Volume 9, Issue 10, October 2021 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Prediction of Dam Breach Flood Hazard Using GIS []

When dam breach occurs, the resulting flood can cause enormous damages to infrastructures and loss of life. The prediction of dam breach flood hard in this study was done for overtopping Dire dam breach. The flood hazard map was done in GIS after water surface elevation, maximum flood depth, and velocity were exported from HEC-RAS to GIS. The maximum flood depth and maximum flood velocity occurred due to dam overtopping failure were 16.41m and 22.74m/s respectively. The simulation outcomes presented that, in the event of Dire dam breach due to the overtopping dam break mode, some Dire dam downstream areas were observed as having high flood hazard due to the significant flood water depth and velocity values. Key words: Dam breach, Flood hazard, GIS


The absorbed doses in tissues due to X- ray line sources was computed as a function of exposure time, Photon energy, attenuation angles and the length of the source. The absorbed dose is found to increase linearly with exposure time and attenuation angles while it increases gradually and approaches towards a stationary value as the length of the source is increased.With the increase in Photon energy, the absorbed dose is found to increase almost linearly while it decreases exponentially as the distance between the source and the target is increased


ABSTRACT This study investigates the effect of black soot on the output performance of solar module. The study was carried out at Basic studies building of the University of Port Harcourt, Rivers state, Nigeria (longitude 4.90040 N and latitude 6.92040 E and 468m elevations above the sea level). Two monocrystalline solar modules were employed for the study. One served as a control (clean) while the other as a device under test (sooty). A multimeter was used to measure the parameters that include: short-circuit current ISC and open-circuit voltage VOC while the output power and percentage (%) losses were calculated for with the measured values. Also, the measured values and graphical analysis were employed to determine the I-V characteristics of both solar modules. From the measured values, the maximum value of VOC on day 1 for the control module is 35.7V at 11:15am while the corresponding value for the sooty module is 34.3V at the same time. Typically, the total daily output power for the control module was 7103.15W while the corresponding value for the sooty solar module was found to be 4827.38W. This shows 32.04% loss in the power output due to black soot on the surface of the solar module. Cumulatively, the total output power loss daily ranges from 32.04% to 63.90%. Keywords : Black Soot, Solar Module, Short-circuit current, open circuit voltage, Output Power

Assessment of Attitude and Preventive Practices of Corona Virus (COVID-19) among Communities; The Case of Kaffa Zone, South-Western Ethiopia. []

The pandemic coronavirus disease has a significant impact on an individual psychological, social and moral concerns. People contact with coronavirus may not know when he or she is getting the virus, and the carrier can transmit during the incubation period. Related to this, the communitys attitude toward the preventive practice of coronavirus was assessed. Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate the attitude and preventive practice among communities Kaffa zone. The Cross-sectional survey design was conducted among 400 participants. A simple random sampling, technique, particularly the lottery method was used to select the study participants. Data was collected by using a questionnaire. After the data was collected, data entry and analysis were done using SPSS version 26. Hence, gathered data was computed by using simple descriptive statistics. Regarding the attitude of communities; 61% of respondents are aware that covid-19 transmits from the victim by handshaking and close contacts. And hence, 37.8% of participants were aware that awareness creation was done by health organization service centers but the information was not enough. In addition, the findings of this study revealed that the communitys attitude was high on each specific aspect of COVID-19 among the study participants. Meanwhile, Communities are not still totally paying attention to awareness about COVID 19, crisis. According to findings in this research, communities wash their hands in order to prevent covid-19 better than the previous. Kaffa zone, as well as stakeholders, should have to provide ample information for all communities including urban and rural societies to be aware of COVID-19 and practice how to prevent the virus.


Various types of concretes as primary shielding materials are in use for medical radiation facilities such as diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy rooms (Mansouri et al., 2020; Tekin et al., 2019). The cost and use difficulties as well as being opaque to visible light that is quite impossible to look through a concrete-based radiation shield can also be said to be another disadvantage. In theory, it can be said that any material with a certain material density and thickness can reduce the radiation. Therefore, different types of alternative materials namely building materials, bricks, polymers, steel, resins, composites and alloys have been investigated by different researchers for their possible radiation shielding applications. This paper is about such mortarless walling technology for radiation shielding. We constructed a radiation shielding wall using interlocking stabilized-soil-barium bricks. Further analysis was undertaken with respect to resource-use implications (cement, water, soil) of employing Mortarless technology. We can conclude that the flexibility requirements on Mortarless technology for wall construction can be fully met, which will further boost market opportunities of interlock bricks. The self-aligning characteristic of interlock bricks eases brick-laying, encourage the use of less skilled manpower and realizing higher productivity. Apart from savings of material, MT saves time due to higher productivity resulting in an ultimate cost saving of around 50%.


Water pollution is no longer new in this era as it deteriorates the quality of water resources through contamination which can cause various risks. To address the problem, a race to produce progressive solutions have been executed through different studies, and one of the promising methods proposed is using pectin and pectin-derived adsorbent to adsorb heavy metals. The purpose of this systematic review paper is to determine and analyze the effects of the different parameters affecting the adsorption capacity of pectin-derived adsorbents and determine which pectin-derived adsorbent had the highest adsorption capacity. Articles that mentioned adsorption of lead using pectin and pectin-derived adsorbent or any notations linked to the case were collected, and through meta-analysis, data from different literatures were integrated to determine the objectives of this systematic review paper. It was found that the parameters affecting the adsorption capacity of pectin-derived adsorbents were pH, contact time, initial concentration of lead solution, mass of the adsorbent, and temperature. Also, among the gathered literatures, Pectin Hydrogel Metal Organic Framework showed the highest adsorption capacity (913.88 mg/g). The results from different literatures showed a growing potential in the use of pectin and pectin-derived adsorbent in removing lead ions.


The Christian worship has served people from various cultural settings to worship God in their communities without losing their cul-tural identity. The worship backs up the theological expression of the biblical message for the church growth and spiritual develop-ment. Pentecostal Assemblies of God Kenya worship practices and church growth is affected by sociocultural practices during wor-ship service. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the influence of socio-cultural practices on worship in Pentecostal Assemblies of God Church. The study was grounded in rational choice theory of religion. Survey strategy was applied in reviewing the literature on Pentecostal Assemblies of God worship to validate the purpose of the study. The study established that Pentecostal worship prac-tices is influenced by African sociocultural aspects, traditional values, beliefs and practices has affecting the laid down Christian the-ology of worship.

Evaluation of Interfacial Bond Strength of Reinforced Concrete Structures Degradation Exposed to Corrosive media []

This study investigated the utility of tree trunk exudates from Vitellaria paradoxa as an inhibitor to limit corrosion attack on rebar embedded in concrete structures and to expose high salinity in coastal oceans. The applied resin exudates/paste is coated with rebar of various thicknesses, embedded in a concrete cube and simulated while accelerating the corrosion of sodium chloride (NaCl) to determine the environmental use of abundantly available materials to control the effects of general alteration institute in concrete structures in marine areas. In comparison, the maximum percentile attained controlled 86.543% versus -45.595% corroded and coated 99.43%. The results show relatively neared values for controlled coated samples having lower failure load applications. These results indicate that the samples coated with exudates/resin are protected from the effects of corrosion by the formation of a resistance layer. The maximum controlled bond strength value was 69.572% compared to -42.481% corroded and 98.031% coated. The results obtained show that the higher load failure of controlled samples while corroded recorded lower failure loads and maximum slip, the controlled peak value is 95.942%, compared to -43.076% corroded and 121.718% coated. The results obtained for maximum slip also show higher slip values for controlled and coated specimens compared to corroded specimens. The results showed an indication of the effect of corrosion on defects of bond strength and maximum slip. The presence of corrosion reduces the performance of the material that corrodes there and reduces the mechanical properties of the surface modifications that affect the bond and interaction between the concrete and the reinforcing steel. From the results obtained and shown in the figure, the effect of corrosion on uncoated and coated reinforcing steel, it can be seen from the diameter of the reinforcement that the diameter of the uncoated reinforcing steel is reduced to the maximum value of -0.872% and coated increased by 0.88%, for the cross-sectional area, the corroded has a maximum decrease value of -16.626% and coated increased by 20.042%. For the weight loss and gain, obtained values were corroded -18.848% (loss) and coated 20.042% increased (gain). The data analyzed from experimental work showed that the corrosion effect on uncoated concrete cubes resulted in a reduction in diameter and cross-sectional area and a reduction in weight, whereas coated concrete cubes resulted in diameter and cross-sectional increase in weight from different thicknesses encased with reinforcing steel. Index Terms: Corrosion, Corrosion inhibitors, Pull-out Bond Strength, Concrete and Steel Reinforcement

Corrosion Resistivity of Inhibited Reinforcing Steel in Reinforced Concrete Pull-Out Bond Strength []

The study investigated the behavioral responses between concrete and reinforcing steel interfaces of corroded and coated reinforced concrete structures from corrosion-induced accelerated activities exposed to corrosive media. The samples were designed with sets of reinforced concrete cubes of 150 mm × 150 mm × 150 mm with a single ribbed bar of 12 mm diameter embedded in the center of the concrete cube specimens for pull-out bond tests. From the results recorded, the maximum comparative percentile values computed are controlled 62.381% against corroded and coated samples of -38.666% and 73.549% and with differential maximum values computed of the average and percentile ranges of failure bond load are controlled (1.029kN and 10.061%) against corroded samples values are (0.806kN and 3.713%), coated are (0.371kN and 3.215%). The results of failure bond loads in comparison among controlled, corroded, and coated as enumerated in the average and percentile composition and further in percentile differential values showed the effect of corrosion on uncoated samples with decreased in maximum percentile values, resulting in higher-yielding in lower load applications over coated samples exhibition of higher load applications with higher values to failure. The exhibited coated sample characteristics showed the efficiencies and effectiveness in the utility of exudates in the prevention and the protection of reinforcing steel embedded in concrete and exposed to harsh and serves coastal marine areas. The computed comparative percentile values are controlled 53.642% against -40.577% corroded and 77.863% coated. The differential computed average and percentile values are controlled 0.783MP and 9.343% against corroded 0.096MP and 3.2%, coated values are 0.783MP and 9.577%. From the obtained values, corroded samples exhibited lower pullout bond strength with decreased percentile values as compared with coated samples with higher pullout bond strength and increased values as referenced to the controlled samples values. The differential values obtained among controlled corroded and coated members as shown clearly showed the scourge and menace effects of corrosion on uncoated samples. The peak percentile recorded values are controlled 68.493% against corroded and coated samples of -36.902% and 71.074% respectively. The results showed lower values of maximum slip of corroded samples against controlled and coated samples and higher slippage failure. The effect of low load applications and higher failure was attributed to the effects of corrosion on the reinforcing steel deformed rib, reduction in the fibre and swollen characteristics that resulted to increase in volumetric diameter, and the conversion of deformed ribs to smooth state with effect on the interaction between concrete and steel interface and the creation of stress in the concrete surrounding as confirmed in the works of From the results obtained and presented in the figures, the effect of corrosion on uncoated and coated reinforcing steel are enumerated, in figures 3 and 6b on the diameter of rebar, it can be seen that the diameter of uncoated decreased by the maximum value of -0.88% and coated increased by 0.948%, for the cross-sectional area, corroded has maximum reduction value -54.98% and coated increased by and 32.443%, weight loss, and gain are corroded -23.784% decreased (loss) and coated 38.939% increase (gain). Indication, as analyzed from the experimental work, showed that the effect of corrosion on uncoated concrete cubes caused diameter and cross-sectional area reduction and weight decrease while coated concrete cubes have a diameter and cross-sectional area increases and weight gain resulting from the varying thickness coated to reinforcing steel. Index Terms: Corrosion, Corrosion inhibitors, Pull-out Bond Strength, Concrete and Steel Reinforcement

Contraceptive Use in Low and Middle Income Countries: The Roles of Socio-Economic Inequalities, Cultural and Religious Belief. []

Contraceptive use is aimed at preventing conception after unprotected sex. But, certain cultural, socio-economic and religious factors may have militated against contraceptive use in Imo State thereby leading to unplanned pregnancy and its concomitant problems. In view of above, this study aimed at finding out the religious, cultural and socio-economic factors militating against contraceptive use so as to make recommendations that will increase contraceptive use in Imo state. This study anchored on the decision theory of Leonard Savage because it effectively explains how contraceptive use is influenced by religion, culture and socio-economic factors. The data used for this study were derived through observation, Key Persons Interview and secondary sources of data collection. The key persons that were interviewed comprised of 2 health workers, 2 custodians of culture and 3 religious leaders from each of the senatorial zones in Imo state. Findings revealed that the Mbaise people of the Owerri zone practice a culture that might have militated against contraceptive use and the catholic doctrine do not support contraceptive use. However, in contemporary times most of those cultural practices seem to have faded away but, the major factors militating against contraceptive use are socio-economic factors like level of education and area of residence. Therefore, the study recommended that, the government and NGOs build hospitals or contraceptive outlets especially, in rural areas so as to increase the accessibility to contraceptive. It was also recommended that they make provision for free education to all citizens, irrespective of gender.

Feasibility Study of Solar Photovoltaic Electricity for Rural Irrigation []

ABSTRACT Every year there produce only a limited amount of electricity in Bangladesh and that is quite insufficient to meet up our de-mand of electricity. So the people of Bangladesh are suffering a lot due to lack of electricity. The suffering reached an extreme level during the irrigation period .In the irrigation period a huge amount of produced electricity consumed by electric pump. At present the electricity supply for irrigation is inadequate, solar energy can play an essential role to bridge the gap. In remote areas where electricity facility is not available PV pump can be a good choice. Not only that we can use the electrici-ty produced by the solar array to run some agricultural instrument which can save a lot of fuel cost. Besides this in the time and after harvesting or if we want, using the battery storage we can get the electricity facility. The solar irrigation system may help to save 760 MW electric power and 800 million litter diesel each year if the conventional irrigation pumps are transformed into solar power ones. Our system will help rural people to enjoy uninterrupted clean ener-gy and we believe this service will boost economic activity in the rural areas which leads to green development. Keywords: Solar Pump, Irrigation, MPPT, PVP.


ABSTRACT: The weathering of lubricating oil samples was investigated by monitoring the changes in the physico-chemical parameters and the microbial counts over a period of 28 days. There was a decline in the TPH from 974.0300ppm to 802.345ppm for the engine oil, 939.090ppm to 819.936ppm for the gear oil and 1043.060ppm to 877.733 for the spent oil. A decrease in the pH of all the samples was observed. The viable bacterial and fungal counts (TVC) indicated higher Total Heterotrophic Bacterial (THB) counts than total fungal (TF) counts. Characterization and identification tests revealed that a bacterial consortium comprising of the following genera; Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Proteus, Escherichia, Micrococcus, Arthrobacter, Enterobacter and Citrobacter were encountered in the oil samples, with the engine oil sample showing the greatest increase in total THB counts. Fungal genera encountered included Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Penicillium, Fusarium and Mucor. Amongst the bacterial isolates, Pseudomonas sp had the highest frequency of occurrence of 35% and 45% in engine oil and spent oil respectively. However, Flavobacterium sp. had the highest frequency of occurrence 32% in the gear oil. The results of the study revealed that engine oil showed the greatest degree of weathering while the spent oil was the least susceptible to weathering.

Estimation of Irrigation scheduling for Tomato using CROPWAT 8.0 model: The case of Assosa, North-West Ethiopia. []

Irrigation scheduling is answering when and how much water to apply. Application of simulation model as a tool for decision regarding to irrigation scheduling in which CROPWAT 8.0 was used in this case. The aim was to estimate crop water requirement of Tomato, irrigation requirement and time of irrigation or irrigation interval using CROPWAT8.0 model. Inputs for the model like, soil, climate, crop and rain fall data were collected. The highest reference evapotranspiration was 3.77mm/day which was at March and the lowest was 3.01mm/day obtained at December. The lowest daily crop water requirement was 2.11mm obtained at the second decade of December and the highest was 4.18mm obtained at the second decade of March. The water requirement of Tomato and irrigation requirement were 433.2mm and 416.9mm respectively throughout the growing seasons. The average irrigation interval was 12days which means for the total growth period of tomato and it can be use the same agro-ecology. As much as possible, it is better to use the irrigation interval depending on the growth stage of the crop in which soil moisture stress could not be a limiting factor to obtain maximum yield with considering input-outputs. Generally, estimation of irrigation scheduling using CROPWAT 8.0 model is important to generate information quickly for users.

Application of Three Soil Infiltration Models on an Irrigated Rice farm at Bayara-Villge Bauchi-Nigeria []

ABSTRACT: Infiltration models are very important in designing and evaluating irrigation systems and determine irrigation schedules. The main objective of the research was to determine the application of three soil infiltration models on irrigated rice/wheat farm at Bayara-village-Bauchi. The infiltration models evaluated were Kostiakov, Philip, and Horton. The double infiltrometer was used. Moreover, each soil sample was tested in terms of the bulk density, specific gravity, porosity, soil moisture, and soil texture and average value was taken. Based on a relative grading scale, the performance of the infiltration models is ranked as Horton Kostiakov Philip model based on R2/Standard error/decision factor respectively. The performance of Hortons model has been found to be better than the kostiakovs and Philips model in most of the cases based on both the approaches of parameter estimation. This implied that the model could be used to simulate water infiltration during irrigation projects in the farms.

Prevalence and risk factors of Sheep Hydatidosis in East Nile locality, Khartoum State, Sudan []

A cross-sectional study was conducted on 332 sheep slaughtered at El-hag yousif abattoir, East Nile Khartoum State, Sudan, during the period extended from December 2016 to February 2017. The objective was to estimate the prevalence of hydatid cysts in sheep and to investigate risk factors associated with the disease. Routine meat inspection procedure was employed to detect the presence of hydatid cysts in visceral organs (liver, lung, heart and spleen).Examined sheep originated from three areas: Buttana, East Nileand White Nile. The overall prevalence was 3%. The prevalence of hydatid cysts infection according to age of sheep was 3.7% in animals equal and more than one year and 2.11% in animals less than one year. The distribution of the hydatid cysts according to the area (source) of sheep was 2.4% in Buttana, 2.19% in East Nile, and 5.6% in White Nile. As for body condition the prevalence was 3.3% in good body condition and 0.0% in poor body condition. The prevalence of Hydatidosis in ecotype of animals was 2.3% in Baldy ecotype,5.7% in Hamary ecotype, 2.4% in Dubasy ecotype and 5% in Kabashy ecotype. The results of the univariate analysis by using the Chi-square for the following potential risk factors were: ecotype (P-value= 0.578), age of animal (p-value= 0.407), origin of animal (P-value = 0.359), body condition (p-value = 0.321), grazing (p-value =0.100),and present of dog (p-value =0.343). The grazing of animal was found to be significantly associated with Hydatidosis (p-value =0.1). Using multivariate analysis to determine possible significant association betweenHydatidosis and potential risk factors, the result showed that there was no significant association with any of the investigated risk factors.Our study showed that the liver was the most infected organ (6 cysts), while two cysts were found in the lung and liver. No cyst was found in heart and spleen. Microscopic examination of the 12 cysts (found in 10 affected animals) revealed that, eight cysts was sterile, two cysts were fertile. The present research work that is to alert policy makers to design governmental control programs against hydatid cyst infection to minimize the prevalence in Sudan and ensure effective protection not only for animal population but also for humans at risk of contracting the infection.

Management of Resources for Enhanced Students'Academic Performance in Secondary Schools in Rivers State Nigeria []

The study examined Management of resources for enhanced students’ academic performance in secondary schools in Rivers State, Nigeria. Five research questions and five hypotheses guided the study. The study adopted Administrative theory propounded by Henry Fayol in 1916. The design for the study was a descriptive survey design. The population of the study was 7,693 respondents (i.e. 7,425 teachers and 268 principals) in all the two hundred and sixty eighty (268) public senior secondary schools in Rivers State. Sample size of 380 respondents was drawn from the population. The instrument for the study was a questionnaire titled: “Management of Resources for Enhanced Students’ Academic Performance Scale” (MOSESAPS), which was structured on the modified 4point Likert scale with a reliability index of 0.78.Data gathered from the field were collated and analyzed using mean, standard deviation and rank order statistics to answer the research questions while the null hypotheses were tested using z-test statistics at 0.05 level of significance. The finding of the study among others revealed that the ways school facilities can be managed to enhance students’ academic performance in Rivers State include: preventive maintenance of school facilities; applying caution in the use of facilities; Base on this finding the researcher recommended that principal as an administrator through the Ministry of Education should liaise with institutions, NGOs and schools’ host communities to ensure adequate provision of facilities. Also, improvisation should be encouraged to ensure adequate delivery of knowledge to the students.


The study was to assess the influence of strategic operation on e-learning development in the covid-19 Era case of University of Education Pädagogische Hochschule Karlsruhe, Germany. A descriptive research design was adopted using both qualitative and quantitative approaches. The target population for the study was 94. With a sample size n= 76. The researcher used Questionnaires. The researcher used Data analysis using statistical package for social sciences. The results revealed that there was a positive significant relationship between time management, cost-effectiveness, quality control, efficiency of ICT and e-learning development with values r=0.712, r=0.949, r=0.810 and r=0.938 respectively. Keywords: Strategic, operation, e-learning, development, Covid-19


The study was conducted to call center agents in selected business processing outsourcing companies in Metro Manila. The study analyzed and focused on the demographic profile of the participants in terms of; age, sex, civil status and educational attainment, the level of work-life balance of call center agents, and the level of work engagement in terms of vigor, dedication and absorption. It was also carried out to determine if there is a significant relationship between the level of work life balance and the level of work engagement of the participants. The participants of the study will be limited to on-site call center agents or generally referred to as “customer service representatives” currently working in selected business process outsourcing companies in Metro Manila. The participants come from from Sitel- Julia Vargas Pasig City, RJ Globus Solutions - Rockwell Business Center- Ortigas, AIG-Alabang, TDCX- Robinsons Gamma Building Ortigas, Accenture- BGC Taguig, TaskUs-Quezon City, Concentrix-Alabang, Alorica-Quezon City, IbexAlabang and VXI Global Solutions Inc.-Quezon City.In addition, the study is limited only to call center agents who have the job title as customer “service representative” (CSR) and are currently employed regardless of their age, civil status, monthly income, employment status, inbound or outbound and years of service. The researchers will focus on 100 call center agents; 10 participants in each BPO companies to be exact. The said participants are currently employed from selected BPO companies in Metro Manila. Findings revealed that there are more female (69%) call center agents than male (31%). The minimum and maximum age of the participants are 21-48 years old with mean value of 28.14 and standard deviation of 6.095. They are composed of young workers and middle-aged adults. It also indicated that most of the call center agents in Metro Manila are single and are college graduates. Furthermore, when it comes to the level of work-life balance of the participants the 7 result shows a grand mean of 3.6660 as a result, it was interpreted as balance. This means call center agents maintained their work life and personal life and they are able to satisfy all demands to both work and personal life. In terms of level of work engagement in terms of vigor, dedication and absorption it was interpreted as engaged, this means that call center agents are lively and energetic at work; have involvement and pride in their work; thus have a difficulty in detaching to it. Lastly, the hypothesis of the study is accepted; there is a significant relationship between worklife balance and work engagement

International Terrorism: Causes and Concerns []

International Terrorism is a multifaceted, multi-vision, multidimensional that embodies so many dynamic features and characteristics that it has become very complex and difficult to limit in generalized words. "Defining a terrorist or terrorisms not easy when states indulge in terrorist acts they are labeled otherwise. However, if a universal law based on ethics and mortality is obeyed by all, there should be no reason for terrorism".

Assessment of the effective dose of controlled and uncontrolled area of selected hospitals in Uganda []

The effective dose rates were measured in the four hospitals using Gamma scout dosimeter. This research study was conducted at four different major hospitals in Uganda, because these hospitals and medical institutions might have maximum chances of radiation hazards to the personnel and public. .From the results obtained, dose values only in controlled and uncontrolled areas of both hospitals A, B and C are below prescribed dose limits due to efficiency of protection as well as design of X-rays rooms in these hospitals. Hospital D (doors and walls) are not appropriate to the standards except hospitals A, B and C. There are risks of high radiation for patients and people visiting X-rays departments of hospital D as well as risks for clinical staff working at those X-rays departments. The current study reveals that, currently, radiographers’ practices are unsatisfactory in regard to reducing radiation exposure for patients and themselves. Thus, a systematic and harmonized approach should be initiated in the form of corrective actions to ensure that radiation protection measures and standards are properly implemented in radiology departments.