Volume 9, Issue 12, December 2021 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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PHENOTYPIC CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIFUNGAL SUSCEPTIBILITY Profiles OF Candida species Isolated from CLinICAL SAMPLES IN Okitipupa, Ondo State, Nigeria. []

The purpose of the study: This research work was carried out to identify isolates of Candida species from clinical sources in Okitipupa and its environs and to determine antifungal susceptibility profiles of all the Candida isolates. Methods: The methods used for phenotypic analysis were germ-tube and chlamydoconidia production, culture in CHROMAgar Candida medium, sugar assimilation test, growth at 450C and culture in Tween 80 agar. A total of seventy-four (74) Candida species isolated were characterized. Antifungal susceptibility test to Amphotericin B, Ketoconazole, Clotrimazole and Fluconazole was performed using Mueller-Hilton agar disk diffusion procedures. Results: The isolates were obtained from vagina swabs 24.3%, urine 14.9%, respiratory exudates 24.3%, skin and nails scrapping 10.8% blood 14.9% middle ear discharge 5.4% and plastics devices 5.4%. Out of the 74 isolates, 28 were Candida albicans, 9 were Candida glabrata, 5 were Candida krusei and 32 were Candida tropicalis. The isolates were fairly susceptible to commonly used antifungal drugs. All the isolates showed 100% susceptibility to amphotericin B. While the susceptibility to ketoconazole and Clotrimazole range between 75-90%.Candida glabrata and Candida krusei showed resistance to fluconazole. From the study Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis were the most prevalent, hence the most common cause of candidiasis. Recommendation: The results from this study have proven that phenotypic tests might be highly effective quicker and cheaper, in identifying Candida species from clinical samples, it also shown that there are some evidence of emerging resistance of Candida species to common antifungal drugs. For management of candidiasis infection there is need to identify all yeast from clinical sources as some have intrinsic resistance to commonly used antifungal drugs. There is also need to constantly carry out in vitro antifungal susceptibility testing in order to establish an emerging resistance of candida species. This is essential in the management of candida infections especially in immunocompromised individuals where recurrent candidiasis is common.


The study examined the main causes of paternity fraud and means of compensating the victims of the fraud. The paper utilized both primary and secondary data in the cause of carrying out the study. It employed survey research method and primary data were obtained via open ended questionnaires. The responses from respondents were analyzed in percentage tables. Findings from the analysis reveals that paternity fraud is prevalent in Nigeria. It further revealed that pressure from marriages quest for family expansion, error of child swapping and incidences of unwanted pregnancies are the root causes of paternity fraud in Nigeria. The study recommended among others that the society should desist from mounting pressure on the need for conception and child bearing in marriages and laws should be promulgated on punishment and compensation for perpetrators and victims of paternity fraud. Keywords: paternity fraud, Tort of Deceit, victims’ compensation

Status of the Salt and Alkalinity Intrusion from the Lake Abaya to Agricultural Lands []

Salinity and alkalinity intrusion from the lake to agricultural land of shore is one of the major environmental issues throughout the world. This research was conduct to assess the intrusion effect of Lake Abaya to the agricultural land. To analysis status of soil salinity and alkaline due to Lake Abaya intrusions, one hundred soil samples were collect by Auguring method at the 30cm depth of soil along the field. Those soil chemical properties were analysis in Arba Minch university water supply and sanitary laboratory according different standards. The average soil pH value, electric conductivity, organic matter and organic carbon were 8.06, 1.04ds/m, 1.45% and 0.84%, respectively. The average cation concentration of sodium, magnesium, calcium and potassium were 17.64mg/l, 6.94mg/l, 5.5mg/l and 5.4mg/l, respectively. Generally the the intrusion of soil salinity and alkalinity from the the lake abaya to agricultural land was too high that show the land need soil reclamation in order to decrease soil PH and electric conductivity.

Сравнительный анализ внешнеполитических подходов Соединённых Штатов Америки на Ближнем Востоке. []

В данной статье автор рассматривает какую роль играет регион Ближнего Востока во внешней стратегии Соединённых Штатов Америки и основные подходе администраций США к региону. А так же дается рекомендации по будущему поведенческому роли США на Ближнем Востоке.

Shortage of Water Supply and Its Effects on Urban Households: A Case of Burayu Town. []

It is true that water is a natural resource without which all living things cannot exist. It is a natural requirement for all living things to have access to water if they have to be alive, if the scarcity of water supply is observed difficult for people to live. The provision of shortage of water supply in developing countries is becoming a challenge for most water utilities especially public service providers. This thesis under the topic of ‘’shortage of water supply and its effects on households: A case of Burayu town, Oromia Regional state’’ Aimed tostudy status of water service deliver. To achieve the objective of the study, a total of 138 household heads were randomly selected and interviewed by questionnaire. The data were collected through questionnaire, personal observation, Focus group discussion and key informant interviews. In addition; different documents from secondary sources were reviewed. The collected data were analyzed using a descriptive method. Accordingly, the finding of this study shows there was water shortage in two kebeles (Burayu Gefersa and Keta Burayu) of the town. Consequently, in order to narrow shortage of water supply by expansion of water supply services that match with the town development must be carried out. The town water supply service enterprise should devise a mechanism (such as increase production and sources, accessibility and sustainability of clean water and time delivery for water. Government must work with concerned stakeholders (societies, the city administration, and NGOs) should charge their respective responsibilities properly. Key words: Shortage, Water supply, urban livelihoods, Source, Quantity.

Impact of social media on secondary education in pakistan []

Facebook is a standard social site like many others. Peer groups are just an electronic relationship between users. Sadly, however, this has turned into cruelty to the less educated, young people, and, surprisingly, adults. The impact of social places on students can be extraordinary. Regardless, if we take a more basic look at the authoritative influence of the relative associations, we will also discover its terrifying background. Guidance should be the main point of confluence of under studies. However, the existing under studies are highlighting more districts which are collapsing with time. This research discusses the positive and negative effects of the comfort net on the education of assistant stage undergraduates as well as on their lives, depending on one's willingness to use it in positive forms to prepare one. Yes, and vice versa and in some interesting ways. This can be generated in the results. Submit disclosures from questions. The study was conducted in September 2021; it is significantly more complete here, including answers to open completed requests. Attempts were made to contrast the survey's findings with the various under-studies against central social opportunities in order to assess the appropriateness of the revolutions.

Evaluation of the Socioeconomic Impacts of Okobo Coal Mining Project on Host Communities in Anpka Local Government Area, Kogi State, Nigeria. []

There is increasing mineral exploitation activities, that has led to increased environmental and socioeconomic effects as well documented.The positive and negative impacts of Okobo Coal Mining Project on host communities were evaluated. Field survey was conducted to assess the impact using questionnaire, observation, interview and focus group discussion. It was observed that Okobo coal mining project had positive and negative impacts on the communities. On the positive aspect, the company employed ninety-five people from the host communities, constructed 11Km feeder road from Ankpa to Okobo, drilled one borehole, and rehabilitated the existing one in Enjema. They also built a clinic and one block of three classrooms for the host communities in Okobo. Despite these benefits, all the predicted negative socio-economic impacts of the project manifested. Approximately seventy-nine per cent (78.78%) respondents recognized the negative socioeconomic impacts of the mining project. There was variation on the various impacts. For example, socio-economic impacts such as ‘increase in community unrest and increase in respiratory diseases’ had hundred percent (100%). Deprivation of farm lands, loss of employment, alteration in age-sex distribution, increase in cost of living/inflation, increase in communicable diseases and stress on existing security structures had 89.29%, 83.94% 50.86%,65.20%, 73.23%, 72.85% and 84.32% respectively. It was concluded that Okobo coal mining project had significant positive and negative socioeconomic impacts on the host communities. Although, the socioeconomic contribution of the Okobo Coal Mining Project may outweigh the negative to the nation at large, its negative impacts on the host communities outweighed the positive impacts currently.

The Impact of Exchange Rate and Dollarization on the Balance of Payment in Cambodia: An Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) Approach []

Using Cambodia dataset, this paper identifies the effect of real effective exchange rate (REER) and dollarization on the balance of payment. The controlled variables are REER, broad money growth rate, and the ratio of foreign currency deposit to total deposit - dollarization indicator. I use the quarter dataset from 2008-Q1 to 2020-Q1 and conduct pre-statistical tests on all variables to avoid spurious regression. In line with variables’ characteristics, I apply the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model in the error correction form. There are three main contributions of this paper (i) the use of Cambodia’s primary quarterly dataset, (ii) the implication of ARDL in error correction form by incorporating the index of dollarization (iii) the key findings for regulators, particularly the central bank – the National Bank of Cambodia.

Review Article: Comparison of Vacuum And Non-Vacuum Packaging To The Shelf Life of Processed Fish []

Fish is one of the most popular foods in Indonesia. Fish is usually used as raw material for processed foods such as pesmol fish, pin-dang fish, fish paste, pempek, and even processed into frozen food. Frozen food is a processed food product in semi-finished form that is preserved until the food is ready to eat. One of the processed frozen food products is fish nuggets, tilapia fillets, fish balls, etc. Usually frozen food is packaged in plastic packaging that is vacuumed or not. Vacuum and non-vacuum packaging can affect the quality of processed fish, including its shelf life. This article review compared the advantages and disadvantages of using vacuum and non-vacuum packaging on the shelf life and quality of the processed fish. The results showed that processed fish packaged using vacuum packaging had a longer shelf life than processed fish using non-vacuum packaging.

Teachers’ Transformational Leadership Style and the Academic Performance of Students in Select Secondary Schools in Owerri Educational Zone, Imo State, Nigeria []

Teachers’ leadership is crucial to the academic performance of students. Students’ learning behaviour and outcome are influenced largely by the leadership style of their teachers. Teachers’ leadership style affects students’ cognitive, affective and psychomotor development. The effects of teachers’ leadership style on any, or all the three domains of learning, no doubt, have implications for the social development and academic performance of students. Considering the importance of teachers’ leadership in the overall development of the student, this study investigated the effect of teachers’ leadership style on the academic performance of secondary school students in Owerri Educational Zone, Imo State. The study specifically interrogated the effect of teachers’ transformational leadership on the motivation and academic performance of students in the secondary schools within Owerri Educational Zone. The Leader-member exchange theory served as the theoretical framework of the study. A sample of 363 students was drawn from four schools in Owerri Educational Zone, Imo State. Quantitative data were collected using a structured questionnaire. The survey data were presented using frequency distribution tables while the hypothesis was tested using the chi-square statistical tool. The study found that teachers’ transformational leadership style has had positive effect on students’ motivation and academic performance in the secondary schools in Owerri Educational Zone. The study recommended that teachers should adopt transformational leadership style in order to get the best out of students.

A Systematic Review For The Analysis Of Validated Scales Of Measurement Used For Measuring Cancer-Fatigue []

Fatigue is a typical and often manageable condition in patients with cancer that fundamentally affects numerous aspects of personal life. Assessments of the complete prevalence range from 50 percent to 90 percent of cancer patients. Patients might be screened with a short fatigue self-appraisal instrument or scale after tending to reversible or treatable contributing variables like hypothyroidism, pallor, rest unsettling influence, torment, psychiatric trouble, climacterium, medicine unfavorable reactions, metabolic aggravations, or organ brokenness like cardiovascular breakdown, myopathy, and pneumonic fibrosis. Fatigue ought to be minded all cancer patients consistently. This systematic review expects to distinguish a portion of the accessible scales for identifying cancer-related fatigue that has already been approved or validated in the writing. To meet the criteria of inclusion, each of the scales must have been approved for application in patients with cancer and additionally broadly used in this populace. A sum of 5088 papers was inquired through different searches on Pubmed and NCBI, being reduced to 34 papers yielding 12 scales (5 unidimensional and 7 multidimensional). Psychometric properties, items, scale, malignancy site, dimension, and populace all impacted the scales utilized. A unidimensional fatigue scale was demonstrated to be the more proper measure for most purposes.

Difficulties of Speaking English that Encountered Students (Case Study En-Nuhud Secondary Schools) []

Abstract The study aims at exploring the speaking difficulties encountered English language students at En-Nuhud Secondary Schools. The study also aimed at revealing the extent and degree of speaking difficulties and the reasons that led to that. The hypotheses are there are difficulties and problems that face the students at En-Nuhud secondary schools in speaking skills, there are errors that occur when students speak, difficulties in speaking that face the students while they speak, cause weakness and other problems. The study tries to answer the following questions: what is the most difficult problem that encounters the secondary school students in speaking? What are the causes of speaking difficulty that face the students while they speak? The researchers designed a questionnaire to apply on the sample of the study. The questionnaire is to be analyzed via (SPSS) program. The study has come out with these results one of which is: there some difficulties in the speaking of the students due to some reasons such as fear of mistakes, shyness, anxiety, and lack of confidence. There are many recommendations; the most important one is to establish an environment which support and encourage the students to speak English frequently. The researchers also recommended secondary school teachers to conduct more studies on speaking difficulties and their causes and to find appropriate solutions to them. Terms: Speaking: Speaking Difficulties: Skill: Speaking Skill: Speaking Skill Strategy.

Techniques for Implementing School Public Relations Programmes for Technical Vocational Education and Training in Rivers State Universities []

The study examined techniques for implementing school public relations programmes for technical vocational education and training in Rivers State Universities. Three research questions were answered, and corresponding null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The population of the study was 34 lecturers from Rivers State Universities. There was no sampling due to small population size. Data were collected through a self-structured questionnaire designed in the patterned of 4-point rating scale of agreement. A reliability coefficient of 0.83 was established through test retest method. Mean and Standard Deviation were used to answer the research questions while z-test was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The study found that hiring of human resources, use of audience targeting and use of social media marketing enhances the implementation of school public relation programmes in TVET in Rivers State Universities. Keywords: School, Public, Relations, Programmes, Technical, Vocational, Education, Training.

Factors influencing Stunting persistence among children under five in Kicukiro District Health Centers []

Poor child growth among under five children remains a public health concern in Rwanda. It increases the risk of illness, irreversible body damage and mortality. An estimated 53,843 annual cases of child mortality are associated with child undernutrition. Some factors are behind this poor nutrition. Several studies on child nutritional status among children under the age of 5 years have been well documented at national level and investigated the magnitude among regions, localities and residence but not yet the associated factors within the districts. This article aims to determine factors influencing stunting persistence in children under five years in Kicukiro District. A cross-sectional survey with both quantitative and qualitative was employed. The study consisted of children under the age 6-59 months admitted in nutrition promotion program in three health centers of Gahanga, Masaka and Busanza. Simple random sampling was used to collect quantitative data to 75 children and correspondent caregivers; health care providers were purposively sampled for qualitative data. The quantitative method was conducted via use of self-administered questionnaire with close ended questions to describe variables and examine the association among variables. A key informant interview was accessed for qualitative data. Enthropometric measurements of a child was taken to assess the nutrition status and interviews were conducted among health care providers to improve the validity of the findings. Research clearance was provided by the Institutional Research Review Committee of the Mount Kenya University in Rwanda, and Ministry of Health as well as Kicukiro district offices. Confidentiality was considered during the research process and data were analyzed by using SPSS statistical package. The findings of this study revealed that the nutrition status among children in Kicukiro district health centers occurred with 38.6% stunted children and 6.7% severe stunting. Children aged 6-24 months were more affected of stunting with 93.3%. Quantitatively bivariate analysis revealed clear significant association with socioeconomic characteristics and environmental health-related conditions associated with stunting persistence; still, low family planning usage, wealth index and low family monthly income as well as poor hygiene practices and household sanitation were qualitatively identified factors influencing in the area. It was concluded that poor nutrition status among children remains a public health challenge in the study setting and related factors have been identified. It was recommended to promote community awareness about perfection of health services and expansion of interventions especially poverty alleviation activities with focus on advance of wealth index and family monthly income and improve sanitation at household level.

Socio-economic survey and the impacts of forest fire on the lowland Bamboo in North-Western Part of Ethiopia, Asosa Zone []

The lowland bamboo forest cover of Ethiopia has been diminishing at an alarming rate due to anthropogenic factors. The study was conducted to assess the anthropogenic effect on lowland bamboo and the economic wellbeing of local livelihoods in Bambasi Woreda. A simple random sampling method was used to select 122 sample households for data collection. Conventional methods such as questionnaire survey, Focal Group Discussion (FGD) and Semi-Structured Interviews were used to gather data. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics, including the Chi-square test. In the present study, most respondents (60.53%) in the district stated that the frequency of forest fire is increasing in the last ten years. Harvesting honey was the main (74.43%) cause for forest fire which was followed by fire caused for hunting purposes (65.13%) and cigarette smoking (64.8%). Expansion of agricultural land contributes to 58.65% of the forest fire in the area. Respondents agreed that a forest fire is the main cause for the decrease in the area cover of the lowland bamboo. Bamboo contributes to fuelwood (95%), house and fence construction (85%), house furniture (88%), food for humans and domestic animals (75%). However, the majority (82%) of the household stated that their income from lowland bamboo was decreasing over the past due to forest fire. The study identified also the low community participation in forest conservation. Thus, the study recommends creating awareness among the local communities on the effect of the forest fire, implement legal enforcement and enhancing participatory forest management practices.


Nyireh plant (Xylocarpus granatum) is one of the coastal species of trees that grow and live in mangrove for-ests known as cannon ball mangroves. The purpose of this research is to compare the antioxidant activity of Nyireh (Xylocarpus granatum) seeds and roots by determining the total phenolic content using the Folin-Ciocalteau method and determining the antioxidant activity with the Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) method. Determination of phenolic content was determined with linear regression equation y = 0.0182 + 0.000712x with r = 0.9605. The total phenolic content of Nyireh seeds is 31.29 mg/g while the nyireh root is 42.98 mg/g. In the determination of antioxidant activity the results of the analysis with UV-Visible Spectro-photometry obtained the maximum wavelength of absorption at 510.5 nm and the linear regression equation of the calibration curve is y = 0.0713 + 3.255x with r = 0.9990. The results of the determination of root antioxi-dant activity is higher antioxidant activity value is 10.81 mmol Fe(II)/100 g, while of seeds nyireh is lower an-tioxidant activity value is 8.81 mmol Fe(II)/100 g.

The highs and lows of Online Education []

Due to outbreak of global pandemic health crisis in 2020,online learning is one of the options to let the continuity of education still intact, as well as to ensure the safety of all the school stakeholders. Though, online education is not a new concept, still it may consider as not typical way of learning and might not applicable to all,due to many contributing factors. However, is online education really produce a quality-based learning outcomes for learners, despite the less or no human interaction in teaching-learning cycle. In this article, the highs and lows of online education to both learners and educators will be discussed, as well as its impact.

The Influence of Competitive Pricing on Sales Performance in Aviation Industry of Pakistan []

The objective of this research is to investigate the influence of competitive pricing on sales performance in the Pakistan aviation industry. The data were gathered through structured questionnaire to collect primary data from 270 respondents of air travel services in Pakistan. Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was employed in examining the data. The findings reveal that penetration, discriminatory, discount and psychological pricing (Independent Variables) strategies had a significant and positive influence on sales performance (Dependent Variable) in the Pakistan aviation industry. The study concluded that competitive pricing was radical to increasing and improving the sales performance of the Pakistan aviation industry. Four hypotheses were developed based on the dimensions of the study as well as the relevant literature. In order to collect the data and analyzing the hypothesis and reaching on conclusions, a questionnaire which consists of (20) questions covering the dimensions and the hypothesis of the study was designed. Then questionnaire was distributed to Airline Passengers in Pakistan. Data collection resulted in 230 filled questionnaires out of which 200 were processed for subsequent analysis. Overall, the result of findings of this study provides and support to model of the study. Therefore, based on the overall analysis it is presumed that Hypothesis 1 & Hypothesis 2 are rejected and Hypothesis 3 & Hypothesis 4 are accepted.


Abstract The structural and electronic properties of pure and nitrogen doped zinc oxide (ZnO) were studied using density functional theory (DFT) approach. The geometric optimization calculation showed that for the ZnO1-xNx (x = 0, x = 0.125, x = 0.25 and x = 0.375), there is only minor increase in the lattice constants and therefore ZnO suffers less distortion on its structure, but the material loses its stability as the doping concentration is increased due to the increases in its formation energy. However, the band structure calculation described ZnO as a direct band gap semiconductor with its CBM and VBM lying on the same high symmetry Γ point with band gap energy of 0.79 eV. Our result also showed that insertion of 12.5% nitrogen impurity reduced the band gap of the material but enlarged when the dopant concentration was increased to 25% and also widened more for 37.5% doping concentration possibly due to Burstein Moss effect (BM-shift.


The fast-rising increase in population and technological advancements has led to the production of solid wastes in so many countries. Many years ago, wastes were seen as unwanted and unusable by-products. The unavailability of enough waste bins in various localities, unplanned and primitive method of waste collection in different municipals affected the human health and caused environmental pollution due to the emission of nitrogen, methane and carbon monoxide gases. But recently, because of the development in proper managerial waste transportation, monitoring, collection, processing, recycling, disposal and recovery system, the above definition is no longer completely correct. Solid waste (SW) can be recycled and utilized in the construction industry for the production of building materials. Waste recycling is now an essential part for an effective waste management. SW is no longer seen as unwanted materials but a source to conserve energy and raw materials when reprocessed. Aside the conversion of natural resources and energy, the waste management system tends to contribute positively to the economy by the provision of job opportunities. This research paper reviews the essential research findings, the laboratory tests results and the analysis of reusing these solid wastes in the production of building construction materials for a sustainable environment.


Risk in relation to road construction can simply be defined as an inevitable event in Engineering construction projects or works. Risk management in road construction can be said to be a way or method to plan, detect and manage those already existing risks or future risks that is most common in construction of roads. My research work is based on identifying these risks, knowing the best method to manage the risks which simply start by identifying the hazards, accessing the extent of the risks and managing residual risks if any, solving the risk and even a possible avoidance of the risk in a well-defined manner. It is usually a big loss to the road construction companies when they fail to meet up with the deadlines given for a particular project or when the budget given was mismanaged by the contractors. The outcome of risk mismanagement in construction includes a financially unsuccessful project that significantly weakens the company's financial stability. To avoid this occurrence or company instability, construction companies should disengage from profitless construction works by being able to point out from the start of the project works. The aim is to have an active managerial skill of handling risk in the pre-selection phase. This can only be attained if the parties involved in the contract are able to understand their major risks, the risk conditions, risk events and take proper responsibilities in handling them. Data collection, use of questionnaire and physical interviews can serve as the primary data for a particular study area. The result obtained will help show the risk encountered previously or the future possible risks and the major causes of these risks. Finally, a proper method should be drafted out and carried out by the companies or parties involved to prevent and manage these risk problems efficiently and effectively.


Comparative evaluation of the effect of fermentation time of pito drink prepared from caramel and ogi supernatant with the addition of fruit juice extracts (Pineapple and orange) were evaluated. The sample were coded AMI, BAS, KHA, HAM and SEK respectively. Samples were prepared with ogi supernatant at 0hr, 12hr, 24hr, 36hr and 48hr fermentation time. Physico-chemical and sensory analyses were carried out using standard analytical procedures. Data obtained were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the means separated using Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT). The vitamin C content range from 15.47 to 85.55 mg/100ml (significant different at P≤0.05 for all the samples). The percentage brix varied between 0.00 to 11.50. The colour parameters analyzed were lightness (L*) redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) ranging from 24.21 to 27.62, 21.11 to 9.17 and 2.23 to 8.8 respectively; indicating significant differences in colour analysis (P<0.05). The selected mineral evaluated in the pito drinks were significantly different at p<0.05 with the values for Manganese, Copper, Magnesium and Calcium ranging from 0.155 to 0.78, 0.02 to 0.03, 18.60 to 24.50 and 1.23 to 3.55 mg/100g respectively. The sensory evaluation result rated SEK(48hrs fermentation ) significantly higher (P<0.05) for all the attributes, including the overall acceptability. Therefore, this study has confirmed that fermentation time improved the organoleptic characteristics as well as mineral composition of pito samples Keyworks: Fermentation, Quality, Pito, Caramelized Drink, Fruit Extract

Distribution of TEM, SHV, OXA AND CTX-M Genes among ESBL- producing E. coli isolates from patients with urinary tract infections. []

Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) are a large and rapidly evolving group of enzymes able to hydrolyse oxyimino-cephalosporins and monobactams class of antibiotics resulting to therapeutic failures. Emergence of these enzymes is as a result of transmission among Gram negative bacteria, usually by horizontal gene transfer. The epidemiology of ESBL genes is changing rapidly and shows marked geographic differences in distribution of genotypes. In this study, isolation of extended- spectrum beta- lactamase producing E. coli in patients with bacteriuria in parts of Edo state, Nigeria was carried out using the urine of patients with UTI in selected teaching hospitals namely : University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH), Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua (ISTH) and Igbinedion University Teaching Hospital, Okada (IUTH). A total of 3,378 urine samples were cultured into Blood agar, Cysteine lactose electrolyte deficient (CLED) agar and Macconkey agar and incubated aerobically at 37°C. Isolated E.coli had resistance of 38.5%, 43.9%, 36.4%, 38.5% and 52% to cefuroxime, ceftazidime, cefixime,ceftatriaxone and cefotaxime respectively. Phenotypic detection of ESBL producing E.coli was done using the double disk synergism. ESBL- producing E. coli had prevalence of 1.5%, genomic DNA extraction was carried out on the E. coli that were ESBL positive and hybridization effected using specific primers for the assayed genes. The BlaTEM, BlaCTX, BlaOXA and BlaSHV genes had prevalence of 33.3%, 53.3%, 6.7% and 6.7% respectively. This study has established the presence of these resistant genes among the E.coli isolates from patients with urinary tract infections. Keywords: Extended spectrum beta- lactamase, E.coli


This paper looked into monetization of politics and professionalism in Nigeria. It explored the consequences of money induced politics which expressed itself in the fourth republic on professionalism and development in the country. It was necessitated by the fact that while other professions in Nigeria were/are occupied by those trained in those areas of specialization; politics has been misconceived as a calling and a market place devoid of professionalism. Plato’s Leadership Theory was used as a lens in the study. Descriptive design was also employed. Secondary method was adopted in gathering data, while data gathered were analysed descriptively. The study found that monetization of politics in Nigeria in the republic created room for unprofessionalism – a situation where medical, legal, engineering, etc professionals as well as retired military men and businessmen abandon their areas of specializations and switch into politics at will without the fundamentals of political administrative related qualification(s). It equally found that most political appointments in Nigeria between 1999 to 2019 were not based on professionalism but on party alliances and investment. These have had negative implications on professionalism and development in the country. The paper recommended amongst other things, demonetizing politics to enable most suitable cum qualified candidates participate actively in politics; politics to be seen as a profession and not a calling; and those switching from other professions to politics to have a certificate in political administrative related courses. Keywords—Monetization, Politics, Professionalism, Careers, Philosopher ruler.


One of the hazardous pollutants of indoor air is volatile organic compounds (VOCs).These compounds are organic emissions from products used on daily basis. They include a variety of hazardous chemicals, and high levels of these organic compounds could mean serious health threat to humans that come in contact with them.In this study, the levels of indoor volatile organic compounds in some residential areas in Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria were determined.Different locations/sites were mapped within Wukari Metropolis. These sites include; the Government Reserve Area (GRA), Mission Quarters, Students’ Residence and the School Hostels. Automated TVOC metre was used in collecting the data. This equipment was allowed to boot properly and the readings were taken one after the other after 30seconds each. The readings were taken in triplicates in all the residential buildings used within the Metropolis. The process was repeated after one month.The result shows that the total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs)in students’residential hostels ranges from 0.06±0.04 to 0.23±0.06mg/m3 with hostel C1 having the least TVOCs while Hostel A3 has the highest TVOCs level. The result also shows that the TVOCs ranges from 0.02±0.01 to 0.21±0.07mg/m3 in Federal University Wukari Staff Quarters with Junior staff quarters 1 having the least TVOCs whereas the junior staff quarters 2 has the highest level.The level of TVOCs in students’ residence opposite Federal University Wukari ranges from 0.09±0.0 to 0.14mg/m3with Naya2 having the least TVOCs level while Oklahoma2 has the highest level.The range of TVOCs level in mission quarters Wukariwas found to be 0.06±0.03 to 0.14±0.05mg/m3 with Mission 4 has the least TVOCs while GRA1 has the highest level.The result for this study showed that there were low levels of total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) in the residential buildings considered in this research. At such concentration, it can be said that health challenge(s) to this effect is a rare scenario. However, prolonged exposure to TVOCs at a particular dose can lead to chronic health challenges such as respiratory disease, neurological damage among others.

An investigation into the effect of digital learning on learning motivation and learning outcomes []

In modern era, the popularity of smart mobile devices, the internet is breaking through the limitations of time and becoming a special learning tool. The design of educational activities for digital learning and the adaptability of the application of technological tools are the main focuses for the current integrated education in information technology. Students are assessed and a questionnaire is used in this study is administered to gain insight into the perception of digital learning. In order to accomplish research objectives and to test research speculations, trial research is applied in this review.116 students were chosen as the subject of instructive exploration. Advanced learning has a more constructive outcome on learning inspiration than conventional training, computerized learning has a more constructive outcome on learning results than customary instruction, learning inspiration has a critical beneficial outcome on the effect of learning on learning results and perhaps on this inspiration to learn. has a very positive impact on learning outcomes on learning outcomes.This should be combined with the current education trend and the benefits of digital use Learn how to develop practical strategies of teaching and effectiveness.


t Objective of study is to look into personal consequences of workplace bullying under health-care industry. The role of burnout under mediating relationship with Bullying in workplace and nurses' well-being was investigated in this study. In the association between workplace bullying and burnout, avoidant passive leadership is also explored variable that is conditional. A survey using questionnaires utilizing Google Form used to gather data from nurses working at various hospitals in two waves. This study advises that management concentrate on establishing & implementing anti-bullying policies to stay away from negative the ramifications of bullying in Work (e.g., recruitment expenditures, capital loss, well-being, burnout, etc.). Supervisors and Leaders must be educated in order to carry out their obligations and avoid unfavorable results. In high-power distant cultures, there is just a little amount of study on workplace bullying. The authors have done their best to the best of their ability; this is first study to investigate into moderating impact of avoidant passive leadership in the relationship with bullying in workplace & burnout, based on conservation of resource theory. Keywords: Burnout, Well-being, Health-care sector, Workplace bullying, High-power distance, Passive avoidant leadership,


The purpose of this research was specifically to know the causes of Malnutrition among Weaning Children (6-12 months), a case study of Magbema, Babahun and pelewahun in Gboo Section, Njaluahun Chiefdom, and Kailahun District. Its aim is to know the causes of malnutrition among weaning children (6-12 months) in Babahun, Magbema and Pelewahun in Njaluahun Chiefdom, Kailahun District, and Eastern Sierra Leone. The objectives are to identify the food consume by weaning children identify the period of breast feeding, determine the nature and prevalent of malnutrition of these children and the causes of malnutrition among weaning children in Magbema, Babahun and Pelewahun in Njaluahun Chiefdom. Instruments such as questionnaires, face to face interviews, text book, group discussion and the internet are used to collect relevant data on the topic under investigation. A sample size of 150 children was selected and its selection is based on random sampling. The major finding of the research is the assessing the nutritional status of weaning children in Magbewma, Babahun and Pelewahun in Njaluahun Chiefdom, Kailahun District.


Introduction : cette étude avait pour objectif général d’identifier parmi ces deux recettes, celles qui contribuent davantage au développement socio-économique de cette province de Lomami en République démocratique du Congo. Matériels et Méthode : Cette étude a été menée sur une période de 5 ans c’est-à-dire allant de 2016 à 2020, dans la province de Lomami, qui est une régie financière chargée de collecter les recettes provinciales. L’étude est statistique et comparative, appuyée par les techniques ci-après : documentaire, d’interview et d’observation. Résultats : Les résultats de cette étude indiquent que les recettes non fiscales présentent des montants plus élevés de réalisation par rapport aux recettes fiscales notamment : 5207506836 FC soit 34,1% en 2020, 3761965994 FC soit 24,7 % en 2019, 3096452144 FC soit 20,4% en 2018, 2044457985 FC soit 18, 4% en 2017 et 295173000 FC soit 7,2% en 2016. Enfin les recettes fiscales avec les chiffres suivants : 23798329,3 FC soit 21% en 2020, 23584170 FC soit 20,4% en 2019, 21650804 FC soit 18,7% en 2018, 20129343 FC soit 17,4% en 2017 et 26631729 FC soit 4% en 2016. Conclusion : Nous trouvant au terme de notre étude « Etude comparative des recettes fiscales et non fiscales face au développement socio-économique de la province de Lomami, cas de la DGRLO Kabinda » En comparant les réalisations de ces deux types de recettes à leurs assignations et leurs évolutions, les recettes non fiscales se présentaient comme les seules ressources capables de propulser la province de Lomami au développement socio-économique , La sensibilisation mal assurée et le non-respect de procédures de recouvrement paraitraient les causes majeures de cet état de chose , La formation des agents de ce service sur la culture fiscale devant être inculquée dans le chef des contribuables sembleraient être les stratégies la plus adéquates pour régler cette question.


Effect of soaking periods on ogi flour produced from sorghum fortified with ginger was investigated using standard analytical procedure. The sorghum grain and ginger were cleaned, washed with clean portable water, soaked for 24, 35, 48, 60 and 72 hours, processed into ogi slurry using traditional methods and then dried in cabinet dryer at 550C for 36hours. The resulting ogi flour samples obtained were analyzed for proximate composition, functional properties, colour parameters and sensory evaluation. There are significant differences in terms of the proximate composition of ogi flour sample. Moisture content ranged from 10.17 – 11.07%, protein varied from 1.92 – 2.71%, fat ranged from 0.36 – 1.45%, ash ranged from 0.91 – 1.53, fibre varied from 0.16 – 0.63% with carbohydrate varying from 83.53 – 85.49% respectively. The result showed that sample soaked for 36 and 48hours have low ash, fat, fibre and protein contents with higher value in the moisture content and carbohydrate content. Also the functional properties revealed significant differences (p<0.05) in almost all the attributes evaluated. A significant difference (p<0.05) occurred in terms of lightness (L*) and redness (a*) while there was none in terms of the yellowness (b*) of the samples. However, samples soaked for 24hours had the highest mean score in terms of the overall acceptability hence rated the best most preferred Keywords: Soaking Periods, Ogi Flour, Sorghum Fortification, Ginger

Impact of COVID-19 on aviation industry []

The emergency of COVID-19 directed a surge of money related rot throughout the globe in light of breaks in the natural market chain. COVID has interfered with the flight business this time than past levels, and it is now bringing the flying business into an obscure district. Occupying significant spaces of the economy; travel by plane is feeble against external variables such as oil crises and apocalyptic events, equipped disputes, mental oppressor attacks, monetary slumps, and ailment flare-ups. Bankruptcies or combinations and acquisitions among tremendous associations could contrarily influence challenges in air transport, with likely repercussions on costs. Following the very unpleasant consequences of the COVID-19 epidemic, this research breaks down probable recovery options for the entire aviation industry.