Volume 9, Issue 12, December 2021 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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What is research? []

This paper is all about "what research is," so any person or student will know what a research paper is about and what its make-up is.

A comparative study of learning experience of students in online classes and physical classroom studies during Covid-19 pandemic []

The Covid-19 pandemic has changed the whole dynamic of world. Due to the coronavirus, a global lockdown was implemented, which enforced the governments of the world to close down the educational system to avoid social gatherings and human interaction, which could lead to transmission of the virus. Because of this, there was a shift from traditional educational system to an online educational system. Following the many developed countries, Pakistan also started the virtual mode of studies to facilitate the students. This research paper thoroughly analysis the impact of Covid-19 pandemic on educational system in Pakistan and highlights the issues faced by the students and faculty members due to the abrupt shift to online classes system. The article is concluded by corresponding measures and suggestions related to improving virtual classes learning experience as well as future on-campus experience of students.

Review on Improving Agricultural Water Use Efficiency (WUE) of Crops via Nutrient Management []

Water use efficiency indicates a given level of biomass or grain yield per unit of water used by the crop. Improving agricultural water use efficiency will continue to increase because of the demand for increased grain production. Greater yield per unit of water is one of the most important challenges in water-limited agriculture. Soil properties, efficiency of crops, climate, and chemical species of the fertilizer used are factors, which affect water use efficiency of crops. Use of chemical fertilizer has quick and efficient method but the cost on energy is very high and there are several environmental concerns. Organic fertilizers incorporation may enhance the organic matter content of the soil leading towards the excessive moisture conservation and plant nutrient availability. To improve WUE of crops, a number of interventions should often make including: integrated application or implementation of best management practice like, increasing vegetation cover, maintenance and builds of soil organic matter, application of organic and inorganic nutrient sources, good agronomic practices and others.

Environmental Risk Determinants Associated with pneumonia among children under five years in Kapenguria County Referral Hospital, West Pokot County, Kenya []

According to (WHO, 2017) pneumonia remains the biggest killer of children under 5 globally, claiming the lives of more than 1 million girls and boys every year. In Kenya, pneumonia is the second leading cause of death among children under the age of five years and causes 16% of deaths in the age group. The purpose of this study is to examine the environmental factors associated with pneumonia infection among children under five years who seek medical care at Kapenguria referral hospital. The study adopted a case-control study design involving 206 consecutively sampled mothers of children under five years for cases and controls respectively. 7 public health officers were purposively selected as key informants. Case control study design was involving 206 mothers was adopted. The mothers were consecutively sampled for a period of one month. Data was collected using a pretested structured interviewer-administered questionnaire for mothers and an interview guide for public health officers. Data analysis was done using Statistical Program for Social Scientist (SPSS) version 21. Pearson correlation tests was employed in the analysis to establish the relationship between the factors and pneumonia infection. Results were considered at 95% confidence level. Data was presented in the form of graphs, tables and pie charts. The findings revealed that 73% of mothers lived in an environment that was not conducive for the children and has contaminated air exposing a risk in pneumonia infection. The findings further showed a significant positive correlation (r =.684, p = .002) between environmental and occurrence of pneumonia among children. The meant that the families were exposed to an environment that was not conducive for the children that would lead to prevalence of pneumonia. The study therefore recommended that the National Environmental Management Authority should conduct environmental impact assessment to before construction of factories and other physical structures which release toxic products to the environment. It is expected that findings will be helpful to the community and more so to the health centres in planning and educating the community on how to prevent and control the disease.


ABSTRACTSorghum is one of the most important cereal crops in Ethiopia. The production and productivity of Sorghum are constrained by frequent drought and prolonged dry spells especially over the last two decades in Ethiopia leading to food insecurity. The current study aimed to evaluate BCNAM populations for drought tolerance, analyze the genetics of traits and identify genotypes with desirable drought tolerance traits. The experiment was conducted at Sheraro, Northern Ethiopia. A total of 1264 genotypes were evaluated using an alpha lattice design with two replications. Analyses of variance for quantitative characters showed highly significant differences among the progenies (P< 0.01) for all traits indicating the possibility for selection. Similarly, parental lines also exhibited significant differences (p<0.05) for most of the traits except chlorophyll content at flowering, panicle width (cm), grain weight per panicle (g), and the number of panicles per plant. Some progenies were early flowering including lines 32 (Teshale x IS14446) (61.525 days), 1226 (Teshale x IS32234) (62.9 days), 1099 (Teshale x IS16044) (64.53days), 749 (Teshale x IS14298 (66.04 days) and 305Teshale x IS15428 (69.01 days). Whereas, lines 673 (Teshale x IS3583) (79.03 days), 903 (Teshale x IS16173)(77.68 days), 513Teshale x IS22325 (75.2 days), 911Teshale x IS16173 (73.73 days), and 37 Teshale x IS14446 (71.74 days) were late flowering. While the best-performed progenies in grain yield per panicle were 747TeshalexIS14298 (67.47g), 2 TeshalexIS14446 (63.87g), 107 TeshalexIS14446 (61.03g), 767 TeshalexIS14298 (58.54g), and 1239 Teshalex IS32234 (55.89g) with an average yield of 38.21g per panicle. Traits with high GCV and PCV values such as chlorophyll content at maturity, number of panicles per plant, grain weight per plant, and grain yield can be improved by simple selection. Chlorophyll content at maturity, date of 50% flowering, date of 95% maturity, panicle length, shows high heritability values indicate quick and visual selection is possible. Whereas chlorophyll content at maturity, grain filling period, and thousand seed weight was exhibited high GAM shows additive gen action. Progenies 747, 479, 2, 702, and 914 were promising genotypes for further evaluation. Principal component analysis shows 24.33%, 13.82%, 12.32%, 9.63%, and 7.43% of the variation from PC1 to PC5 respectively with the cumulative variance of 67.53%. Keywords: Sorghum, Drought, BCNAM population


This article aims to review the skin ability of tilapia fish as a treatment in the healing of burns. Tilapia skin has a non-infectious microbiota, a high amount of type I collagen, and morphological structures similar to human skin, making it potential for burn management. One of the implementations of tilapia skin for the treatment of burns is by applying tilapia skin that has been sterilized on the skin affected by burns and in the form of fluid that can be applied on the surface of the skin affected by burns.


The study intended to investigate the contribution of schools community relationship on the management of primary schools in Tanzania taking a case study of Mbeya City council. The of investigation of this phenomenon based on the facts that recently primary and secondary schools in Tanzania are decentralized and owned by the community whereby the entire community has the responsibilities of securing and enhancing the smooth operationalization of schools. From such grounds the study was guided by three specific objectives. The first objective was to find out the roles of parents’ teachers’ associations on management of primary schools. The second objective examined the roles school committees on management of primary schools. The last objective explored the roles of school surroundings community on management of primary schools in Tanzania. Methodologically, the study was guided by pragmatism philosophical paradigm which allows the researcher to employ mixed research approach that involved both qualitative and quantitative approach. Moreover, the study was guided by the sequential research design that allows the presentation of quantitative data at the first phase followed by qualitative data. Simple randomly technique was used to select 10 primary schools with sample of 380 respondents. The data were collected through using questionnaire for quantitative data and interview for qualitative data. Standard deviation and frequency with the help of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) computer package version 20 used to analyze data. The findings of this study revealed that Parent teachers’ association, school committees and School surrounding community school have contribution on management of primary schools in Tanzania. It is therefore, this study concludes that the PTA, SC and SSC should be strengthened to enhance the management of primary schools in Tanzania. This is because SCR helps in enhancing peace and security of the school, provision of adequate land, personnel, finance, facilities and other resources which are important on management of primary schools in Tanzania. Finally, the study recommends that MoEST should formulate a circular and guidelines for effective PTA, SC and SSC which help on management of primary schools in Tanzania. In addition PORALG should organize trainings and seminars to the PTA, SC and SSC members with a view of getting solution to the mismanagement problems in primary schools.

Quality of Life in Patients with Epilepsy in the Middle Euphrates Neuroscience Center in Al-Najaf City []

Epilepsy is defined as a hypersynchronous discharge of a group of neurons at the level of the cerebral cortex, and is expressed through sudden changes in behavior, whose clinical manifestations depend on the site of origin and the cerebral topographic path performed by the brain discharge during its propagation. A Descriptive Cross-Sectional Design is used through the present study in order to : assess the quality of life in patients with epilepsy, and to find out the relationship between patients; quality of life and their demographic and clinical data. The period of the study is from 8th January 2019 to 28th May 2019. A Non-Probability (Purposive Sample) of (31) of epileptic patients, are included in the study. The data were collected through the utilization of the developed questionnaire using an interview technique after the estimation of the validity and reliability of the study instrument. Reliability of the questionnaire is determined by using the Alpha Cronbach’s technique, and the validity through (15) experts from different specialties (Face Validity) for reviewing the study instrument. The data was analyzed through using of the descriptive and inferential statistical analysis approaches. The findings of the present study indicate that the overall assessment of patients' responses to the quality of life for patients with epilepsy scale items is (fail), that there is a highly significant correlation between the quality of life for patients with epilepsy and their (age). The study concludes that the level of quality of life of patients with epilepsy is poor. The study recommends that further studies should be carried out to improve and explore effective methods to improve the quality of life of patients of people with epilepsy, and health education programs should be applied to increase the patients' knowledge regarding how to improve their sense of control and the factors affecting their abilities.


This article aims to examine the use of plastic made from polyethylene as fishery product packaging on its quality. Based on the literature study, information was obtained that polyethylene plastic packaging is very good in maintaining the water content of a product, especially in fish-based food products. Polyethylene has the effect of increasing the amount of protein in a product and reducing the number of microbes associated with changes in aroma and texture. But polyethylene does not work well in products containing oil.


This paper examined the design of a simple rectangular microstrip patch antenna suitable for application in the millimeter wave band. The proposed antenna was design to resonate at 39GHz with the corresponding return loss of -21.6dB, covering about 3.05GHz bandwidth which makes it more efficient for the fifth generation (5G) wireless communication devices. The comprehensive profile of the designed structure is 5.34 × 4.59 × 0.50 mm3 other parameters such as VSWR, gain, and radiation pattern are also examined. The modeling and simulation of the microstrip patch antenna was performed using High Frequency Simulation Software (HFSS). The result obtained shows that 90% of the power is intercepted by the antenna which is a well establish standard for mobile communication. Similarly, a gain of 5.7dB was achieved which satisfy the minimum requirement that 5G devices and the VSWR value achieved at resonant frequency of 40.4000 GHz is 1.1813.


This work presents the application of Artificial Neural Network Voltage Source Converter for improvement of the transient stability of the Nigerian 330kV transmission system. Enhancement of the dynamic response of generators, within a power system, when subjected to various disturbances, has been a major challenge to power system researchers and engineers for the past decades. The system was modeled in Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) environment and MATLAB software was employed as the tool for the simulations. The eigenvalue analysis of the system buses was performed to determine the critical buses. A three-phase balanced fault was then applied to some of these critical buses and lines of the transmission network in other establish the existing transient stability situation of the grid through the observation of the dynamic responses of the generators in the case network when the fault was applied. This clearly shows that one of the most critical buses is Benin bus and critical transmission line, Ikeja West – Benin Transmission line within the network. To this effect, the inverter and the converter parameters of the HVDC were controlled by the artificial neural network and were installed along to those critical lines. The results obtained showed that 33.33% transient stability improvement was achieved when the HVDC was controlled with the artificial neural network. The voltage profile result and the damping were improved when the ANN was installed.


This work presents the introduction of ANN controlled Voltage Source Converter – High Voltage Direct Current(VSC-HVDC) to improve the transient stability of the Nigerian 330kV transmission system. This has been a serious problem to power system researchers for a very long time. The system was modeled in Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) environment and MATLAB software was employed as the tool for the simulations. To obtain the critical buses, the eigenvalue analysis of the system was performed. To establish the existing transient stability situation of the network, a three-phase balanced fault was applied to some of these critical buses and lines of the transmission network. This is achieved by observing the dynamic responses of the generators in the case network when this fault was applied. This shows clearly that there exist one of the most critical bus which is Markudi bus and critical transmission line, which include Markudi - Jos within the network. VSC-HVDC was installed along to these critical buses and lines. The inverter and the converter parameters of the VSC HVDC were controlled by the Artificial Neural Network. It was observed that there was 33.33% improvement in the critical clearing time CCT when the HVDC was controlled intelligently when compared to the result with the conventional proportional integral method. The voltage profile result and the damping were improved when the ANN was installed. The voltage profile result and the damping were improved when the ANN was installed.


The main goal of this paper is to suggest that there is a need to establish a new link between the individual and the collective that goes beyond John Rawls liberal conceptions. Rawls establishes the compatibility, between the individual and the society within the liberal bases. He thinks that the long classical antagonism between the individual and the society can only be overcome through a liberal conception of justice. But on the contrary, these his conception seems limited in our present neo-liberal context due to the inapplicability of the principles of social justice. In this regard, there is a necessity to rupture from Rawls liberal conceptions thereby proposing the politics of education that will ensure citizenship pedagogy. Such system of education will help in the reconstruction of the new individual and new society in view of ensuring it reconciliation, reciprocity and mutuality.

Banana Leaves as A Natural Food Packaging : A Review []

Banana Leaves is one of the most used material for natural food packaging with its natural properties of foldable structure and its ability to hold water. In modern food industry, its usage mostly has been ceased and replaced by plastic and other synthetic material. This paper aimed to provide a literature review about banana leaves as natural food packaging and its effect on the food product. Research state that banana leaves is also known to be used as a natural packaging with antioxidant, antibacterial, and organoleptically pleasing.

Evaluation of Environmental impacts of Okobo Coal Mining Project in Ankpa Local Government area of Kogi State, Nigeria. []

Despite a proactive adoption of an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) document with detailed Environmental and Social Management Plan in place by the Okobo Coal Mining project, the community has continued to seek for help over deplorable environmental impact conditions created by the domicile Coal Mining activities. Thus, this study was conducted to evaluate the environmental impact of Okobo Coal Mining Project in Ankpa Local Government Area of Kogi State, Nigeria. The objectives of the study were to; assess the environmental impacts of Okobo Coal Mining Project, determine the level of implementation of environmental impacts mitigation measures and to identify the challenges confronting the implementation of Environmental Management Plan. Data were collected from both primary and secondary sources. Primary sources were questionnaire survey, face to face interview, observation and consultation with stakeholders while secondary sources were Okobo Coal Mining Project Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) approved Report, Nigerian Mineral and Mining Acts and Regulations. Results showed all the predicted environmental impacts manifested in all the four surveyed communities. The most identified environmental impacts were; reduction in air quality which had approximately (94. 07%) affirmation. decreased quality of run-off water with 88.14% followed by Acid Mine Drainage(AMD) 81.26%, 84.89% rated the implementation of the environmental mitigation measures low,12.05% rated it moderate and 3.06% rated it high. Therefore, it was recommended amongst others that the Environmental Health and Safety Officer of the mining company should ensure that employees are provided with a respectable working environment, train their employees, ensure that proper protective equipment is provided to the employees. The mining company should install appropriate warning signs, implement waste management methods, water should be sprinkled on the untarred road at intervals to prevent dust, over loading of Coal should be avoided to prevent spillage, transportation of coal should be in covered vehicles to prevent fugitive dust emission, and should make sure that they conform to all government regulations.


Abstract This paper explored the implications of monetization of politics for political development in Abia state, Nigeria. It examined the influence of money and material inducement in politics which expressed itself in Abia state in the Fourth Republic as well as the implications for political development with respect to mass participation and gender equality in the State. Two theories: Investment theory of party competition, and Golden Mean were used as theoretical frameworks. Survey design was also adopted and the sample size was 400, systematically drawn from four LGAs in Abia State using the stratified sampling technique. Primary and secondary sources were explored for gathering data, while data gathered were analysed qualitatively and descriptively. The study found that monetization of politics in Abia State in the Fourth Republic created room for less mass participation in politics in Abia as the political system cum political positions have been occupied by the same set of persons from 1999 to 2019. It was found that there was less women participation which was a demonstration of gender inequality in the state. The study recommended amongst other things, ensuring gender equality in terms of mass participation in politics through proper sensitization programmes in Abia and Nigeria at large, demonetization of politics through costs-cuts in electioneering in the country, as well as slashing salaries and entitlements of political office holders to conform to educational qualifications in line with Nigeria’s public service salary and entitlements scheme. Key words: Monetization, Politics, Political Development, Investment, Inducement, Entitlements.


The purpose of this review article is to review the process of extracting collagen from fish skin, the yield of collagen obtained from various types of fish and analysis of collagen marketing in Indonesia. The method used is literacy from various articles published in various journals. The results of literacy inform that fish skin from fish fillet industry waste can be processed or extracted into collagen. The collagen product obtained has a higher economic value and wider benefit value than the fish skin. The process of extracting collagen from fish skin can be done by various methods. The yield of collagen produced is influenced by the type of fish and how to extract it.

Goodbye To Reccession []

Suppose there are 3 persons in a society, with one having Re.1, and, he buys something from another person, a good, with that rupee. The cost of production to the second person is nil. Suppose the second person buys something (i.e. a good) with that rupee from the third person, , to whom also the cost of production is nil . Again, the third person buys something for Re.1 from the first person to whom the cost of production is nil. Notice we had one rupee in our hand but our GNP has become Rs.3. It proves that, in a society where there is no deficit financing, the more we use the money in money supply, the more will be our GNP. With the help of this theory, we can solve all problems of financing a project where there is dearth of money, but unexploited resources, increase exports and imports, wipe out recession in an economy.


ABSTRACT The environment is the only home that humans have and humanity’s entire life support system depends on it. The students nowadays are less concerned about the environment. This study assessed the Environmental Awareness and Practices of the BSED Students at Bataan Peninsula State University. It used both quantitative and qualitative methods. The researcher used a validated questionnaire. To strengthen the result, she also conducted a Focus Group Discussion (FGD) with select students. In analyzing and interpreting the data, descriptive statistics like frequency, percentage, and mean were used with Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) F-test, and NVIVO software for the qualitative part. The study found that majority of the respondents were 19 to 20-year-old, female, and Mathematics majors. The respondents’ environmental awareness in terms of green habits and environmental attitudes are moderately aware. There is no significant difference in the environmental awareness of the respondents in terms of green habits and attitudes when they grouped according to profile. The best environmental practice of the respondents is “I try to reduce the amount of waste at home by collecting recyclable materials” as their first choice and “I do not use a plastic bag to wrap things,” is the least choice. Among the suggested solutions of the respondents, their first choice in school is to conduct an environmental awareness training seminar and their least choice is to encourage students to read books and other information about the environment. In the community, their first choice is to conduct a clean-up drive, and the least choice is to not dump wastes anywhere. At home, their first choice is to start a garden in the backyard and avoid the open burning of wastes as their last choice. Proper Garbage Segregation is the environmental practices that they perform best. The participants suggested conducting a seminar about the environment and Clean-Up Drive.


ATM PIN Robbery has become a canker worm which has eaten into the fabric of Nigerian Banking System Whenever someone enters his/her pin while withdrawing money from the ATM machine, he/she is always at alert making sure that no one has stuck their eyes to it. They remain very careful, yet people have different ways like - skimming, using fake keyboards, using hidden cameras, card tapping and keystroke logging to hack the pin and use others’ card. So, to avoid such practices we propose the design of a machine that come along with the pin, also detects the face of the person using the card. If the user’s face does not match with the database, he/she will not get access to the further page. The access will be denied and the person using the card will not be able to make any transactions or alter any data. Along with the user, authorized spouse, and children whose information is fed in the database can use the card. So, if the family can manage only one card, there is no problem since, it won’t hamper the security of the system anyways. This enables full security as no other person can access and use the card except for the most trusted ones who are registered in the database. Even if someone manages to get the card, he/she cannot use it; as facial recognition runs parallel with the pin entering process, the system remains unbeatable.