Volume 9, Issue 12, December 2021 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

[1]  [2]  [3]  [4]  [5]  [6]

Students' Intention to Use Online Learning System in Nepal []

Abstract This paper aims to analyze whether the Attitude, Subjective Norms and Perceived behavioral control have significant effect on Intentions to use online learning systems in Nepal. A convenient sample of 150 respondents approaching self-administered questionnaires survey from different locations in Butwal has been conducted. Regression analysis was used to explore the relationship between independent variables (Attitude, Subjective Norms and Perceived behavioral control) and dependent variable i.e Intentions to use online learning systems. The results reveal that Attitude, Subjective Norms and Perceived behavioral control have positive effect to determine the Intentions to use online learning systems in Nepal. Attitude, Subjective Norms of the use online learning systems does not affect Intentions to use online learning systems n Nepal Key words- Attitude, Subjective Norms and Perceived behavioral control and Intentions to use online learning systems.


Oil palm is an economic plant with great importance due to its revenue generation capacity. One of the bottlenecks in the oil palm fruit processing in Nigeria, especially in the small scale oil palm processing industries is the digestion of the oil palm fruits. A dual powered palm fruit digester was developed in order to overcome this challenge. The components of the digester consist of a power source, digestion chamber, speed gear box, a shaft, outlets and the supporting frame. It was fabricated using locally sourced materials. Analysis was carried out on the digester to evaluate and ascertain its optimum performance parameters such as the output capacity and digestion efficiency. Freshly harvested palm fruit bunches were steamed and digested at 60,120 and 180 seconds digestion time. The highest attainable efficiencies gotten from both the motorised and the manual pedal driven process of the machine were found to be 81.50% and 48.17% respectively, The manual pedal mechanism makes the machine to be distinctive in situations arising from lack of power, high cost of diesel and PMS. The machine is easy to operate, the costs of production was relatively low and it’s easy to maintain, Thus it should be recommended for the small and medium scale farmers mostly residing in rural areas with partial or inadequate power availability and medium scale oil palm fruit processing industries in Nigeria.

The Future of the EU Automotive Sector []

This study provides an independent overview of the automotive industrial landscape in the EU. Specifically, the study assesses green and digital trends currently reshaping the automotive sector and provides recommendations considering the adequacy and consistency of ongoing and future EU actions. The Future of the EU Automotive Sec

Utilization Of Fish Bone For Flour Sources Of Calcium []

This article aims to review the process of flouring fish bones. Based on the literature review, information was obtained that fish bone flour was carried out through various washing processes, bone boiling, cleaning, pressure processing, re-boiling, extraction of NaOH base, washing, re-drying, flouring, and packaging. As a result of processing fishery waste, fish bones have a lot of potential to improve the community's economy, especially when fish meal is used as a calcium fortification material in cilok products, cake sticks, and other processed products.

The role of capital market in socio-economic growth of Nigeria []

The capital market represents a nation's strength in business finance and fostering economic growth. Opportunities for business growth is often an indicator of the state of the economy but in a country like Nigeria, many are unaware of the possibilities offered by the capital market. This paper seeks to highlight the role of the capital market in socio-economic growth of the country.

Obesity among Student Nurses and Midwives in Ghana []

Background Obesity is an avoidable disease of medical and community health significance. This can result in different forms of non-communicable diseases and also untimely death. Globally, obesity is on the rise and mostly among the youths. The current study assessed the prevalence of obesity among student nurses and midwives in Ghana. Methods A cross- sectional analysis was done among 209 student nurses and midwives aged 17 - 40 years. The students were engaged from the five (5) Nursing and Midwifery Training Colleges. Data was gathered by the utilization of structured questionnaire in addition to anthropometric data form to compute for BMI values. SPSS-18 was applied to analyze the data amassed. Results Out of 209 student nurses and midwives, 7 (3.35%) were very severely underweight, 56 (26.79%) were normal, 29 (13.88%) were overweight, 37 (17.7%) obese class I, 15 (7.18%) obese class II, and 65 (31.10%) obese class III. Conclusion The study settles that, the prevalence of obesity among student nurses and midwives in the region is pretty high. Therefore, educating student nurses and midwives on overweight and obesity is of great importance since health issues attached themselves to these conditions. This will help to lessen the occurrence of overweight and obesity among them in the community, and the nation as well.

Challenges and Opportunities in converting existing Intermittent Water Supply System to Continuous Water Supply System: A study of Khumaltar Service Area with Demand Side Management Perspectives []

There are many problems in existing water distribution system of Kathmandu Valley which includes insufficient water supply, high leakage from old age existing pipes, illegal service connection and water contamination. Hydraulic capacity of old existing and new distribution network of Patan area was evaluated by using EPANET software. The EPANET analysis shows, negative pressures in 88.89 % of nodes in old distribution network for Melamchi first phase water supply while in new distribution network resulting pressures at all the nodes and the flows with their velocities at all pipes are enough to provide water to the area for the Melamchi second phase water supply. The water demand can be reduced by using water efficient fixtures from 192.45 Liters/capita/day (water use by old inefficient fixtures) to about 96 Liters/capita/day.29.7 MLD of water supplied by Melamchi First phase water supply will not sufficient to meet the average demand of 96 Liters/capita/day even if there will be the implementation of demand side strategies (using water efficient fixtures). It is projected that available water from the second phase Melamchi water supply (78MLD for Khumaltar area) will meet the average demand of year 2049 ,2047,2046,2044 and 2043 for maintaining 5%, 10%,15%,20% and 25% of loss of water respectively implementing demand side strategies using water efficient fixtures.

Educational Praxis as a Systemic Directive Towards a Child-Parental Inquisitive Discourse: The Looming Mirage in the Pedagogical Stance of Self-empowerment. []

The paper sought to probe a systemic directive pertaining a child-parent quest for pedagogical stance in the looming educative space where both parties have to play a major role in the child’ learning discourse. The paper further looks at the parental literate level and the ability to interact with the child on academic matters towards educational self-empowerment. In a child-parent inquisitive learning discourse, the act of engaging, applying, exercising, realizing or practicing ideas, which is referred to as praxis, is an accepted practice or custom, an idea which should be translated into action or into reality rather than something in theory. Due to a revolutionary discourse, and digital gap between the rich and the poor in the passage of industrialization, this led to an unattended discourse in the child-parent engagement and application of knowledge to the benefit of the child in the current educative dissertation. Systemically, we might have lot of theories in our education structure, but became much harder in praxis in real life situation. The practical application in the educational praxis questions a profitable child-parent engagement within the parties’ inquisitive treatise. In a contemporary pedagogical framework, the branch of learning identifies perennial and unattended means to alleviate the management of parent-teacher interactive learning initiatives to counteract the blurring principalities towards the child’s performance and attainment, and the role parents play in assisting the child to unleash his/her best potential within the classroom situation. In this regard, the major contention of the paper examines the extent through which the parent can go in self-availability for the benefit of the child in the best and maximum performance, not only at school, but also in home assistance. The paper theorises and formulates a child-parent interactive learning strategy, where parents, with various teaching and learning resources, can collaboratively enhance the child's levels of competence and achievement in the best potential through the availability of relevant information. Participatory action research (PAR), as a data collection approach, became appropriate for mutual participative involvement and dual action where a child should benefit from their parental assistance with their school work, and at the same time parents develop initiated collaborations that buttress participative action. The question lies in the catalytic nature of the less literate individual ability to apply knowledge gained for specific purposes in specific contexts of use. The generated data, to be deeply analysed, critical discourse analysis (CDA), has used to interpret and discuss it as having an intention to develop, and contribute in the analysis of text, level of power and social habits, while at the same time, demystifies the interaction between parents and teachers, and equally improve child’s performance in that class significantly. The parent-child inclusive interactive initiative, as a strategy, apprehended that a child is expected to demonstrate basic operational knowledge where parents have to play a major role in merging that learning as comprised of a wide applicability in sustainable performance. Parent-and-child effective involvement enhances network through mediation and development of space for equality, which insist the involvement and understanding of the contexts within which such an interactive, as a strategy, might successfully be implemented. In conclusion, the paper further critic the inclusive learning strategy in multiple folds, that supposed to dwell in collective and collaborative relationships; to anyone who might be affected by learning engagement, of which in this context, there are gaps parents suffer a losing battle in assisting their children due to literacy level and technological innovations which blur as contributing factor towards their ability and unsalable issue in their inquisitive discourse. Key words: child-parent inquisitive, parent-child inclusive learning engagement, interactive learning, collaborative relationships


This article investigated the evolution of Netflix in Brazil, after one decade of operating in Brazil. Netflix was founded in 1997 in California. In 2011, thirteen years later, Netflix entered the Brazilian market offering streaming video content, on a successful international expansion. Key findings pointed out an increase of 19 million new subscribers in Brazil. To date, Netflix operates in more than 180 countries, reaching nearly 222 million subscribers, approximately $ 7.5 billion in revenue. This article provides scholars, decision-makers, managers, with a perspective on the streaming video market in Brazil, also disputed by Amazon Prime, Disney Plus, and Globoplay. Discussion and future research recommendations compile the present study.

“Smith’s Social Cybernetic Strategies for Asynchronous Learning”: Implications of Social Cybernetics Theory of Communication []

Social Cybernetics Theory encompasses qualities of scientific theory. With social tracking as its conceptual framework, the theory suggests that individuals use feedback controls through sensory mechanisms by using orientation-stimulus-process-response (OSPR) in tracking partner’s movements and conversations following a feedback loop. The scientific characteristics of social cybernetics are argued for its robust explanation, embodiment of models and functional relationship, parsimony, openness, hypothetical statements, among other characteristics discussed. Application of the theory in synchronous situations is perceived as an ordinary practice in communication and interaction with face-to-face individuals engaging in feedback controls with their social targets. The problem arises in asynchronous learning when behavioral communi-cation is mediated by technology resulting from problem with context specificity, lack of tactile feedback mechanisms between machine and human such as the case in space workstation citation which deems computer-human interaction so relevant so that errors are minimized, and in the case of conversations using cellphone that distracts a driver compared to in-vehicle conversations that entail effective social tracking with both driver and passenger cognizant of surrounding situations such as traffic thereby eliciting feedback controls more effectively. In view of human-human and machine-human feedback mechanisms explained, the author of this article asks some challenging ways as to how humans satisfy meaningful tracking that is socially acceptable. Human nature is not a fixed set of assumptions that will have direct an-swers in a given causal relationship. Harder it may seem in ordinary circumstances, it is indeed, even more difficult in online interaction when conversation is mediated by technology. Just as how this article implies social cybernetics to be difficult in asynchronous application, it presents the same question of social equilibrium in mediated interaction. However, with the preponderance of online learning platforms, so-cial tracking should evolve as a common practice with developments in Learning Management Systems (LMS) being done.

In vitro screening of Eugenia caryophyllata, local medicinal plant for antimicrobial activity by using disc diffusion method []

The achievement of therapy lies in the constant search for novel medications to counter the challenges posed by resistant strains of the microorganisms. Traditionally Eugenia Caryophyllata is used for the treatment of countless diseases. In the present study ‘Eugenia Caryophyllata’ belongs to the family of Myrtaceae was investigated for in vitro antimicrobial activity against the different types of bacteria, stains namely, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus Pumilus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli by applying disc diffusion method. Eugenia Caryophyllata was found to have shown inhibitory effect against tested bacteria. Among the types of tested bacteria Eugenia Caryophyllata was more effective against the gram positive bacteria and is less effective against gram negative bacteria. The current study provides a scientific background for the remarkable use of this plant for the treatment of various pathological diseases.


Focusing on some features of the soils of the Lower Amudarya region, the scientists noted that the region is characterized by very weak natural groundwater flow and lack of artificial drainage structures. This factor enhances soil salinity and secondary salinity. In particular, wind erosion is affecting soil fertility. In irrigated lands, such soils make up 19.1%. In the Lower Amudarya region, 85-90% of water is used for irrigation. According to the research of the international project "Ecological and economic improvement of land and water use in Khorezm", between 1982 and 1999, the water use capacity of Khorezm farmers decreased by 16%, and the risk of crop failure is increasing. Analyzes show that there will be less water in the region in the future. To prevent this, some farmers are now blocking drainage ditches and raising the groundwater level. Proper distribution of water, in general, requires finding ways to further increase the efficiency of crop irrigation. According to scientific studies on natural trees planted on very low-yielding (abandoned) lands, trees thrive even when 40% of the irrigation is less than normal. However, in order to care for trees in a specific area, their species must be carefully selected. This is because trees can be used for a variety of purposes, such as growing biomass fuel, animal feed, or increasing the amount of organic matter in the soil by leaving it on the ground. It is known that trees also play a role in bio-drainage. Although they cannot completely replace technical drainage, they are a powerful tool in lowering groundwater levels and preventing secondary salinization. In addition to preventing land degradation, afforestation will also help rehabilitate abandoned areas.


The Secretariat General of the Ministry of Manpower is a government agency that has recently experienced a decline in the organizational commitment of its employees. The Secretariat General is interested to know the variables causing this issue. This paper is intended to develop a conceptual model to determine the effect of transformational leadership style and work conflict on organizational commitment with work stress as intervening variable. This paper proposes a conceptual model for decreasing organizational commitment, along with literature review, hypotheses, and research methodology. The implementation of this paper can provide information about the effects of transformational leadership style, work conflict and work stress on organizational commitment with a case study of the Secretariat General of the Ministry of Manpower.


A variety of wastes such as corn cobs, packaging materials, vegetable wastes, and other biodegradable materials contain a lot of valuable resources in the form of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and other chemicals which are useful. Biogas production by anaerobic digestion from biodegradable organic waste is increasingly seen as a possible renewable energy source. The present study investigated the production of methane biogas by the biochemical co-digestion of corn cobs and cow dung as a source of microbial catalysts. Fresh dung was collected from Wukari Abattoir and fresh corn cobs were collected within Federal University Wukari School compound. The temperature and pH were measured off-line. The corn cobs and cow dung slurry were digested in a ratio of 2:1. After 21 days residence time, the weight of biogas produced was 0.5 kg and the average temperature and pH were 29oC and 4.9 respectively. The residence time of 21 days was far lower than that reported in the literature. Consequently, the weight of biogas generated was far lower than expected. Biogas production technology from waste is however a very promising and sustainable solution to global climate change and environmental degradation resulting from deforestation challenges.

Prevalence and associated risk factors of Trichodiniasis in farmed fish in Ethiopia []

A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Sebeta fish farm to study clinical signs, prevalence, and risk factors of Trichodiniasis in fish. A total of 384 live fish were collected randomly in selected fish ponds. The wet smear technique was conducted from gill tissue biopsy and skin scraping. The diseased fish had signs of dullness, detachment of scales, excessive mucus accumulation, ulcerations, congested fin base, and pale gill. Out of 384 fish, 233 (60.7%) were found to be positive for trichomoniasis. Analysis of possible risk factors has shown that there was a statistically significant association (P < 0.05) between the prevalence of disease and sex, parasites infestation, examined organs, body weight, and total body length. However, the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05) between disease occurrence with species and pond number in the area. In conclusion, the present finding has demonstrated that trichomoniasis is one of the important parasites of fish in the study area. Therefore, further epidemiological and molecular investigations are required to determine the Trichodina species and different risk factors on the occurrence of the disease.

PERCEPTION DE LA TAXE SOUS FORME DE «JETON » AUPRES DES TAXIMANS-MOTOS : nature et effets juridiques (Cas de la Ville de Mbujimayi/RD.CONGO) []

1. INTRODUCTION Depuis des longues dates, l’Etat s’étant engagé à organiser et assumer la continuité des services publics, s’est octroyé le pouvoir de collecter certaines sommes auprès de ses sujets par le biais de l’Administration fiscale, en vue de faire face aux dépenses publiques qu’il engage. C’est ce qu’on appelle généralement fisc. Ce fisc est ainsi imposé par le prince à ses sujets qui doivent l’exécuter en leur qualité de citoyens ; mais hélas ! Le droit d’imposer, quoique pouvoir régalien, ne s’exerce pas sans limite [1]. C’est alors que l’on peut dire que l’Administration fiscale est soumise à un formalisme rigoureux, protecteur du contribuable et qui, faute d’être observé, peut conduire à l’annulation de l’imposition établie dans ces conditions [2]. C’est dans la logique de ce formalisme que le constituant congolais de 2006 a posé les principes sacro-saints selon lesquels « il ne peut être établi d’impôt que par la loi… il ne peut être établi d’exemption ou d’allègement fiscal qu’en vertu de la loi. » [3]. Parmi les perceptions que l’Administration peut récolter de la part des citoyens, la constitution de la République Démocratique du Congo, parlant de celles relevant de la compétence exclusive des provinces, en cite trois dont les impôts, les taxes et les droits provinciaux. ( ) Ce qui revient à dire que la province peut percevoir les impôts, les taxes et les autres droits provinciaux. La combinaison de l’ordonnance-loi n° 013/001 du 23 Février 2013 fixant la nomenclature des impôts, droits, taxes et redevances des provinces et des entités territoriales décentralisées, ainsi que leur modalité de répartition et de la loi n° 08/012 du 31 Juillet 2008 portant principes fondamentaux relatifs à la libre administration des provinces nous révèle que les ressources de la province comprennent les impôts, taxes, droits, redevances et recettes de participation [4]. Toute cette théorie suffit pour étudier ou analyser le phénomène jeton des taxis-motos qui fut, au Kasaï-Oriental, plus particulièrement à Mbujimayi, ville de ce nom et chef-lieu de ladite province, une imposition de paiement journalier sous la dénomination de « jeton taxis-motos » lequel jeton était perçu sur toutes les motos effectuant le transport des personnes et des biens. Ce qui nous a valu la peine de consacrer la rédaction du présent article à la problématique de la Perception de la Taxe sous forme de phénomène « jeton » auprès des taxis-motos à Mbujimayi», quant à sa « nature » et ses « effets juridiques ». Notre étude sur le phénomène jeton des taxis-motos est alors abordée autours d’une problématique dont voici les questions :  Quelle est la base juridique du phénomène jeton des taxis-motos à Mbujimayi ?  Quelle est la nature de la perception effectuée sur les taxis-motos sous la dénomination de jeton des taxis-motos ?  Quels sont les effets juridiques qui s’en sont suivis, eu égard à la création et la perception de ce phénomène jeton ? A cet ensemble de questions, les hypothèses que nous donnons sont les suivantes :  Le phénomène jeton des taxis-motos n’a pas une base juridique qui soit une loi au sens strict, ni un acte règlementaire qui est entendu comme une loi au sens large ; en effet, la seule commission d’affectation nommant monsieur MUAMBI KABULEKEDI est considérée, par ceux qui le percevaient, comme une base de cette perception, alors qu’elle ne l’instituait même pas;  En termes de nature juridique, le phénomène jeton des taxis-motos est une perception illégale en son genre qui n’est, à vrai dire, ni une recette fiscale ni non plus celle non fiscale ;  Eu égard à la création et à la perception des jetons des taxis-motos, les effets qui s’en sont suivis sont la fraude, l’évasion et la diminution des recettes légalement perçues telles que l’impôt sur le véhicule automoteur communément appelé la vignette automobile, la taxe sur la circulation routière et l’assurance. Le présent article est délimité spatialement à l’étendue territoriale de Mbujimayi, ville de ce nom et Chef-lieu de la province du Kasaï-Oriental où le phénomène jeton des taxis-motos s’est déroulé. Il ne couvre aussi temporellement que l’année 2018 pendant laquelle il a existé.


1. INTRODUCTION La Démocratie telle que vécue aujourd’hui, dans des Etats modernes, aux dimensions si grandes, impose que le peuple soit représenté aux instances des prises des décisions, parce que ne pouvant pas intervenir directement comme ce fut le cas dans la cité grecque à l’Agora. Cette représentation du peuple s’organise selon des règles préétablies et auxquelles tout le monde devrait se soumettre. Et pour qu’elle soit effectivement représentative du peuple, souverain primaire, l’intelligence a imaginé de découper le territoire national en circonscriptions électorales afin de permettre à chaque représentant d’être le plus proche possible de la fraction du peuple qu’il représente et d’avoir ainsi une maîtrise presque parfaite des problèmes propres à ce peuple afin de les porter devant les décideurs et de chercher des solutions. L’attribution des sièges des représentants à chaque circonscription électorale se fait, selon divers systèmes, soit par représentation égale, soit proportionnellement au nombre d’habitants de la circonscription, soit encore proportionnellement au nombre d’électeurs enrôlés. Et la logique veut que lorsqu’on a choisi un mode de répartition des sièges pour une élection, que ce mode soit respecté. En République Démocratique du Congo, la loi n° 06/006 du 9 mars 2006 portant organisation des élections présidentielle, législatives ; provinciales, urbaines, municipales et locales telle que modifiée par la loi n° 11/003 du 25 juin 2011, la loi n° 15/001 du 12 février 2015 et la loi n° 17/013 du 24 décembre 2017, dispose que la répartition des sièges à l’élection des députés provinciaux est faite entre circonscriptions électorales proportionnellement au nombre total d’habitants de chaque circonscription électorale . Cependant, ce mode n’a pas été respecté pour les élections du 31 décembre 2018, particulièrement en ce qui concerne les élections des députés provinciaux. En effet, ce que l’on peut lire dans la loi n° 06/006 du 9 mars 2006 portant organisation des élections présidentielle, législatives ; provinciales, urbaines, municipales et locales telle que modifiée par la loi n° 11/003 du 25 juin 2011, la loi n° 15/001 du 12 février 2015 et la loi n° 17/013 du 24 décembre 2017 au sujet de la répartition des sièges pour l’élection des députés provinciaux est différents de ce que l’on peut lire dans la loi n° 18/005 du 8 mai 2018 portant adoption de la répartition des sièges par circonscription électorale pour les élections législatives, provinciales, municipales et locales : ces deux lois nous présentent deux modes différents pour l’attribution des sièges à l’élection des députés provinciaux pour un même cycle électoral. Cette différence nous interpelle et soulève en nous quelques questionnements qui font l’objet de la présente étude. A travers cette dernière, nous cherchons à comprendre les raisons de cette démarcation, ce qui peut en être les conséquences et comment remédier à cette situation. Cependant, pour bien cerner cette problématique, il s’est avéré important de placé un mot sur les différents modes de répartition des sièges entre circonscription électorale. Ainsi, au premier chapitre de la présente étude, il est question des différents modes de répartition des sièges entre circonscriptions électorale et, au deuxième chapitre, il sera question de l’analyse de la différence entre ces deux lois du même processus électoral. Une conclusion viendra clore ce travail.


Introduction L’eau est un bien vital, indispensable à la vie. Elle ne doit pas être un bien marchand mais un patrimoine commun qu’il faut absolument défendre et protéger pour l’intérêt de tous. Elle peut néanmoins être source des maladies. A cause de son lien étroit avec la santé, l’eau est devenue l’aliment le plus contrôlé dans le monde. Cette étude se propose d’évaluer la qualité des eaux consommées dans la zone de santé de Kasansa, cas de la cité de Lukalaba 1. Objectif Notre étude a été menée dans le but de contribuer à l’amélioration de la qualité des eaux consommées dans la Cité de Lukalaba. 2. Matériel et méthodes La présente étude est descriptive et transversale. Elle a été réalisée dans la cité de Lukalaba, siège de la zone de santé de Kasansa, utilisant un échantillonnage non probabiliste de type quotas.Elle a concerné 18pointsd’eau (mais au total 72 prélèvements ont été faits) et a été menée du 10 Août au 20 octobre 2021. 3. Résultats A l’issue de notre travail, nous avons trouvé que 100,0% des échantillons d’eau étaient positifs ou contaminés par des bactéries ; les germes qui avaient contaminé les eaux de la Cité de Lukalaba, étaient en grande partie les Coliformes totaux avec 100,0% et Escherichia coli avec 31% ; les eaux consommées dans la Cité de Lukalaba étaient impropres à la consommation humaine ; sauf quelques sources par rapport à la contamination due à Escherichia coli. Toutes les eaux étaient consommables par rapport aux paramètres physiques analysés ;toutes ces eaux étaient consommables par rapport aux paramètres chimiques, sauf quelques points d’eau par rapport au titre alcalimétrique (BFc avec 7,5°F, sources MWANZA avec 6,01°F, BANA BANSHIYA 7,5°F, CIENDA 6,4°F). 4. Conclusion Au regard de tous ces résultats, nous avons suggéré ce qui suit : aux autorités politico-administratives d’élaborer des programmes qui permettent aux populations d’obtenir de l’eau potable, à un coût faible et supportable, car faciliter un accès à l’eau potable à tout homme doit constituer une priorité pour un Etat qui se soucie du développement socio-économique de ses populations ; aux autorités sanitaires de développer des mesures pour préserver la santé de la population qui utilise ces points d’eau (puits, sources, bornes fontaines et autres) pour ses usages quotidiens ; et à la population de la ZS de Kasansa, en particulier celle de la Cité de Lukalaba, de s’autoprendre en charge dans le traitement d’eau destinée à la consommation humaine qu’elle possède car, ça ne demande même pas la tête du lion et d’appliquer les règles élémentaires d’hygiène aux alentours de ses points d’eau auxquels elle s’approvisionne.

On the Use of Finite difference method for solving parabolic PDE’s Temperature in a Slender Rod using MATALB []

The temperature distribution in a slender rod of unit length has been described by the one- dimensional heat equation. The finite difference method (FDM) seems to be the simplest approach for the numerical solution of PDEs. The partial-derivatives are replaced by ‘finite difference approximations’ that lead to a system of linear algebraic equations. In the process, we introduce important concepts as stability used in analyzing finite difference methods and finally present a MATLAB code to show how to solve parabolic equations.

The Influence Of The Use Of Information Technology As A Tool Of Purchase And Sharing Information On The Performance Of Supply Chain Management At Building Material Stores In The City Of Makassar []

Abstract This study aims to determine and analyze the effect of the use of information technology as a means of purchase and sharing information on the performance of supply chain management at building material stores in the city of Makassar. This writing uses purposive sampling technique. The sample was 150 respondents. To apply these goals, data collection techniques are used through questionnaires, with several linear regression analysis with mediation (path analysis), and hypothesis testing. Based on the results of multiple linear regression analysis with mediation (path analysis). The use of information technology as an independent variable, purchasing decisions and information sharing as an intervening variable, and supply chain management performance as a dependent variable. Hypothesis tests are carried out for each variable and also test hypotheses through intervening variables. The testing of each variable shows that the variable use of information technology does not have a significant effect on purchasing decisions, sharing information do not affect performance of supply chain management , and purchasing decisions do not affect information sharing. But the use of information technology has an effect on sharing information, purchasing decisions affect the performance of supply chain management, and the use of information technology directly affects the performance of supply chain management. Hypothesis testing through mediation variables shows that the use of information technology on the performance of supply chain management through purchasing decisions cannot mediate. While the use of information technology on the performance of supply chain management through sharing information also cannot mediate. Keywords: information technology; purchase decision; information sharing; supply chain management performance; supply chain management


This research paper seeks to reiterate the importance of facility layout design as an inevitable component of business operations, and also to reemphasize its advantage in the elimination of unjustified cost of material handling. A soap manufacturing company was visited and the facilities on ground were observed with the arrangement of activities work centers and the workforce capacity and capability carefully noted. Production routing of the company was observed and the flow process chart, activity-relationship template, activity relationship chart, and degree of closeness of each department was drawn. And it was observed that an intensive study of material handling technique might yield monumental savings and some possible line balancing will combine to reduce downtime and correspondingly cost reduction which gives a very reasonable increase in profit.

Evaluation of different rates of NPS and NPSB fertilizers for better production of teff in Bensa district, Sidama Region []

One of the main constraints for sustainable teff production is lack of information on the use of multi-nutrient fertilizer involving the actual limiting nutrients for specific site. An experiment was conducted in 2017 and 2018 cropping season to identify the best fertilizers formulae for production of teff at Bensa district in Southern Ethiopia. Two fertilizer types (NPS and NPSB) at different rates were considered. The experiment consists of seven treatments including no fertilizer (control), three NPS and three NPSB rates: (1) control, (2) NPS = 46 N, 54 P, 10 S, (3) NPS = 69 N, 72 P, 13 S, (4) NPS = 92 N, 90 P, 17 S, (5) NPSB = 46 N,54 P,10 S, 1.07 B, (6) NPSB = 69 N,72 P,13 S, 1.4 B and (7) NPSB = 92 N,90 P,17 S, 1.7 B /ha. In addition, except the absolute control all plots were received 30 kg K/ha. The trial was conducted on two farms and treatments were laid out in a randomized complete block design replicated three times in each farm. Measured data were analyzed using Proc GLM procedures in the SAS 9.3 program. Economic analysis was also performed to investigate the economic feasibility of the fertilizers for teff production. Based on the present result the grain yield and other yield components of teff were influenced by the applied treatments. Significantly lower plant height, number of tillers, biomass and grain yield were recorded from the control compared to all fertilizer treatments. However, almost all fertilizer treatments were not statistically differ each other on yield and other parameters. The economic analysis exhibited that application of 142 kg NPS +42 kg Urea/ha top dressing (46N + 54P + 10S kg/ha) was economically feasible with 419% MRR compared to all other treatments tested in this study. Therefore, farmers can use this rate for teff production in the area. Keywords: fertilizer rate, soil nutrient, teff, fertilizer types, benefit


Delayed reporting of epidemics as well as other alarming environmental events has been associated with poor execution of the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) system. It is essential to boost the performance of health workforce responsible for the implementation of IDSR. The aim of this study is to determine weekly report of integrated diseases surveillance data and factors associated with weekly reporting for disease surveillance data among health facilities of Kigali City, Rwanda. The researcher employed cross-sectional analysis using both qualitative and quantitative approaches. The current research was done in health facilities of Kigali city. A purposive sampling technique was used to select participants from healthcare workers who were working in 129 health facilities of Kigali City. Survey questions were built taking into account the criteria of each research objectives. The chi-square test and odds ratio of Pearson with the associated 95 per cent normal distribution was used to evaluate the relation between the predictor variables and independent variables. For qualitative data, interview was done using interview guide and data were organized in line with thematic analysis. The overall prevalence of adequate IDSR reporting among health facilities of Kigali City was 62.1%. After adjustment from other variables, attending DSR training (P<0.05), having responsibilities other than reporting (P<0.05), cooperation between other staff (P<0.05), stock outs of weekly reporting forms in last 3 months (P<0.05) were factors associated with adequate weekly reporting for disease surveillance data. In this study various challenges were reported including inadequate training, lack of access to internet, having huge work load in terms of having responsibilities other that reporting of weekly surveillance data. It is concluded that the prevalence of adequate reporting weekly disease surveillance data was lower than WHO target. Adequate reporting weekly disease surveillance was found to be significantly associated with attending IDSR training, having responsibilities other than reporting, cooperation between other staff, stock outs of weekly reporting forms last 3 months. Based on findings of the study, the following recommendations were suggested: Training on reporting weekly disease surveillance data should be provided for all health care workers. There should be cooperation between other staff when the staff in charge of reporting is absent. Key words: Disease, Reporting, Surveillance

Examination of Phishing Attacks and Countermeasures []

Perhaps the most serious issue with the Internet is undesirable spam messages. The well-disguised phishing email comes in as a feature of the spam and makes its entrance into one's inbox very habitually these days. While phishing is typically considered a buyer issue, the fake strategies the phishers use are presently scare the corporate area also. In this paper, we dissect the different parts of phishing assaults and draw on a few potential safeguards as countermeasures. We at first address the various types of phishing assaults in hypothesis, and afterward check out certain instances of assaults practically speaking, alongside their normal protections. We additionally feature some new factual information on phishing trick to extend the reality of the issue. At last, some particular phishing countermeasures at both the client level and the association level are recorded, and a diverse against phishing proposition is introduced to gather together our studies.


Heritage sites and buildings are the memory of cities and peoples, and therefore architects and technologists from all over the world pay great attention to the process of restoring and rehabilitating these monuments by following international documents and standards and technical conditions and using the latest technology to make them in a decent condition and put them at the service of the local community. Accordingly, this paper aimed to shed light on detailed documentation by Advanced and traditional techniques for (Qishla building and saray of Baghdad), and mention the restoration problems to give appropriate recommendation for restoration process in future, in accordance with the laws of UNESCO and ICOMOS. This documentation process and restoration problems includes several stages, starting with a comprehensive survey of the area by using laser scanner method, studying the historical buildings and previous maintenance projects, in addition to studying local and international examples of similar studies, and finally proposing a detailed action (plan, section, elevation and other details) for the existing situation of the building of this complex and detailed (plan, section, elevation and other details) preparing a basic data for the forth coming that will be prepared for restoration of the building. KEYWORDS: documentation, structure problems, Qushla of Baghdad, saray building, laser scanner method

Facteurs associés aux accidents routiers et ses conséquences dans la ville de Kabinda, Province de Lomami []

Introduction : Les accidents routiers constituent un problème de santé publique au regard de la mortalité et de la morbidité élevées dont ils sont responsables. Objectif : Déterminer la fréquence des accidents routiers dans la ville de Kabinda. Méthodes : Nous avons recouru à une étude descriptive rétrospective. Elle s’étend sur une période d’une année allant du 1er janvier au 31 décembre 2020. Cette étude inclut tous les engins ayant été enregistrés par le service de police de la circulation routière, impliqués dans un accident. Elle inclut également les cas d’accidents enregistrés par l’Hôpital Général de Référence de Kabinda en 2020. Résultats : Au terme de cette étude, nous avons compilé 251 cas d’accidents routiers en 2020. Ces accidents sont notamment liés à la prolifération des engins roulants dans la ville de Kabinda. Ces accidents étaient causés dans la majorité des cas par les motos de transport en commun (72 %) dont les conducteurs sont des jeunes hommes (56 % ) dont la tranche d’âge varie entre 21 à 30 ans ; les principales causes sont : l’ivresse des conducteurs (28%), l’excès de vitesse (24%), le mauvais dépassement (23%). C’est la commune de Kabondo qui enregistre plus d’accidents au niveau du carrefour PANIKA (40,2 % des cas) ; la tranche d’heures la plus touchée est de 6 heures 13 heures (40,6 %). Au vu des cas enregistrés par l’Hôpital Général de Référence de Kabinda, les blessures graves (58 %) constituent la conséquence la plus élevée due aux accidents routiers. Conclusion : La formation et l’information correcte sur le code de la route pour les conducteurs et les usagers de la route devraient réduire la morbi-mortalité due aux accidents routiers. Mots-clés : Accidents routiers, morbi-mortalité, population urbaine.


Air pollution has become a global problem since the advent of industrial revolution, couple with increasing human activities due to astronomical increase in the world’s population. Ambient air pollution has been identified as responsible for “the Global excess mortality and estimated at 8.8(7.11- 10.41) million/year”. A number of reports have indicated that globally, deaths from ambient air pollution are more than any other form of pollution. Airborne particle pollution is one of the major contributory factors to the health care burden due to the increasing number of hospital admissions, especially in highly polluted cities with high population density. Reducing airborne particle pollution in all these polluted cities, will be of immense benefits to the world, especially cities with high levels of airborne particle pollution in a number of ways namely; increased in life expectancy, reduction in hospital admissions, climate change and other environmental problems associated with airborne particle pollution. Keywords: Review. Burden, Airborne Particle Pollution, Mega Cities

Effect of Earthquake directionality in seismic performance of concrete gravity dam []

The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of excitation direction on the seismic performance of a concrete gravity dam under a single earthquake event. For this purpose, the proposed dam of Nalgaad Hydropower Project is selected with slight modifications in which the earthquake events in two directions are applied along the horizontal axis, namely from upstream to downstream and from downstream to upstream to assess the maximum structural demands. A non-linear dynamic analysis of the Dam-reservoir-foundation system subjected to seven recorded seismic events is conducted to study the effects of a single earthquake event where the responses of models are compared in terms of crest displacement with respect to bottom of dam, principal stress at heel, plastic strain at heel and toe slip of the dam. The results show that the damage parameters and crack propagation processes of concrete gravity dam can significantly change with the applied direction of earthquake.

Testing the Supply-leading and Demand-following Hypothesis for Financial Development and Economic Growth – A Case of the Nigerian Banking System []

The study examined financial development and economic growth in the context of the Nigerian banking system using the Toda-Yamamoto approach to Granger causality to test whether the relationship between financial development and economic growth follows the pattern of supply-leading and demand-following hypothesis propounded by Patrick (1966). The financial development indicators of the banking system, which depicts financial deepening and stability for the period 1960 to 2019 were utilised. The findings of the study showed that the relationship between financial development and economic growth was neither supply-leading nor demand-following for the sub-periods of 1960-1985 and 1986-2019. However, for the entire period of 1960-2019, the demand-following hypothesis was established, suggesting that in Nigeria economic growth granger cause financial development. This implied that financial development stemming from the banking system does not drive economic growth in Nigeria. In view of this, it was recommended that efforts be made by government to diversify and fast-track development in the economy to ensure that financial development impacts on economy.


THE GRAVITY IS THE PULLING FORCE OF THE CYCLOID CENTRE OF THE MOVING BODY. The body’s motion makes itself to be attracted to another body . Motion is rotation and rotation is the simultaneous motion in the vertical cycloid path as well as on the horizontal straight line path. The cycloid path is a part of a circular path, so it has a cycloid centre, which attracts the body from the cycloid path towards it .This attraction is the gravitation . Everybody rotates on a circular path to move simultaneously on a cycloid path as well as on a straight line path. Due to the cycloid path motion of a body, the body is pulled towards the centre of the cycloid path .The pulling force of the cycloid centre to the body is called the gravity. Every celestial body does not have the gravitational force to attract any other body, But it is attracted towards a bigger celestial body due to its motion when its cycloid centre lies inside the bigger celestial body . The Earth does not have the gravitational force but when the cycloid centre of a small body lies inside the Earth then the cycloid centre of that body pulls itself towards the Earth, which is called the gravity. Hence gravity is the motion of a body towards its cycloid centre. The cycloid centre of a big body can not lie inside a small body , But the converse is true .The moving body haves the gravitational force only . So motion of a body makes the gravitation. If a force is applied on a wheel and that force simultaneously converts to the centripetal force as well as the centrifugal force then the wheel rotates to move some distance . The following laws are derived from the motion of a wheel on the road . LAW OF MOTION -------------------- Nrusingh’s 1st law ( a ) INERTIA OF REST - A body is at rest, until the applied force on it , converts to the centripetal force as well as the centrifugal force ( b ) INERTIA OF MOTION - A body is at motion, as long as the applied force on it , converts to the centripetal force as well as the centrifugal force . The following law is derived from Nrusingh’s 1st law “ THE FORCE OF ACTION IS ALWAYS EQUAL TO THE SUM OF OPPOSITE REACTION AND ABSORPTION ” ------------------- Nrusingh’s 2nd law This implies that 14 PARTS ACTION = 11 PARTS REACTION + 3 PARTS ABSORPTION => 1 PART ACTION = (11/14) PART REACTION + (3/14) PART ABSORPTION The following laws are derived from Nrusingh’s 2nd law Force = (11/14) Mass *Acceleration ----- Nrusingh’s 3rd law Energy = (11/14)mass(velocity of light)² ---- Nrusingh’s 4th law Pressure * Volume = (11/14) Temperature ---- Nrusingh’s 5th law Pressure = (11/14) Force / Area ---- Nrusingh’s 6th law Energy = (11/14) Frequency ---- Nrusingh’s 7th law Work = (11/14) Force * Distance ---- Nrusingh’s 8th law The acceleration due to gravity of an object is equal to 11m/s² on the earth ----------Nrusingh’s 9th law Gravitational force of heavier body = (11/14 )mass* acceleration of lighter body ----- Nrusingh’s 10th law Applied Heat = (3/14) Absorbed Heat + (11/14) Workdone Heat => Q = (3/14) U + (11/14) W ----- Nrusingh’s 11th law The refraction law of light is derived from the following law 1 PART ACTION = (11/14) PART REACTION + (3/14) PART ABSORPTION The following law is the refraction law of light ANGLE OF REFRACTION = (11/14) ANGLE OF INCIDENCE ----- Nrusingh’s 12th law The following law is derived from Nrusingh’s 5th law of general gas law HEAT ENERGY = (11/14) TEMPERATURE ----- Nrusingh’s 13th law where (11/14) is the constant of proportionality Every body moves by its own energy or the applied force on it . As Work = (11/14) Force * Distance = Energy So Energy of a body makes its own force to move some distance .Gravitation is the own motion of a body due to the pulling force of its cycloid centre ,where the cycloid centre of a small body lies inside another big body.


ABSTRACT The prepared pulp samples of avocado pear, African pear and African elemi were first analyzed for ash, moisture, fibre, protein, carbohydrate and oil contents. The oil contents from avocado pear, African pear and African elemi pear were extracted using petroleum ether as solvent. The extraction was carried out using the soxhlet extractor apparatus and the oils were characterized for viscosity, specific gravity, saponification value, acid value, free fatty acid, ester value, glycerine, iodine value and peroxide value. The oil content of avocado pear was 38.97%, African pear was 67.26% and African elemi was 36.83% comparatively

Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Nosocomial Infection among Patients Hospitalized at Masaka and Kibagabaga Hospital, Rwanda []

Nosocomial infections are major public health concern throughout the world, contributing to increased morbidity, mortality, and healthcare cost. In Rwanda reported infection rates from 40 district hospitals were 0.8%; 0.4% and 0.2% for 2010, 2011 and 2013 respectively. The aim of this study was to assess prevalence and risk factors associated with nosocomial infection among patients hospitalized at Masaka and Kibagabaga Hospital. It was guided by the following specific objectives: To determine the prevalence of nosocomial infection among patients hospitalized at Masaka and Kibagabaga Hospital, and to identify risk factors associated with nosocomial infection among patients hospitalized at Masaka and Kibagabaga Hospital. A cross-sectional study with quantitative approach was conducted. A sample of 197 patients was selected from a population of patients who were on at least 48 hours post admission using systematic random sampling technique. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaire whereby after obtaining the approval letter, the researcher approached the participants in their respective ward. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21. Inferential statistics, primarily correlation analysis was conducted to assess the strength and direction of relationship which may occur between occurrence and certain variables. Chi-square was used to establish if there is a prevalence of a relation and some factors of analysis. The findings of the study revealed that more than half of the study participants (54.5%) were from Kibagabaga District Hospital. More than half of the study participants (54.3%) were from Kibagabaga District Hospital. Most of the participants (38.1%) were from surgical ward. The mean age of participants was 42.3 years. More than a half of the participants (62.4%) were female by sex. More than a half of participants (56.9%) were married. It was revealed that the prevalence of nosocomial infection was 11.7%. The most frequent nosocomial infection (34.8%) was surgical site infection. After adjustment from other variables, only sex, undergoing surgical procedure, presence of invasive medical devices, and antibiotic prophylaxis were statistically significant factor associated with nosocomial infection. For instance male patients (AOR=0.093, 95%CI: 0.013-0.691, p=0.020) were less likely to have nosocomial infection. The relationship between sex and nosocomial infection is statistically significant at 5% since the p value is less than 0.05. Participant who underwent surgical procedure (AOR=8.753, 95%CI: 1.568-48.868, p=0.013) were more likely to have nosocomial infection. Participants with invasive medical devices (AOR=6.735, 95%CI: 1.220-37.176, p=0.029) were more likely to have nosocomial infection. It was concluded that the overall prevalence of nosocomial infection in selected hospitals was a little bit high (10.9%). On the other hand sex, educational level, presence of invasive medical devices, and antibiotic prophylaxis were statistically significant factor associated with nosocomial infection. It was recommended that patients with invasive medical devices should be closely monitored as they were found to be likely to have nosocomial infection. Key words: Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices, Nosocomial Infections.