities. Keywords: Board of Directors, Performance, parastatal, energy sector

Internal Medicine corner stone of Sub-Saharan Africa Medicine []

Internal medicine is a specialty that lies between general medicine and subspecialties. The fundamental characteristic of internal medicine is a holistic approach to the care of patients. The proliferation of organ specialties has obscured the landscape to the disadvantage of Internal Medicine, prompting internists to work harder so that this specialty of the non-organ specialists, thriving for high quality medicine and requiring long and elitist training does not die out. Because Africa has been experiencing an epidemiological transition for several decades, the field of Internal Medicine in sub-Saharan Africa is now being redefined. This article inlights the situation of internal medicine in sub-Saharan Africa and the importance of this specialty in low incomes countries. Key words: Internal medicine, corner stone, sub-Saharan Africa

A Clinical Case Study on the Management of Newborn Diagnosed with Respiratory Distress Syndrome at NICU,CHUK Teaching Hospital,Kigali City,Rwanda Between May and June, 2021 []

Background: RDS is a type of neonatal respiratory disease that is caused most often by a lack of surfactant in the lungs. RDS is strictly associated with preterm birth, with the incidence increasing as gestational age decreases. In 2019, approximately 17 deaths per 1,000 live births had been reported worldwide. Of these, approximately 70% of the neonatal mortalities in resource-limited settings predominantly in East Africa. Worldwide, 13 million preterm babies were born annually and the highest percentage from the resource-limited setting. Despite there were numerous different neonatal conditions admitted, such as birth asphyxia, bronchiolitis, prematurity of apnea, neonatal pneumonia and many others. I was interested in considering the trend and strategy used in the management of the newborn diagnosed with respiratory distress syndrome admitted on NICU ward, CHUK so as to compare the theory and current practice by the multidisciplinary team. Purpose: The case study aimed at finding out and analyzing between theories and current practice of the management of a newborn diagnosed with respiratory distress syndrome admitted at the Neonatal Intensive care Unit (NICU),CHUK. The method: To conduct this study the researcher reviewed and audited the management procedures carried out by the multidisciplinary team on admission of this case of RDS. Results: This study found that the national neonatal protocol /guideline was followed .The nurses used that as reference in managing the child’s condition. However,the administration of surfactant was not initiated in the national guideline for the management of RDS,but it is not-ed in the international guideline and standard. I realized that growth and monitoring charts were not in the patient file. Also the study found out that found vital signs monitors in the NICU were inadequate, but recommendations were provided by the researcher. Conclusion: The day of birth and the first 28-days of life - the neonatal period – are the most susceptible periods for a child’s survival and health. Newborn health champions such neonatologists nurses, midwives and other health professionals have been at the forefront of advocating for robust policies and programs to mitigate global neonatal mortality.


To date, the high interest of researchers in the problem of specific lesions of the nose and paranasal sinuses by mycotic infection is observed. Because of the possibility of inaccessible localization of the pathological process, laboratory confirmation of a non-invasive fungal infection of the paranasal sinuses is difficult or even impossible. Clinical signs of fungal infection are not specific. Serological diagnostic methods have been developed for only a few forms of mycoses. Due to the above reasons, there are frequent difficulties in the diagnosis of this group of diseases.


The study evaluated the information literacy skills as predictors of use of electronic information resources by undergraduate students in Bayero University Library, Kano. The study adopted a survey design with a population of 823 undergraduate students who registered with the university library between 2017-2019 academic session, from which a sample of 165 respondents were selected using Wimmer and Dominick’s (1987) formula. Data were analysed using the statistical package for social science (SPSS) software, frequency distribution and percentages. The findings revealed that most of the undergraduate student in Bayero University Library, Kano considered their level of information literacy skills to be high. Electronic Information Resources (EIRs) have indeed become very important to undergraduate students of Nigerian university libraries especially in accessing up-to-date information as they give access to quality information irrespective of place, time and space. However, the study recommended that the management of Bayero University Kano (BUK) library should ensure that the teaching of information literacy skills to undergraduates in BUK is promoted. This is to ensure that the high level of usage of EIRs by undergraduate students is sustained. Keywords: Electronic information resources, information literacy skills, undergraduate, use electronic information resources


The study assessed water need to supply deficit for livelihood activities in Makurdi Urban Area, Benue State, Nigeria. Variables considered base on water need to supply deficit and used for the study include livelihood activities such as engine grinding, block industries, rice milling, palp making among others, quantity of water needed per day in litres and quantity supply per day in litres. A sample size of 400 respondents were selected and administered questionnaire, but only 394 respondents returned their questionnaire. Three sampling techniques were employed for the study. Firstly, stratified sampling technique was used to stratify the study area into eleven residential areas. Secondly, systematic random sampling was used to select five streets from each residential area bringing the total to 55 streets. One street out of every five streets was selected and one house out of every ten houses on the street was selected for questionnaire administration. Purposive sampling technique was used in questionnaire administration due to variation in water need for livelihood activities in the study area. Descriptive statistics of frequency and percentage was used to analyse the data collected and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test the deficit between water need and supply for livelihood activities in the study area. The study discovered that rice milling industries have the highest deficit with 4000 litres, followed by sachet and bottle water factories with 1000 litres and block industries with 775 litres. The one-way analysis of variance conducted to test the deficit between water need and supply shows a statistically significant deficit of water need to supply for livelihood activities at p<0.05 level, F (1, 22, 23) = 0.775, p = 0.388. The study concludes that the process of water need and supply for livelihood activities should be stepwise in accordance with the participatory and managerial capacity of the study area to enhance water related livelihood activities. The study recommends there is need to put in place a suitable water management system so as to avert the water need to supply deficit in the study area.

assessment of factors that influence water need to supply for livelihood activities in makurdi town, benue state []

The study assesses the factors influencing water need to supply for livelihood activities in Makurdi urban area of Benue State, Nigeria. Variables considered base on water need to supply and used for the study include: urbanization, absence of storage facilities, ownership of water facilities, vandalism, poor maintenance, misappropriation of water funds, rapid population growth among others. A sample size of 400 respondents were selected and administered the questionnaire, but only 394 respondents returned their questionnaire. Three sampling techniques were employed for the study. Firstly, stratified sampling technique was used to stratify the study area into eleven residential areas. Secondly, systematic random sampling was used to select five streets from each residential area bringing the total to 55 streets. One street out of every five streets was selected and one house out of every ten houses on the street was selected for questionnaire administration. Purposive sampling technique was used in questionnaire administration due to variation in water need for livelihood activities in the study area. The data collected for the study was analysed using factor analysis because of its ability to reduce large variables to manageable factors. Using factor analysis based on Kaiser Principle, three factors were extracted using the variable maximisation method with Eigenvalue of 7.60, and percentage contributory variance of 91.8%. These water need to supply factors include urbanisation (.873), absence of storage facilities (.800), poor maintenance of water infrastructures (.682), vandalism (.800), misappropriation of water fund (.940), aging water infrastructures (.770), rapid population growth (.906), and limited capital (.547). The study revealed a positive relationship between the factors and shows the extent to which these factors strongly influence water need to supply in Makurdi urban area. The study further revealed that urbanisation, rapid population growth and misappropriation of water funds influence water need to supply the most in the study area. The study recommend that water board should uphold ethical standards in utilising funds meant for water project in order to supply water that meet the residents daily need for livelihood activities.


Adolescent girls often lack knowledge regarding reproductive health including menstruation hygiene which can be due to socio-cultural barriers in which they grow up. Rwandan population constitute 52% of women and 33% are adolescent girls. The main objective of this study was to examine the knowledge, attitude and practices of primary school going adolescent girls regarding menstruation and menstrual hygiene. The significance is that the study may serve as educational diagnosis of the community and the findings may be used by responsible sectors and stakeholders for the improvement of public health issues related to menstrual hygiene and to help them know about women’s attitude toward menstruation related system and as well as by concerned governmental or NGOs to plan, improve, maximize and design project related problems. This was a cross sectional study. The target population was primary school girls in Musanze District. A total of 363 primary school girls were selected using multistage sampling technique. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. The data collected were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 22). Descriptive analysis using frequencies and proportions were used and score assessment was done. Chi square and correlation analysis techniques were used to establish factors associated with knowledge as well as practice of menstrual hygiene and study the association between the knowledge, attitudes and practices. The significance level was set at p value ˂ 0.05 and confidence intervals were utilized. The demographic characteristics of the adolescent girls shows that majority are between 11-13 years old (69.4 %), profess the catholic faith (50.9 %), raised by both living parents (54.3%), primary six (57.02 %), are from rural areas (65.01%), has fathers who have secondary education (44.9%) and is from the families with low economic class (46 %). According to menstruation, the study revealed that first age of menarche is13 years of age (34.7%) , the menstrual cycle with the interval between 21-31 days (59.2%), and 226 (62.3 %) reported that they had the flow around between 3-7 days. Furthermore, the study reveals 53.03 % were classified with those of moderate knowledge on menstruation and above 70% with high attitude toward menstruation and 67.5% with moderate adequate menstrual hygiene practices. Therefore, the study recommends that there should be health education in the schools regarding menstrual hygiene. Menstrual hygiene should be linked to the hygiene education programme in schools with active involvement of female teachers and caring environment for menstrual hygiene has to be provided both at home and in school. The study suggests also more research on menstruation to study the role of parents and school teachers in equipping adolescent girls on menstruation and girls ‘preparedness toward menstruation


The incessant religious conflicts in Nigeria have proved very difficult to manage. These conflicts have continued to bedevil Nigeria as a nation. Therefore, if there must be sustainable peace in Nigeria, it must begin with religious peace. This study approaches the problem of inter-religious violence from a religious perspective. The concept of nonviolence is a religious conviction based on the principle of love which recognizes the common humanity and brotherhood of all mankind under the Fatherhood of God. This study, drawing from discursive and analytical approaches, proposes the use of nonviolent religious teachings as a viable tool for mutual coexistence in Nigeria. Nonviolence is a religious conviction that recognizes the dignity of human persons, as well as acknowledges and accommodates the beliefs and convictions of adherents of other religions. The paper argues that the culture of violence in Nigeria is not only worrisome and endemic, but also poses a serious threat to mutual coexistence among the adherents of the three major religions (African Traditional Religion, Christianity and Islam) and other citizens in Nigeria. Hence, well-planned modalities for nonviolent religious teachings can serve as a constructive religious management tool for mutual coexistence in the socio-political and religious spheres of Nigeria. The paper recommends the foundational and underlying principle of nonviolence, which is love for God, neighbours and enemies, as a vital tool for addressing the menace of inter-religious violence in Nigeria. Keywords: Nonviolence, Violence, Religion, Religious Teachings, Mutual Coexistence.

Stokes - Adams syndrome, not to confuse as hypoglycaemic syncope in diabetes. A case report. []

Stokes - adams syndrome is defined as abrupt, transient loss of conscious due to sudden and pronounced decrease in the cardiac output which is caused by sudden change heart rate or rhythm. Transient loss of consciousness is a common chief complaint of patients presenting to an Emergency Department. It comprises a heterogeneous group of disorders including epileptic seizures and various types of syncope. This definition does not include vasovagal syncope or epilepsy although patients with stokes-adams syndrome may have seizures during periods of cerebral ischemia. During the attack, there is an initial pallor followed by facial flush due to reactive hyperemia following resumption of normal circulation. Typically, complete heart block is seen on the ECG during an attack. The condition is usually associated with coronary heart disease and so tends to occur in the elderly.

Building Developmental State Model in a Constitutionally Decentralized State: challenge and mediation []

Abstract- Developmental state model oftentimes associated, both in principle and practices, with unitary and authoritarian governance system as once practiced in the East Asian newly industrialized countries. Thus building developmental state model in constitutionally decentralized democracies such as Ethiopia raises compatibility issues. This article argue that even though developmental state tends to favor centralized state structure and authoritarian governance system, these features however are not necessarily inherent features of the model as the experiences of countries like India and South Africa demonstrate, which managed to build a democratic developmental state under a constitutionally decentralized state structure. As a dynamic phenomenon developmental state can transform and adopt itself to the existing constitutional decentralized institutional arrangements using various institutions, especially through the principle of subsidiarity, Intergovernmental relations and electoral system that allows multiple democratic developmental tires of government to flourish at local, regional and national level. Hence, despite the predominant view of the developmental state model to have a tendency towards centralism, authoritarianism and interventionism, this article shows the possibility of taming such aspects the model and building a democratic developmental state in a constitutionally decentralized state structure. Key Words: Developmental State Model; Democracy; Decentralization and Ethiopia

Egyptian Culture in a Historical Context: Founder of the contemporary cultural renaissance of Egypt, Sarwat Okasha []

The intellectual culture of Egypt has played an important role in its politics since the beginning of the modern state-building processes in the Muhammad Ali and Ibrahim Pasha eras. The semi-modern Egyptian culture and its intellectuals were essential to the Egyptian influence in the Arab region and in the semi-liberal and Nasserist periods, attracted brilliant Arab minds until the defeat of the Arab States in the Arab-Israeli War of June 1967. During the Nasserist period, Egyptian culture and intellectuals were an essential part of Egypt’s influence over the Arab region, mainly because of its intellectual and cultural production in theater, cinema, the plastic arts, and artistic newspapers, magazines, and books, and its translations of foreign languages, particularly English and French. This article discusses one of the founders of contemporary Egypt’s cultural renaissance, Dr. Sarwat Okasha; born one hundred years ago (1921) and considered as one of the most prominent figures in the July 1952 revolution, second to Gamal Abdel Nasser. This paper also reviews Okasha’s major cultural projects during his two terms as Minister of Culture from 1958 to 1962 and from 1966 to 1970. Based on a progressive scientific strategy and an open future vision, Okasha laid the foundations for modern cultural life in Egypt and established several leading Egyptian cultural institutions, all of which have remained vibrant and effective to this day. This article also examines Okasha’s advocation of a fair, humanitarian “Democracy of Culture,” which was manifested in his establishing many cultural palaces across Egypt’s regions and provinces. Okasha sought to reformulate the Egyptian conscience, succeeded in establishing a cultural infrastructure in the country, and devised a grand strategy for Egypt’s cultural and intellectual advancement. In this study, the light will be shed on the exceptional duality that brought together General Charles de Gaulle, and the French writer "Andre Malraux", as one of France's greatest writers in approaching the same measure applies to the duality that combined Gamal Abdel Nasser and Sarwat Okasha.

Unique Authentication for Door Lock system through Bio Scanning-Finger Print Security System []

In the present word, security is highly concerned and supreme issue to humans at home, workplace, hotels or anywhere. Bio scanning gives new security-conscious climate. Bio scanning verifies individuals based on their intrinsic physical or behavioral traits. The main function of this paper is to call attention to one of the bio scanning security systems-finger print door lock system. This security mechanism aims to put a stop to the threat in the event of stealing and fraud . Human fingerprints door lock system is incredibly unique with various key advantages such as non-repudiation, not transferable, not guessable. Also comparative analysis on various types of mechanical, electronic and bio scanning door lock security system and that of different types of bio scanning system are presented. In this work Arduino unor3 as our microcontroller is used for generating code as a part of functioning procedure. This paper mainly works with Arduino unor3 microcontroller based fingerprint door lock system and focuses on the supremacy of fingerprint door lock security system.


Ancillary services on the interconnected grid are necessary support for power transmission while maintaining reliable operation and to ensure exact level of quality and safety. So many activities of the operator are classified under the preview of ancillary services and the correct meaning and explanation of some of these services and distinctions are given enough clarity. The basic three ancillary services with importance that are provided by the independent power producers in a deregulated power set up are; (i) system voltage profile maintenance in an adequate range, (ii) keeping system frequency within economically related value and (iii) maintaining the system security with required spinning reserve. An overview of how reactive power, spinning reserves and frequency regulation services are managed by the system operator in a deregulated electricity markets in Nigeria is presented. Economic models are proposed for participants in reactive power, spinning reserve and frequency regulation service markets. With the optimal procurement of the ancillary services by the independent power producers in consideration, this work attempt to obtain a beneficial plan for the power system, from both technical and economic views and prospects.


Abstract: Consideration of drudgeries inherent in maintenance management system in Nigeria industries would eliminate the tedium associated in the system and improve equipment availability. Here an attempt was made to assess the equipment maintenance practice in NAOC-Kwale gas recycling plant, using Overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) as quantifiable performance indicator to determine the effectiveness and availability of various types of pumps and other installed equipment in the plant. Maintenance records of the pumps provided data for the computation. The availability, performance and quality rate of the pumps were used to assess the overall effectiveness of the various pumps. The OEE value of 5.3% obtained confirmed that the current maintenance strategy and policy of the company is very much below standard and unacceptable. Hence, it is evident that using TPM will avert unexpected system failure through early faults detection; provide safety operation, reliability and equipment durability. Keywords: Adoption, Maintenance system, TPM, OEE, Reliability, Durability.


The study explored the role which special libraries play in economic development in enhancing the economic output of member countries of West Africa Monetary Agency (WAMA) especially Sierra Leone. This study examined special libraries with special reference to (WAMA) and their impact on the business community especially policy makers and stakeholders of West African Monetary Agency (WAMA). the aim of the study is to examine special libraries with reference to WAMA and their impact on the business community especially policy makers and stakeholders of West African Monetary Agency (WAMA). It also explored the role which special libraries play in economic development in enhancing the economic output of member countries of WAMA especially Sierra Leone.

Antigenic variation and host immune response to Foot-and-Mouth disease []

Foot-and-mouth disease is caused by a single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the family Picornaviridae under the prototypic member of the genus Aphthovirus. The most important portal of infection of FMDV is respiratory system. However, the whole genome FMDV serotypes have an average of 86% nucleotide sequence identity to each other across, while the VP1 coding region is more variable with about 50-70% nucleotide sequence identity, to evade a host immune response, an infectious organism changes structure and function of its surface proteins by amino acid substitution, this process is called antigenic variation in which Its genome open reading frame (ORF) that codes for four structural (VP1–4) and 8–10 non-structural proteins form seven immunologically distinct serotypes. These make an organism long-lived in host, repeatedly infect a single host, and are easily transmitted. The virus elicits a rapid humoral response in both infected and vaccinated animals. The response is directed to epitopes on the three external structural proteins and good protective immunity is established between 7 and 14 days after e infection or vaccination. The specific site for binding to neutralizing antibody of FMD capsid is the G-H loop in the VP 1 peptide. FMDV-specific antibody secreting cells (early B-cell response to aerosol infection) are established in the lymphoid tissue of the respiratory tract and spleen after four days of infection. The protective immunity to FMDV is mostly due to neutralizing antibodies and T-cell response. As Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) has significant socio-economic consequences, antigenic and genotypic characterization of FMDV and the ability of antibody produced by host bound it is required for formulation of appropriate diagnosis tests and vaccine for effective control and eradication of the disease. Key words: FMDV, immunity, antigen, and antibody


This study aimed to discuss the different issues behind the demand in the house rental business in the Philip-pines by reviewing various articles relative to housing demand, poverty, and inequality. The reason behind why people in poor and low-income sectors prefer to rent despite various government programs designed to help them. This paper specifically aims to identify the research gap in the housing demand, particularly in the poor and low-income sectors of the Philippines. It reviewed articles published in online international journals from 2016 to 2021. The literature reviewed reveals why people in this sector prefer to rent, and this study shows the underlying issues from all the factors that hinder these sectors from owning their own homes.

Distortion Product Otoacoustic emission in Caesarean Delivery and Normal Full Term Delivery []

Aim: the aim of the study was to analyze distortion product otoacoustic emission in infants of full term normal delivery and caesarean delivery within 24 - 72 hours. Method: The DPOAE was recorded in both ears of the babies with full term normal delivery and and caesarean delivery. the otoscopic evaluation was done in all the new born babies prior to the OAE recordings. the datas obtained was statistically analyzed and examined to determine DPOAE as a effective screening test in new born screening. Result and Conclusion: The importance of DPOAE in caesarean delivery and normal full term delivery was assessed using data from left and right ear of neonates at frequencies 1KHz, 2Khz, 3Khz and 4KHz. The evidences from the data shows that there are no significant differences between caesarean delivery and regular full term delivery and concluded that DPOAE is an excellent instrument that can be utilized as hearing screening tool for neonates.

Causes of Unfair Termination of Employment in the Private Sector in Tanzania []

After industrial revolution countries needs to create effective national system of labour administration to improve employees’ rights, working conditions, and productivity for sustainable development in attempt to ensure that employees’ rights are not violated by employers. In Tanzania, there has been a number of unfair termination of employments disputes in the Commission for Mediation and Arbitration and High Court Labour Division. This study intended to find out the causes of unfair termination of employment in the private sector in Tanzania with a case study of Iringa region. In particular the study focused on the procedure for employment termination in the private sector, and the relevance of employment and labour relations laws regarding termination of employment. A qualitative approach using content analysis is used in the paper to analyse the collected information for the purpose of advancing argument on causes of unfair termination of employment in the private sector. In order to ensure 360-degree data collection; data was collected from all the stakeholders and partners in the employment cycle – the employers, the employees, Trade unions and the Commission for Mediation and Arbitration. Also, a number of previous ruled cases were reviewed. The findings show that the unfair termination of employment by employers is mainly due to failure of employers to adhere to the laid down procedures for termination of employment. In most cases the employers have valid reason / grounds for termination, but they error in following the procedures for termination as laid out in the labour laws. This is mainly because the procedures are too bureaucratic and cumbersome to follow. Also, the study found that some employers do not have HR practitioners / legal advisors to advise them on the matters of labour relations; while some employers are too rigid, they don’t want to follow the process, they just believe in a fair dismissal. While the study recommends that employers should follow the law regulating termination of employment, the study also recommends on the need to call for a review and amendment of the law regulating employment and labour relations particularly on the aspect of termination of employment. The proposed review should involve and take opinions from the employers, employees, CMA, employees’ trade union and Association of employers.


This article aims to examine the use of shrimp head into flavor powder. Shrimp head has the potential to be used as a food additive, one of which is as a flavor powder. An important factor in the manufacture of flavor powder is the process to reduce the water content to a certain extent so that it can inhibit the growth of unwanted microbes. It is hoped that the shrimp head flavor powder can be used as an alternative for the community in the use of Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) because if consumed in excess it can cause dizziness, nausea and increase in appetite.

The Reasons for the proliferation of drug use in the Pinetown area []

Drug and alcohol abuse in South Africa are alarming and a cause or contributor to many social, health and economic problems afflicting the population. Substance dependency statistics show that drug consumption (cannabis, cocaine, and tik) in South Africa is twice the global average and second to none in Africa (UN World Drug Report, 2014). The average age of drug dependency in South Africa is 12 years and deceasing. South Africa is among the top 10 narcotics and alcohol abusers in the world. For every 100 people, 15 have a drug problem and for every 100 Rands in circulation, 25 Rands are linked to the substance abuse problem (Christian Addiction Support, 2016). Figure 1(a) and (b) report drug use in South Africa (ibid). The main drugs being abused are cannabis, methamphetamine, heroin and cocaine. Jointly, the three drugs accounted for over 86% of all cases treated for drug abuse in 2012. Among persons treated for addiction, 38% were treated for cannabis dependency, followed by methamphetamines at 23%, heroin at 19% and cocaine at almost 6%. The main drugs of choice are cannabis (3.6%), cocaine (1.2%) and phentermine stimulants at 1.02% (Figure 1b). A similar trend was noted in a study of five trauma units in Cape Town, Durban and Port Elizabeth. It was found that 14% of the patients tested positive for white pipe (combination of cannabis and metaxalone), 33% for cannabis; and 15% for metaxalone.The main reason for this research is to identify the core cause of drug abuse in the Pinetown are and why the number of drug abusers is increasing at an alarming rate in the Pinetown area.

Assessment and the Implementation of the Curriculum Content of Mathematics Education among Colleges of Education in North-Central, Nigeria []

Abstract This research paper specifically examine the assessment and the implementation of the curriculum content of mathematics education in selected colleges of education in North-Central, Nigeria. Two research questions and corresponding hypothesis was formulated to be tested. The study adopted a descriptive cross-sectional survey design. Convenient sampling technique was used to select 116 Mathematics lecturers consisting 100% of the total population as the number can be controlled from twelve (12) Colleges of Education within the North- Central, Nigeria. The instrument used was the structured questionnaire and it was validated by experts in the field. The reliability of the instrument was determined using the result from the pilot study and Cronbach Alpha formula yielded a reliability coefficient of 0.79. The data collected were analyzed using the mean, standard deviation and Mann-Whitney U-test statistics. Some of the findings include NCE Mathematics lecturers agreed about the adequacy of the Mathematics curriculum contents towards the achievement of the NCE Mathematics programme philosophy and objectives. It was observed that respondents were in agreement with the knowledge and attitude towards the implementation of NCE Mathematics programme agreed about the cognitive knowledge of NCE Mathematics programme. One of the major recommendations was that Mathematics curriculum contents should be reviewed to reflect on the modern methods of teaching and internationally approved practice.

Influence Of Monitoring And Evaluation On Performance Of Agricultural Projects In Rwanda: A Case Of Capacity Building Project In The Horticultural Centre Of Excellence. []

The 21st century has brought internal and external forces, which have pressurized institutions to adopt monitoring, and evaluation (M&E) in order to be more responsive to the needs of the beneficiaries and accountable to the stakeholders. Using a case study of Rwanda-Israel Horticultural Centre of Excellence (HoCE) capacity building projects, this study focused on the influence of monitoring and evaluation on the performance of agricultural projects in Rwanda. The specific objectives of the study were to find out the influence of: i) monitoring and evaluation planning, ii) monitoring and evaluation data management, and iii) monitoring and evaluation data dissemination and utilization on the performance of capacity building project. The study focused on the period between 2015 and 2021. The stakeholder and program theory/theory of change form the theoretical foundation of this study while monitoring and evaluation and project performance form the conceptual framework. Empirical literature on the influence of M&E on project performance in the agricultural sector was also reviewed. The researcher used a mixed methods design by incorporating both quantitative and qualitative methods. The population of study was 1507 and the sample size was 338 people who were selected by use of stratified, simple random sampling and census methods. However, only 267 were able to participate in the study. Two instruments (the questionnaire and informant interview guide) were used for data collection. The validity of research instruments was determined by performing a content validity index using subject matter experts while reliability was validated through pilot-testing the questionnaire and interview guide using 2 groups of 5 people. Quantitative data was analyzed through descriptive (frequency and percentage distribution tables) and inferential (multiple linear regression) statistics while qualitative data was analyzed through content and narrative analysis. Findings show that all independent variables under have a positive and statistically significant influence on the performance of HoCE capacity building project. This is confirmed by the regression coefficients of β1=.397 (M&E planning), β1=.408 (M&E data management), β1=.513 (M&E data dissemination and utilization) with probability values below 0.05 which show that 39.7%, 40.8% and 51.3% of the changes in HoCE capacity building project performance outcomes are explained by M&E planning, M&E data management and M&E data dissemination and utilization respectively. Therefore, the research rejects the null hypotheses (H01, H02 and H03) and adopts the alternative hypotheses (Ha1, Ha2, and Ha2) in explaining the statistical significance of the relationship between monitoring and evaluation and performance of HoCE capacity building project. Project beneficiaries need more training in operating M&E mobile data collection technologies as well as subsidies to procure hi-tech tools and equipment for enhancing the productivity of their horticultural farms. It is hoped that the findings of this research will influence HoCE capacity building project managers to formulate better policies of improving M&E functions in the organization. It is also expected to contribute to the existing literature on monitoring and evaluation, thus enhancing academic knowledge on a wide range of M&E practices and emerging issues which will contribute to project management profession


Study attempted to assess factors affecting SMEs bank loan repayments in Tanzania. Specifically it determined the effect of interest-rates, profitability and credit-period on SMEs bank loan repayments in Iringa municipality. 63 SMEs borrowers were studied. A case study was applied where purposive sampling technique was used to collect quantitative data. Data were analyzed using linear regression analysis. Study finds interest-rate had a negative relationship with SMEs bank loan repayments while profitability and credit-period had a positive relationship with the SMEs bank loan repayments. The regression and t-test show that interest-rates, profitability and credit-period have a significant impact on SMEs bank loan repayments since the p-values were less than 0.05. The co-efficient of determination, shows that the independent variables explain 51% of the variation in the dependent variable. Therefore, capital management by SMEs borrowers should be encouraged in order to make better use of the bank loans for business investments. Moreover, credit-period should be extended in order to give SMEs borrowers enough time to run their business and generate profits enough for loan repayments and business growth. In addition, interest-rates should be reduced for the purpose of increasing the chance for SMEs to earn more profits hence influencing bank loan repayments.


Since Sri Lanka transferred to a free-trade economy in 1977, all subsequent governments have launched new development projects. Most of such development projects have been related to infrastructure and/ or agreements with foreign investors. The process of EIA was elucidated in the environmental legislation in Sri Lanka. A few researchers have discussed the effectiveness of EIA in Sri Lanka as well as EIA’s contribution towards facilitating public participation in the decision making of the development projects that can impact the environment. This study argues that a lack of public participation and a disregarding public consultation on such large projects can result in public protest. The objective of this research paper is to analyze the link between public protests to major development projects in Sri Lanka and the ignorance of public participation at the proposal level or before starting the projects without the fulfilment of EIAs.


Abstract The study investigated interest rate on economic growth in Nigeria from 1990 to 2019. Ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study. Secondary data obtained from Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin was used for the study. Data obtained were analysed using descriptive analysis with the E-view. The study concluded that interest rate had positive and insignificant effect on gross domestic product in Nigeria. The study therefore recommended that Central Bank of Nigeria should adopt interest rate policy that will boost savings culture. In addition, interest rates should be business friendly and predictable in line with the prevailing economic dictate and conditions. Keywords: Interest rate, Inflation, Economic growth and Gross domestic product